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For Reference 

Do Not Take 

From the Library 

Every person who maliciously 
cuts, defaces, breaks or injures 
any book, map, chart, picture, 
engraving, statue, com, model, 
apparatus, or other work of lit- 
erature, art, mechanics or ob- 
ject of curiosity, deposited in 
any public library, ^llery, 
museum or collection is Quilty 
of a misdemeanor. 

Penal Code of C«itforiua 
1916. SeciMM) 623 








90 September 









4i4-ll4H lilt 

3 9042 02350256 7 











AUG ^O^ccQ 




CD. Peacock proudly announces the September open- 
ing of our North Michigan Avenue store in Chicago 
Place. This is the latest chapter of a story that began in 
1837. In the newly founded city of Chicago, Elijah 
Peacock began a business of repairing clocks and chro- 
nometers. As the city prospered, so did the House of 

Peacock, building a reputation of fine craftsmanship and 
merchandise. At the turn of the century, he passed the 
business on to his son. Today, the C. D. Peacock tradition 
of quality, integrity and service continues. Visit our new 
North Michigan Avenue store, and be part of a tradition that 
began more than 150 years ago. 





Phlliidelphia & Waiihinglon, DC Minneapolis A St Paul San Dwoo 





942 Madison Avenue (between 74th and 75th Streets) New York, NY 10021 • Telephone 212-517.2oO 

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co^^^:^E^^^;s SEi^TEMJiEu i^>s>u 

THE NEW GOLi:)EN ACiE OF KIDS' BOOKS Looka_^ai,i. Thv hv^t arc mmcum-quaUty, hy Muluul Dmh 75 
RARE CATS Siamese, if you please? \'o thanks. Briii^; on the rosette-spottvd liein^al, the hairless Sphyii.x! , hy Ami Hoti\;nian H4 
CINDERELLA DRESSES l-iom the latest collections, evenin^i wear a fairy-tale princess niii^ht eni'y. hy Diane kafferiy ')2 
THE UNKNOWN ARTISTS' BEST FRIEND Wynn Kramarsky's eye— and passion— for new talent, hy Helen Diuiar % 
THE ALMOST UNCATCHABLE FISH It is the saltwater fly fishemian's ^^realest cfiaiien^ie. hy jack Sainton lOO 
FIFTY YARDS LONGER? Here is the driver every ^^olfer has been waiting for, hy Mike Bryan 103 

THE ULTIMATE CHAMFACiNE (Jnly a few thousand cases per vinta^ie, and only in vintai^e years, hy Michael Shapiro li)4 
WONDER WOMAN OF CARNEGIE HALL The power hehind the spectacular centennial season, hy Barbara }ep,on i(l6 
BY NAPOLEON OBSESSED If Umpire furniture is your thuisi, you need to know Roi^er Tri^^ent, hyJ.-C. Snares lOH 
HAMBURG COMES INTO ITS OWN Some wry reflections on a city of water, hy Tilman Spen^^ler 1 1 3 An art lover's 
tour, hy Thomas Hovinj^ 1 19 An insider's j^uide to the best lours, restaurants, theater, and ni'^hllife, hy Adele Riepe 122 
COVER PhotOi^raph of cat by Pliilip-Lorca diCAUcia; Arctic Shipwreck, hy (Caspar David Triedrich, Hamhurj^er Kunsthallc 



LETTERS In defense ofDosso Dossi; scrapin^^ hy on S6 million; whose Little Fll^itivc? 20 

CONNOISSEUR'S CHOICE What to read, listen to, look at, write with in September 24 

CONNOISSEUR'S WORLD The Civil War on TV; deluxe hotel dinin<i in London; Sylvia Plachy's wild photo loui \ 

AUCTIONS A month for specialists, like lovers of British ^^arden statuary and early- Ameruan papei money r,4 

COLLECTINCj The exquisite refinement of antique linens; the infinite variety of buttons 70 

PEOPLE The "Twin Teaks" enigma; at home on the hi^^h C's; museum head with class; wallpaper f/^'ci 1 2^) 

ART AND MON E Y Museums are selling their artworks. Is that a ^'oc./ idea? 1 32 

DESIGN MacCready's electric automobile; Lantnch's neo-CrrrI ^nd neo-Roman jewelry 142 

TELEVISION Ourannual "Connie" awards, for excelkrue in TV pro^lrammin^l, by D.ivid Ruben 146 

MY EYE How to fix what's wrorifi at the Whitney Museum of American Art. by Thomas Iloviiii; 1 5.S 









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Glass designer, Stuart Gar- 
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crystal design. His bowls 
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The epitome of 
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Cupola is brought 
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/// defense of a fiiiiiihev of oeuvrcs 

AND Flowers 

To the Editor: 

When my copy ot the July is- 
sue arrived yesterday I was 
dismayed to see (in the Con- 
noisseur's World item headed 
"Click, Whir") Morris Engel's 
film The Little Fii^iitii'c attrib- 
uted to Raymond Depardon. 

This is a rather painful blun- 
der in a magazine with the 
prestige of Connoisseur. The 
film IS not some little blown- 
up S-mm ettort seen only m 
scruffy cine clubs but an inter- 
nationally acclaimed work that 
even the great Truttaut ac- 
knowledged as an important 
influence on his — torgive the 
largon — oeuure. 

Having tossed my brickbat, 
I proceed to the bouquet. Con- 
noisseur is, in my opinion, the 
last outpost ot authentic ele- 
gance m these glitzy times. 1 
cling to it as to a life raft. 

Merwin Demhiini^ 
Neiv York, New \'orh 

Enigmatic Dosso 

To the Editor: 

You have done your readers a 
service m publishing that clear 
color reproduction ot the 
splendid Bellim/Titian The 
Feast of the Gods, but, to my 
way of thinking, it is a disser- 
vice to have let stand that rath- 
er snitty phrase "one Dosso 
Dossi, a mediocre court paint- 
er of the time." 

Each to his own opinion, ot 
course, and while no one 
would claim that Dosso was in 
the same, exalted league as 
Giovanni Bellini and Titian — 
so tew painters have been — his 
art is nonetheless of quality 
and also worthy of serious at- 
tention and consideration. The 
keen-eyed and clear-minded 
art historian Roberto Longhi 
gave it just that in his Officitia 
I'errarese, in which he also 
quotes Vasari on Dosso's Bac- 
chauale: ". . . had he never 

done anything else, tor this he 
merits renown and praise as a 
pittore eccellente/' 

Seemingly, the painting 
didn't displease his patron Al- 
tonso d'Este either, for it hung 
m the same Camerino d'Ala- 
bastro as The Feast of the Gods 
and three major works by Ti- 
tian; it is now in the National 
Gallery, London. Among oth- 
er museums possessing works 
by Dossi are the Uffizi, the 
Brera, and the National Gal- 
lery in Washington. 

Anyone wishing to acquaint 
himselt with Dosso's art 
might be warned, however, 
that it is not necessarily an 
easy one. There are stylistic el- 
ements of Giorgione and Ti- 
tian, of Roman classicism, and 
of the Ferrarese tradition as 
exemplitled by Cosme Tura 
and Ercole de' Roberti. There 
is visual poetry, but of the ter- 
rihilitii type, with dramatically 
charged lighting and subjects 
that are otten enigmatic. The 

palette is ot extraordinary 
chromatic range. 

In short, "a highly personal 
idiom," to quote Cecil Gould. 
As such. It has rightly fasci- 
nated connoisseurs over the 
centuries. And whether or not 
one ends up by likmg Dosso's 
idiom, it has much to teach 
about the art of painting to 
those with eyes to see. 

Richard H. Finne^ian 

Ivrea, Italy 

Credit THE 
RiciHT Man 

To the Editor: 

I was delighted to see your en- 
thusiastic appreciation ot the 
beauties of the Century City 
shopping center as it has been 
redeveloped |"Mall Wonder," 
February 199()|. However, 
you persistently reterred to the 
architect of the renovation as 
Ben Thompson, which is cor- 
rect tor the tood hall only, and 
vou never mentioned the ar- 

chitects for the mall, who 
were Field/Gruzen. Fact 
checking seems to have be- 
come a lost art. 

Field/Gruzen Associated 
Architects designed all of the 
mall renovations except the 
corner with the theaters and 
the restaurants. While Mr. 
Thompson may also "under- 
stand what people like to do," 
it is I who was the partner in 
charge ot that design, who 
created most of what you see 
there, and who created the set- 
ting with the "human scale" 
that vou have admired. 

John L. Field, FAIA 
San Francisco, California 

The Berg 
Collection's Money 

To the Editor: 
A very interesting article on 
the Berg Collection in the June 
issue failed to explain just how 
a S6 million endowment could 
possibly allow so little tor ac- 
quisition. Unless, ot course, 
the monies go to the entire 
New York Public Library. 
But, it so, that is not made 
clear. Maybe you could sup- 
ply a detogger? 

Marcia Hunter 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

The Ber<^'s endoirnient is around 
S6 million, hut the Ber^^ Collec- 
tion has to lire off the interest 
from it, not the principal sum. 
Out of this )nust come such dis- 
hursenu'tits as salaries; hence the 
nuniest estimate of the Ber^^'s pur- 
chasing^ power. The Sew ^orh 
Public Library declines to disclose 
exact fi(,iures. — Ed. 

Letters to the F.ditor, with the 
writer's name and address, 
should be sent to Letters 
F.ditor, Clonnoisscur, 1790 
Broadway, \ew York, i\ew 
)'ork 10019. Letters may he 
edited in the interest of clarity 
and conciseness. 





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A futuristic interpretation of a legendary design: 
The Movado Sapphire Museum SD® Watch. 

The famous Movado Museum dial, a registered 
trademark of the Movado Watch Corporation, 
represents the quintessence of the modern design 
movement. Simple, functional, tasteful. 

Its purity of design has won it a place in the per- 
manent collection of the Museum of Modern Art. 

It is a "high tech" timepiece. In both appearance. 
And actuality 

A synthetic sapphire crystal forms the front of the 
case. (With hardness second only to a diamond, it is 
virtually scratch-proof) A technological process per- 
manently adheres it to the invisible black chromium 

The case becomes one with the bracelet creating 
the balanced proportions found in fine sculpture. 

The Movado Sapphire Museum SD is strikingly 
thin. Inside is an electronic quartz movement that is 
accurate to within 60 seconds a year, it never needs 

Like all Movado Watches it enjoys the care of 
Swiss craftsmanship.The Movado Sapphire Museum 
SD Watch. A classic for now and future time. 


The Museum.Watch. 


elcoanily separate: 
buy panels of rich, 
French wallpaper from 
Zuber & Cie (212- 
486-9226) and have 
them mounted. 


(raoedy. for the Xohel 
Prize irinner Gabriel 
Garcia Marquez, is 
South American his- 
tor)\ His tiew noi'el. 
The General in His 
Labyrinth (Knopf: 
S 19.95 1, depicts tin- 
great Simon Bolwar 
as a flawed romantic 
hero — sadly, all soul.. 

.h, the plea- 
sures of gardening! 
This British quarterly 
combines them with 
those of reading, as it 
presents grace fiil article 
by well-known writers 
Call 44-597 810-227, 
in Wales. 


.op drawings 
from Edinburgh 's Na- 
tional Gallery — this 
one is by Piranesi — are 
at the National Gallery 
in Washington, D.C., 
until September 23. 
Then they go to the 
Kimbell, in Fort 
Worth, Soi'ember 3. 

It creator 

has ever found more 
lustrous inspiration 
than George Balan- 
cliine found in Suzanne 
Farrell? In Holding 
On to the Air (Sum- 
mit Books; S 19. 95), 
the ballerina who was 
Dulcinea to the master's 
Don Quixote tells all, 
with tact and honor. 

/; l-rdncc, Aiucri- 
( ii/j pop heroes i^cf 
rvipect, ami this sum-' 
incr Clint Eastwood's 
iivw movie White 
Hunter, Black Heart 
scored hii^. \'ou' it 
opens here. Eastwood 
plays a John Huston 
type. (Go on; make 
his day.) 

. t looks i^ood on 
desk or in pocket, fits 
nicely in the hand, 
g^lides smoothly over 
the foolscap. Wiiat 
more can you ask of a 
fountain pen? It is 
from Waterman 's latest 
collection, Rhapsody; 
about $350. 

ver and some five dozen 
other fiddlers — all 
prizewinners already — 
face off at the invita- 
tional International 
Violin Competition 
of Indianapolis (August 
31 to September 16). 
The stakes: $20,000 
and, of course, the glory. 

ou have biked 

along the Loire River 
and over the Tuscan 
hills. Wliat next? But- 
terfield & Robinson's 
new, posh trip goes to 
the heel of Italy (800- 

luuso as I 
like to hear him and 
as I believe he 
sounded," says a world 
expert of the Prima 
\'oce reissues, from 
Nimbus Rec- 
ords — taped straight 
from the horn with /;<' 
electronic fiddle- faddle . 
Others so recaptured: 
glittering Amelita Cuil- 
li-Curci, smoldering 
Rosa Ponselle, Titta 
Ruffo ("the Voice of 
the Lion"), and more. 
Lor the catalog, call 
(800) 451-8725. 










H E I f.j H T E N E D 

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c o ^^^^o Ls^SE u r' s world 

Television at its best ^^ A movie masterpiece 'd^ Ancient tiles for modern livin*^ 
Music, art, and fashion from Germany ^^ Dance fever -^^ Considered opinions on the theater 

Television shows the other side of the C^ivil War: above. Provost Guard oj the lOlth (Colored Infantry lines up at I-ort C^onoran (Anouyinous, m. tH63). 

PBS Has a 
Winner Again 

The real war," wrote 
Walt Whitman, "will 
never get in the 
books." But much of it will 
get on the television screen in 
The Civil War, a nine-part film 
by Ken Burns, which PBS 
will air in five consecutive 
nightly installments, begin- 
ning on September 23. 
The war, which cost 
360, ()()() lives, was the first to 
be extensively photographed, 
and Burns has woven thou- 
sands of stills together with 
period music and eyewitness 
testimony into an unconven- 
tional and powerful historical 
record. Against backdrops of 
telling photographs, first-per- 
son quotations are read by the 

actors Julie Harris, Morgan 
Freeman, and Sam Waterston 
and the writers Garrison Keil- 
lor and Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., to 
name a few. The IS6()s live in 
the haunting faces and poi- 
gnant words of the boy sol- 
diers and their not much older 
officers, who maimed and 
slaughtered one another in the 
thickets and swamps, the 
cornfields, orchards, and vil- 
lages of a young America, for 
which North and South each 
had a different future in mind. 

Civilians are here, too: 
Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson 
Davis, their cabinets and C'on- 
gresses and local officials — but 
also doctors, nurses, wives, 
and parents on both sides, 
struggling to cope with hor- 
ror, privation, and lonelines- 
Blacks, such as Frederick 

Douglass, runaway slaves, and 
proud soldiers, have their say; 
Burns smartly records how 
they pushed a fight to save the 
Union into a full-blov\n war 
of emancipation. 

A tight script narrated by 
the historian David McCul- 
loiigh, along with commen- 
taries by other experts, makes 
sense of the chaos. But the 
film's greatest strength is in 
the lucidity of the camera's 
subjects — the towering Lin- 
coln and the writers of simple 
love letters and diaries. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, Jr., a veter- 
,ui of the war, wrote of his 
generation, ". . . in our 
youth, our hearts were 
touched with fire." Burns has 
rekindled it at the electronic 

— Bernard A . Weisher<^cr 

True Japanese 

Akira Kurosawa's 
/ heanis — eight halluci- 
natory episodes — is 
more personal than any other 
tilm by the eighty-year-oUi 
Japanese duei tor, tliough the 
subjects are tar Iroin autobio- 
graphical. C^learly the film is 
intended as a spiritual autobi- 
ography, and. with Its air of 
valedictory, a closing of Kuro- 
sawas \\ orldly concerns. 
Some of those concerns 
turn out to be environmental. 
"Mt. Iniji III Red" and " The 
Weeping Ogre" are about 
nuclear apocalypse and its 
gruesome aftermath. The con- 
cluding segment is an idvllic 
instructu)n by a l()3-year-old 
man in the joys of nature. 



•J IJ Cv^M.i .li^.HMU. V 1,1.1. lJ.|,.n<Iwl,il,l>lii.l. .. SiuJ, ll,,...J'<.illminH""'^'""K'"' '" ' ' ' '.I.IWH5 m.,.lrl v.-hi. Irsm ihi- |.«l 1^ m..i.llr 

The car declared the most 

durable in the world 

meets the car ranked the most 

dependable in America. 

Robust long life seems to be 
almost something bred into the 
Mercedes-Benz genes. 

The Guinness Book of World 
Records has taken note of this 
phenomenon by declaring a 1957 
Mercedes-Benz, with 1,184,880 
miles on the clock, "the world's 
most durable car. " 

And in a recent survey of 
long-term vehicle dependability, 
covering original owners' experi- 
ences with their 1985 cars,* J. D. 
Power & Associates found — 
surprise! — that Mercedes-Benz 
owners report fewer things gone 

wrong than owners of any other 
cars in the survey. 

Of course, the levelheaded 
engineers of Mercedes-Benz 
insist that even phenomena can 
be explained in rational terms. 

By an R&D brain trust 
twelve thousand people deep, for 
example. By a bank of more than 
ten thousand original engineer- 
ing patents. And by manufactur- 
ing tolerances somewhat finer 


than the width of a human hair. 

Focus these and myriad 
other Mercedes-Benz engineer- 
ing strengths on the goal of 
building the most dependable 
and long-lived cars possible, the 
engineers say-and the rest will 
logically follow. 

And the rest, of course, is 
automotive legend. 

If you wish to follow up on 
the remarkable depencl;ibilit\ 
and longevity accomplisiiiiKnls 
of Mercedes Ben/, \isit \our 
authorized dealer soon Or call 
1-800-228-9191 toll free. anMime. 


Kurosawa, in his The Sei>en 
Samurai heyday, was famed as 
the most Western of Japanese 
directors, but for at least 
twenty years now he has 
transformed his galloping, vi- 
brant style into something far 
more ritualistic and medita- 
tive. Dreams demonstrates 
both the pleasures and the pit- 
falls of that approach. His new 
film is often too patterned and 
private an experience, but 
there are gems. In "Sun Shin- 
ing through Rain," a little boy 
in a forest glimpses a forbid- 
den ritual: a wedding proces- 
sion of foxes during a rain 
shower. In the next "dream," 
"Peach Orchard," a boy com- 
munes with the doll spirits of 
a razed peach-tree orchard. In 
sequences like these, Kurosa- 
wa comes as close as any film 
artist ever has to divining the 
boundaryless imaginings of 
childhood. — Peter Rainer 

Tile Style 

Over the past three de- 
cades, Mario and 
Chantal Di Donato 
have collected over 1,500 Ital- 
ian tiles. Some are from the art 
deco movement of the 1930s; 
others, like those from the 
church of San Vitale in Raven- 
na, date to as far back as the 
fifth century. Many of the an- 
tique tiles they sell through 
their Galerie Farnese, a busi- 
ness with outlets in Paris, 
Rome, and Milan. The rest 

Movie as tapestry: Kurosawa unfolds a child's fantasy in the episode "Peach Orchard," front liis latest film 

Parnese: tiling the Roman way 

they keep as admirable models 
to copy. They press, finish, 
and paint these re-editions ac- 
cording to ancient techniques. 
The Di Donatos' passion is 
not merely that of historians. 
They are creative designers 
whose specialty is making 
these tiles work in a modern 
setting. For instance, they 
adapted a spiraling basket- 
and-flower motif from majoli- 
ca tiles of the eighteenth-cen- 
tury cloister of Santa Chiara 
for a southern California 

breakfast room by care- 
fully interpreting the ar- 
chitect's drawing of the 
room and then scaling 
down, or up, elements 
of the original designs. 
The artisans in Italy 
work with a Farnese 
staff architect to en- 
sure that each tile is 
made to specifica- 
tions, every corner 
rounded and each leaf 
painted as needed. In 
roughly three 
months the tiles are 
ready to be installed 
They arrive with a 
template (in effect, a 
full-scale map), to 
be put in place like 

pieces in a puzzle. 

In this way, a terra-cotta 
stairway from the piano nobile 
in the sixteenth-century Palaz- 
zo Farnese is reworked for a 
Paris apartment. A thirteenth- 
century marble mosaic, an 
eighteenth-century floral sca- 
f^liola pattern, or 1930s cloi- 
sonne tiles are reproduced for 
a scaled-down sitting room, a 
tabletop, a bathroom, or a 
swimming pool. The range is 
almost endless. (Both the re- 
production and the antique 
tiles are available from Galerie 
Farnese, 47 Rue de Berri, Par- 
is; phone:; fax:; or from the 
Farnese New York City repre- 
sentative, Charlotte Raven; 
phone: 212-472-8554.) 

— Lisa Cohen 

German Master 

Lovis Corinth (1858- 
1925) started out as a 
nineteenth-century aca- 
demic salon artist and ended 
up the father of Cierman Ex- 
pressionism. A big bear of a 
man from East Prussia who 
loved Rembrandt and Hals, 
('orinth was nicknamed the 
Bute hers Boy because of his 

exuberant slaughterhouse 
paintings. Surprisingly, he 
studied in Paris with Bougue- 
reau, the master of the senti- 
mental salon style. Corinth's 
work influenced, among 

A new look at Corinth in New 
York: Blumen (1925). 

others, the young Max Beck- 
mann. After 191 1 his slashing 
brushstrokes became even 
looser, partly owing to the ef- 
fects of a stroke, and resolved 
into near-abstract portraits 
that seethed with c(Miflicting 
psychological impulses. (The 



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For centuries, the artisans of Saint-Louis have been bt'.'ning 
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The creative breath 
since the XVI " century. 

C O N. NL^ O L S- S E U R' S. 

W I3r R L D 

first large-scale American 
retrospective of Corinth since 
1964 IS at the Galerie St. 
Etienne, 24 West Fifty-seventh 
Street, New York City, Sep- 
tember 1 1 to November 3.) 

— Kim Levin 

Sylvia Plachy 
Scores a Triumph 

Of all the emotions ex- 
pressed in art, exu- 
berance may be the 
rarest. For the photographer 
Sylvia Plachy, the camera is a 
divining rod for explosive 
happiness. There is a feeling of 
joytul, wild release in her pic- 
tures. On the cover of her new 
book, Sylvia Plachy 's Unj^uided 
Tour (Aperture; $39.95),' a 
horse swims in a pool ot 
water, only its head visible 
above the surface, and, look- 
ing at it, you would swear the 
damn thing is grinning. 

Since the midscventies, Pla- 
chy has worked as a staff pho- 
tographer for Manhattan's 
weekly l'illa<^c Voice, and a 
portion ot the photographs in 
this collection was taken on 
assignment. But Plachy's pic- 
tures are photojournalistic 
only m the broadest sense. As 
a reporter, she is more inter- 
ested in emotions than in tacts; 
as a storyteller, more con- 
cerned with the small, quotid- 
ian detail than with the monu- 
mental event. She specializes 
in not so much the decisive 
moment as the ecstatic one: on 
a hot day, a group of city kids 
opens up a hydrant, and the 
sluicing water splashes out like 

A plioto^raplier chronicles the miraculous: Plachy's Wild Bike (1986). 

white paint across the dark as- 
phalt. In another photograph, 
a father holds up a howlingly 
delighted child by her ankles. 
In a third, entitled Grandpa & 
Gratidma, an old couple sit in 
the backseat of a car while, 
inexplicably, soap bubbles 
dance all around them. There 
is an unarticulated hint in 
many ot these pictures that 
unseen hands are at work in 
the world and that Plachy sees 
herself as the quiet, perhaps al- 
most mystical chronicler of 
their mysterious doings. 

Born in Budapest, she was 
smuggled to the border with 
her tamily after the 1956 revo- 
lution in a cart covered over 
with corn husks. Since then, 
she has lived mostly in Ameri- 
ca, but you can see in her pic- 
tures the freedom and energy 
of her adopted country mi.xing 
with strong vestigial in- 

The drama of the revived opera Les I liiguenots ;.v slilj, hut not the nuisic. 

tluences from her homeland. 
The influence of Andre 
Kertesz can be felt here, and » 
Martin Munkacsi's too (both 
are countrymen), but perhaps 
her closest spiritual equivalent 
is the Gypsy jazz guitarist 
Django Reinhardt. These pic- 
tures have a jaunty swing. 
What is most striking is 
their lack of despair, even 
when their subjects are far 
from upbeat: Plachy is tond of 
atterettects, like the scrambled 
mess left behind in an emer- 
gency room after a heart-at- 
tack victim has been carried 
away, or the exhaustion of 
two Hungarian soldiers when 
the night has gotten very late 
and their revels are winding 
down. Her optimism does not 
seem to arise out of any im- 
pulse to turn a blind eye to 
suffering. Despair, simply, 
leaves out the possibility of 
miracles, and miracles abound 
in Plachy's photography. In 
her portrait ot a reenactment 
of the Crucifixion, in Paler- 
mo, even Barabbas up there 
on the cross is beaming. 

— Hal Hinson 

Why Meyerbeer? 

Performances ot Les Hu- 
{lueiuits are rare, for a 
very good reason, in the 
old days at the Metropolitan 
Opera, Meyerbeer's epic of 
love and intrigue in the reli- 
gious wars ot sixteenth-cen- 
tury France was billed as "A 

Night of Seven Stars." Who 
an fitid seven stars today, let 
alone pay for them? 

The names of the cast on a 
new recording on Erato, taped 
live last year in Lyons, ring 
tew bells, but the performance 
has plenty of fire — and affords 
the first opportunity in this 
century, maybe the first ever, 
to hear the score uncut. 

The verdict? To our minds, 
the characters may look card- 
board, the drama stitf But the 
^ principal melodies, once be- 
< loved of Caruso and Melba, 
? are enjoyable and often more. 
S The orchestration, admired by 
Berlioz, is ravishing. 

Parisians of the last century 
ranked Meyerbeer's canny 
theatrical extravaganzas with 
the symphonies of Beethoven 
and the frescoes of Michelan- 
gelo. Surely they erred. We 
see in him instead a powerful 
source of inspiration: for Ver- 
di on the one hand, and Gil- 
bert and Sullivan on the other. 
— Matthew Gurewitsch 


Side ot Dietrich 

m^(mm WmM©h 

M® Wtm^ ^(Lrinisi[h][nn]©oi] 

Marlene siin^s of thills jaded. 

Whatever the language 
(German mostly, 
sometimes French), 
that amused, witchy tin voice 
leaves no doubt as to the mes- 
sage. In one ot the sixteen 
songs on Preiser's reissue of 
Marlene Dietrich's earliest 
recordings, Marlene Dietrich: 
The liarly Recordirij^s, she puts 
it in English: "(iive me the 
man who does things to me." 
In her breakthrough movie, 
she was called Lola-Lola, but 
the title — the name of a night- 





A Beauty Report by Suzanne Bcrsch 

'ncG upon a time, beauty treatments 
were special purpose products designed to 
address a single beauty problem. Moisturizers 
simply moisturized, and cleansers just 
cleansed. Today, treatment products have be- 
come more sophisticated than ever, and their 
benefits can be found in practically every 
beauty category. Many cosmetics, in addition 
to adding color, hydrate the skin and improve 
its tone and elasticity There are even a few 
fragrances that claim to calm and firm the 

The Food and Drug Administration's recent 
crackdown on cosmetic claims has changed 
the way treatment products arc marketed and 
advertised. A new cosmetic can no longer 
claim to "accelerate cell regeneration" or 
"repair damaged tissue" without undergoing 
the same expensive and prolonged testing 
procedures as a new drug. "We can no longer 
define too specifically exactly what a product 
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ical claims about a product's benefits," ex- 
plains Robert Lukey director of marketing 
development for Elizabeth Arden's treatment 

These limitations, however, have had little 
influence on research. On the contrary, the 
industry has continued to make tremendous 
advances, particularly in the areas of protec- 
tion and prevention. Claims of "cell repair" 
and "cell renewal" have become taboo. The 
new emphasis of many anti-aging treatments 
is on environmental protection. 

Elizabeth Arden's Immunagc-UV Defense 
Lotion, for example, was developed to pro- 
vide protection from both indoor and outdoor 
ultraviolet light. Cumulative exposure to these 
rays damages elastin and collagen, which 
help support, hydrate, and keep skin wrinkle 
free. "Immunage offers serious sunscreen 
protection with an SPF 15, the protection 
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Lukey. The formulation is light and smooth, 
without any of the occlusive attributes asso- 
ciated with a beach-type product. 

Another daily care treatment is Prevenance 
Daily Anti-Time Formula with C.P.F.'V 
Developed by Stendhal in cooperation with 
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There are many treatment products avail- 
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sans the damage and risk of overexposure to 
the sun. One of the newest is Lancomc's Effet 
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John Penicnak, Lancome's senior vice presi- 
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cules into the upper layers of the skin. 'Non- 
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Few cosmetic treatments have been devel- 
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Constantly exposed, they are prone to crack, 
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Composed of all natural ingredients, the lip. 
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We know what damages the skin, and we 
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'Adual sdnipir m/('> iu u v-iiy. 

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club — fit her like a second 
skin. When she sings, she 
seems, like an angel, to be 
reading your thoughts, each as 
blue as a blue movie. (LP or 
compact disc, distributed by 
Koch International; 516- 
333-4800.) —M.G. 

Yes, You Can 
Eat in London 

Where would you go 
to find a retired 
Estonian hotelier, a 
Swiss ex-restaurateur, and a 
Scotsman who occasionally 
did the catering for President 
Nixon? Well, you could try 
Bracewells, the restaurant of 
the Park Lane Hotel, on Picca- 
dilly, in London, for this 
knowledgeable trio ot trench- 
ermen are regular patrons, 
having discovered what most 
food critics have overlooked: 
that Bracewells offers an all 
too rare combination of good 
cooking, good value, and 
good service. 

Bracewells is a big, com- 
fortable room in the grand- 
hotel manner, complete with 
the usual quotient of mirrored 
columns and wall carvings. 
One of its strongest features is 
that it offers a wide variety of 
cooking styles. For dinner 
there is a nouvelle cuisine-ish 
menu of the day (£27 for three 
courses, or £29 for four), or 
you can choose from the 
extensive a la carte selection. 


Stately and romantic dinim;; in the heart ofhustlin{J London: Biacewells, in the Park Lane Hotel. 

This encompasses beautifully 
prepared, plain, English food, 
such as mixed grill and roasts; 
more-complicated French 

Height of Fashion 

The towerinj^ German tnodcl 

ami film star Vcruschka (a face 

oj the sixties) makes a 

commandinj^ comeback in the 

fashions oj her fellow 

countrywoman Jil Sander. 

Sander's clothes are marked 

by an austere authority and a 

pure, flowint^ line that suit the 

woman who dresses to 

harmonize with an urban 

setting. Here: dark navy 

all-cashmere coat over 


h'l^Q^in^s and navy wool 

cardij^an. The look confers the 

stature of a resistance fiji^hter on 

(I woman of any a<;^e. — D.R. 

dishes, with a particular em- 
phasis on fish; and, last but 
not least, such a wide range of 
tabletop flambe dishes that 
you could, should you wish, 
have a meal where everything 
from soup to ice cream was set 
on fire under your nose. 

Being pyrophobic, I stuck 
to the fish, beginning with a 
parcel of wonderfully fresh- 
tasting crab meat wrapped in 
smoked salmon anci served 
with a creamy chive sauce. 
My main course was a slightly 
too ambitious dish of sole 
souffle accompanied by a scal- 
lop-and-ginger mousse and 
asparagus in a caviar-butter 
sauce. Good but exhausting! 

The highlight of the meal 
was the dessert trolley. Ihe 
spectacular creations on dis- 
play were as far removed from 
the usual sad collection of sog- 

gy tarts and leaden mousses as 
Vienna is from Vladivostok. I 
could have wolfed them all 
but had to make do with an 
ethereal lemon-meringue pie, 
a very superior version of a 
pashka (a traditional Russian 
Easter cake), and half of my 
wife's pear strudel and pear 

Go to Bracewells now, 
before everyone in London 
discovers it. (For reservations, 
call 01 1-44-71 499-6321.) 

— Bernard Merkel 


on Cape Cod 

Chillingsworth, a 
French restaurant in 
Brewster, Massachu- 
setts, offers warm hospitality 
(despite its name) and excep- 
tionally good food and ser- 



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Diiiiin^ oil the 

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vice, thanks to its untiring 
owners. From Memorial Day 
through Thanksgiving. Nitzi 
Rabin talks to his suppliers 
daily and oversees every dish. 
But he is more exacting and 
demanding of himself than of 
others. He does not leave the 
restaurant at night until the 
last dish of the second sitting 
has left the kitchen. Early the 
next morning he is back, 
checking the stockpots that 
have simmered all night long, 
reducing the broths to the 
bases for his sauces that eve- 

His wife, Pat, who, like 
Nitzi. trained in France (she as 
a pastry chef, he as a chef), 
manages the restaurant — she is 
responsible for its congenial 
atmosphere and good service 
— as well as a lunch bistro. 
The restaurant occupies the 
ground floor ot a fine, 300- 
ycar-old Cape colonial house 
tilled with an interesting art 
gallery and antiques, which 
are for sale. Many a diner has 
gone home marveling about 
the marinated grilled loin of 
veal with saffron risotto, gar- 
lic custard, wild mushrooms, 
and wild-mushroom veal 
sauce; or the crispy sweet- 
breads with foie gras, baby 
white asparagus. Burgundy 
truffle sauce, and sweet-potato 
chips; or the mango creme 
brulee with tresh raspberries. 
Dinner costs around S5() per 
person, and wines range from 
S20 to S30 and upward. Reser- 
vations: (508)896-3640. 

— .V(7;/()' Horim; 

Re-creating Isadora 

Isadora Duncan had a life 
such as tabloid editors 
dream of. A San Francis- 
can, she decamped for Europe 
at age twenty-one, and there, 
by dint of giving solo concerts 
where she leapt around bare- 
foot in a little chiton, express- 
ing feelings aroused in her by 
great music, she helped to 
found a new art form: modern 
dance. She also rarely left a 
dinner party without taking a 
new young man with her. She 
bore out of wedlock one child 
to the theater director Gordon 
Craig, another to Paris Singer, 
the sewing-machine heir, and 
then lost them both one day in 
Paris when the chauffeur got 
out ot the family car to crank 
the motor, and the car, con- 
taining the two children and 
their nurse, rolled into the 
Seine. The only man she ever 
married, the Russian poet Ser- 
gei Esenin, was almost twenty 
years younger than she; they 
had no language in common. 
Esenin managed to avoid 
drinking himself to death by 
hanging himself first. Isadora 
too died dramatically: she 
went out driving with a new 
man in his Bugatti; her long 
red scarf got caught in the 
wheel, breaking her neck. 

Was this an artist, or was it 
just God making a movie pro- 
posal to Ken Russell? (Russell 
did do a television biography 
of Duncan. Avoid it.) About 
fifteen years ago a dancer 
named AnnabcUe Gamson be- 

.JORi natural .ALiOi. dlamo 
[■05O with na»le»> brilliar 



W O R L D 



^A Eigenfhum u.Verlaq von E.Bieber. 


gan giving concerts of recon- 
structed Duncan dances, and 
to many people's surprise, 
they turned out to be not 
dated salon numbers but pow- 
erful theater works with an 
economy of style — Duncan 
stuck mostly to runs and skips 
and jumps — that looked revo- 
lutionary even in the just-get- 
ting-over-minimalisni seven- 
ties. As Gamson grew older, 
her dancing came to look 
more and more like Duncan's: 
weighty, frank, its only glam- 
our being that of directness. 

Now near sixty, Gamson is 
retiring from the stage. One of 
her farewell gestures has been 
to make a film. On Daricim; 
Isadora's Dances, which will be 
aired on PBS August 29. The 



film shows Gamsc:)n in her stu- 
dio, teaching the dances to 
others. Better still, it shows 
her performing them; the 
sweet, hippety-hoppy lirahus 
Waltzes, from Duncan's 
youth; the grim Chopin Polon- 
aise in C Minor, from her late 
years; the nobly restrained 
Mother, to Scriabin — a dance 
that is clearly about her lost 
children and that always 
makes this writer cry. 

— Joan Acoceila 

Dance in Lyons 

If you ! see American 

dance this fall, go to 
France. For tiiree weeks 
(September 13-Octobcr6) the 

liV kiioif a 
lot about Isadora 
ntincaii's life, bin 
what ot her art? 



. \ 

J. May EC & 

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C O R H O L S S E U R' S. 

W O R 1.-0 

American dance (here, Lucinda 
Childs'i Dance j comes to France. 

city of Lyons will be staging 
its fourth Bicnnalc dc la 
Dansc, this one devoted to 
America. The Lyons Biennalcs 
are elaborate affairs, as befits a 
city that spends 20 percent c:)f 
its municipal budget on the 
arts. This time there will be 
si.xty tliffercnt programs, cov- 
ering American modern dance 
from Isadora Duncan and Loie 
Fuller (in reconstructions) 
down through Martha 
Graham, Jose Limon, Paul 
Taylor, Merce Cunningham, 
Trisha Brown, and Lucinda 
Childs, all of whose compa- 
nies will be present. Edward 
Villella's Miami City Ballet 
will represent American ballet, 
specifically Balanchine. They 
will do two Balanchine pro- 
grams, including a new pro- 
duction of Apollo, with the 
birth scene stuck back on. 
(Balanchine deleted it in 1978, 
to the horror of the ballet 
world.) 7 here will also be a 
wide assortment of tappers, 
lindy-hoppcrs, and people 
doing the Texas two-step. 

Veterans of earlier Lyons 
Biennales say, "Don't miss the 
parties.' CJuy Darmet, direc- 
tor of the event, was a prize- 
winning ballroom dai)( cr in 

his youth, and he likes 
people to do as well as 
watch dancing. At the last 
Biennale there was the 
"Beauty and the Beast" 
ball, with Cocteau draw- 
ings outlined on the walls 
in chocolate truffles. (The 
drawings vanished as the 
night wore on.) This 
year there will be the 
'Rock and Twist" par- 
ty, the "Bal Swing, 
Harlem 1930-1940," 
and the "Bal 'II Etait 
une Fois Holly- 
-^ wood,' " where you 
get to dance the night 
away in a replica of an 
I MGM studio, com- 
5 pletc with swimming 
S pool. Do not forget to 
. I bring your lame 
o trunks. — -J. A. 

Sold-Out Guare 

With Six Dei^rees of 
Separation, his first 
new New York 
production since his unappre- 
ciated 1982 masterpieces Lydie 
Breeze and Gardenia, John 
Guare demonstrates that he is 
still a great playwright. The 
story of a young black con 
man who insinuates himself 
into the lives of a group of 
shallow, rich white people 
(the main couple are art deal- 
ers), the play starts out as a sa- 
tire and then subtly deepens 
into a lament. The con man, 
Paul (James McDaniel), is 
another of Guarc's brilliant, 
doomed dreamers — those art- 
ists whose creations turn into 
machines that destroy them. 
He is also a lost child, another 
type that fares badly in 
Guare's plays (a boy in Land- 
scape of the Body is decapitated; 
one in Lydie Breeze is deliber- 
ately infected with syphilis). 
Ouisa (Stockard C'hanning), 
the wife and partner of the art 
dealer, finds herself respond- 
ing to Paul more than to her 
own children. Accustomed to 
thinking of artists only as 
producers of commodities, she 
is moved and awakened when 
she meets the real thing. 
C^lianning is extraordinary in 

the role, fitting perfectly into 
that bleakly comic Guarcan 
universe where pratfalls can 
kill. With the rest of his cast, 
the director Jerry Zaks is more 
successful at bringing out the 
satirical elements than he is the 
reflective and intellectual ones. 
But he matches up well with 
the buzzing, explosive part of 
Guare's talent — the part that 
produces lines like the one in 
which a white millionaire 
explains why he remains in 
South Africa: "We stay to 
educate the black workers. 
We'll know we've been suc- 
cessful when they kill us." 
(At the Mitzi E. Newhouse 
Theater, Lincoln Center.) 

— Lloyd Rose 

Pepsi Bethel) have edge and 

The edgiest is a re-creation 
of "Funny Feathers," a routine 
by the great vaudevillian Bert 
Williams. A picture of 
Williams in rooster costume 
hangs on one of the walls of 
the set, and this is the outfit 
Bagneris dons, along with the 
blackface that Williams, 
though black himself, had to 
wear. In Bagneris's perfor- 
mance, the routine not only is 
not funny; it is unsettling, al- 
most ugly: it is about the hu- 
miliation Bagneris's character 
feels doing this dumb bit for 
Whitey. Though this works in 
the show's context, I am not 
sure it does justice to Wil- 

/;; Cjiiare's bleakly comic play, Cliannin<i (second front rii^ht) shine: 

Less Is Mo' 

Cool and dry as a good 
martini, Vernel Bag- 
neris shows off his 
airy, elegant dancing in Further 
Mo', his "new New Orleans 
musical," set at the end of the 
era of black vaudeville. Bag- 
neris is the most Astaire-like 
of the great black dancers I 
have seen, so weightless he 
seems to achieve the impossi- 
ble dance goal of body trans- 
cendence. It is as if he had 
dropped in from some higher 
form of existence, graciously 
assuming corporeal form in 
order to entertain us. Yet he is 
not fey or ethereal. He is 
cocky and natty in his stylish 
costumes, and his tj.mces (by 

Hams, a great comedian who 
appears to have known his 
own worth (in one of his 
routines he played a "slow," 
"stupid" porter who ends up 
accidentally hanging the white 
passenger whose luggage he is 

Bagneris is joined by the 
New (Orleans Blue Serenaders, 
who do all the music, and a 
wonderful cast, especially 
James ("Red") Wilcher as the 
white theater owner (who 
loi'es the rooster number); the 
talented Frozine Thomas and 
Topsy ("hapnian; and Sandra 
ReAves-Phillips as the diva 
Big Bertha, a role almost 
worthy of her huge talent. (At 
the Village Gate.) —L.R. 

Ldited by Diane RaJJerty 





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¥he International Antique Dealers Show, New Yorii, and at tliJ|cVe Biennaledes Antiquaires 

* 1 00^^ 'Q.PwR AXAPNiWFZFI RFI GIIJM TEL 32 3 6581470 FAX 3X3 6583781 

7 /^ \i: c rio A\/c:vi\\/ 

List of Participants 


ADC Heritage Ltd, UK 

Didier Aaron Int, US/4 

Arthur Ackerman & Son Ltd , UK 

Armm B Allen Int, UK 

Maurice Asprev Ltd., UK 

Abprev PLC , UK 

Barling ot Mount Street Ltd , UK 

Brian Beet, UK 

A Beshar & Company Inc , Uby4 

Dons Leslie Blau ni , US/4 

Blitz Antiek Ln Kunsthandel, Holland 

Bluett & Sons Ltd, UK 

Blumkd Gallerv, UbA 

) H Bourdun-Smith Ltd , UK 

L'ltBreede, West Cfnmii]^ 

frankCaroCo , US/1 

Ralph MChait Galleries IncUM 

Galerie Chevalier, / nimt- 

The Chinese I'orielain Co , USA 

CianciminoLtd , UK 

Christopher Clarke (Antiques), UK 

Philip CoJIeckol London Ltd, US/1 

Dalva Brothers, Inc , US/4 

Ariane Dandois, / mmc 

John M Davis, Inc , UbA 

Dildarian, Inc , USA 

Dillingham and Company, USA 

R H r.llsworth Ltd ,USA 

Richard L Leigen & Company, USA 

Peter Liner, UK 

Firestone and Parson Inc , USA 

Kate Loster Ltd ,UK 

h &) Lrankel Limited, UM 

Cora Cinsburg Inc , USA 

.Michael Goedhuis, UK 

Graham & Oxiev (Antiques) Ltd , UK 

Richard (jrc-en, UK 

Robert Haber& Company in Association with Artemis 

line Arts Ltd, US/4 


Jonathan Harris, UK 

Brian Hdughtciii Antiques, UK 

Hirschldnd Adler(jalleries, Inc., US/4 

HirsthiandAdlerlolk, US/4 

Jonathan Home, UK 

Thomas Howard-Snevd Ltd., UK 

lona Antiques, UK 

Jeremy Limited, UK 

John Jesse, UK 

Robert L Kmnaman and Brian A Kamaekers inc , USA 

L.& C LKoopman& ,UK 

Nathan Liverantand Son, USA 

D M &P Manheim Antiques Corp , US/4 

Galerie Bruno .Meissner, Swilicrhiiul 

Nicholas Merchant, UK 

I he Merrin Gallery, US/4 

New house (jalleries, USA 

Dawd Pickup, UK 
Kevillond'Apreval, /n//iu' 
James Kobinson, Inc., USA 
Kosenbergand Stiebel Inc , US/1 
Israel Sack Inc , US.4 
AlistairSampson Antiques Ltd , UK 
IhomasSehwenke, Inc , USA 
Sheppard and Cooper Ltd., UK 
S j ShrubsoleCorp , Ub.4 






Anthony A P Sluemplig Antiques, USA 

M Turpin Limited, liK 

J V'anKranendonkDutlels, Kc/yn/m 

Ldric \anVredenburghLtd , t/K ■ ■ j^^ 

Larle U V andekar ol Knightsbndge 1^., tiS^J 

\ ander\ en and \ anders en, I lulhiiht , -^ 

\ eriun & Jussel, US,4 \'i^ 





Organised by Brian and Anna Maughtun 

Hriiui I Idu^htoii Anliquos 
Ih Burlington C.ardens, Old Bt)i«d Street, London WIX,.lL|i 

/li, : ' ii'illilluii>i>iitriiliiiiii>t 

• ^"^ "V t hi National Antiqui- & Art 1 A'dlt-rs AsMxidlion ot Aimrjitd 

hrederiLkP Victoria & Son Inc , US4V' 
\'r'Ux Li\ res D'Lumpe Inc , US,4 i. -f 
Mid Weiner. U\'\ ^i'- 

"^ounj^dnd Stephens, UK 4 

ii IxtiefilfiirMi'nioruil ShKOhKi'lUrhi!^ Quia'r Cititcr 

oiw,i<«vplH>n '>.i)6pni Ik ki-i iSOII ( i.ll.i tors K«-n'ption h.tMf-^ (»tpm I u kt-l S 


Founded in 1910, the Ralph M. Chait Galleries is the oldest firm 
in America specializing in Chinese Works of Art. Entering its third 
generation, this family business serves museums, collectors, and 
connoisseurs in acquiring the finest examples of Chinese art. An 
example of their collection is this rare Fine Rouge de Fer and Gold 
Double-Gourd Shaped Vase. Of the Kangxi (K'ang Hsi) Period, 
A.D. 1662-1772, it stands 15 '/2 inches high. 

lona Antiques was started 15 years ago by a husband and wife team, 
Stephen and lona Joseph. They have built up a stock of 19th 
century animal paintings that is probably the largest in England 
and which includes over fifty dog paintings. Primitive paintings of 
cattle, sheep and pigs are another speciality. These prize farm 
animals were depicted as large and overfed in order to publicize the 
various breeds. 

Illustrated: A prize ram in a pasture with cattle grazing signed and 
dated E. Corbet 1877. Oil painting on canvas. 16" X 20" 
lona Antiques, PO Box 285, London, W8 6HZ 
Tel: (071) 602-1193 Fax: (071) 371-2843 

Illustrated: One example of the extremely rare and beautiful 
Chinese works of art on display. Our present exhibit includes 
porcelain, pottery, hardstones, bronzes, sculptures and Chinese 
export porcelain and silver, ranging in periods from the Neolithic 
through the 19th century. 

Ralph M. Chait Galleries Inc^ 12 East 56th Street, New York, 
New York 10022. Tel: (212) 758-0937 Fax: (212) 319-0471 

Dildarian, Inc, established in 1916, is one of America's oldest rug 
dealers. The firm features a wide assortment of antique rugs and 
period tapestries dating from the sixteenth through the nineteenth 
century. They also have a superb collection of decorative floor 
coverings. The range of European carpets at Dildarian, Inc. is 
broad - Aubusson, Savonnierie and Needlepoint in all sizes. Your 
inquiries are welcome and they invite you to visit their spacious 
gallery in The Fuller Building. 

Illustrated: A late- 19th century Aubusson, 18 X 15.8. 
Dildarian, Inc., 595 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 
10022. Tel: (212)288-4948 



1 , 

The International Antiques Show in New York, in one 

year, has become one of the most important dates on 

the Fine Art Calender. Once again YOUNG AND 

STEPHENS of London, has been invited to exhibit 

with their highly acclaimed collection of Estate 

jewelry. This year's collection includes irreplaceable 

pieces, mainly from the Grand Houses of Jewelry. 

The difficulty in finding and putting together a 

selection such as theirs is no easy task - it is undertaken 

by their Managing Director and founder of the firm, 

Stephen Burton. He travels the world in order to find 

the very finest pieces of estate 

jewelry, his standards are 

exacting in the extreme. Every 

item is examined thoroughly 

and rigorously judged for its 

design and quality - only 

the few make the grade 

and are presented in the 



The collection ranges from the 

Victorian Era to the Post War 

Period, and is represented here by 

three pieces. The maple leaf with its 

fine platinum set diamonds and 

life like style, is typical of the 

delicacy oi the Edwardian 


In contrast the parrot 
with pearl body and 
calibre set feathers is 
typical Qi the amusing 
jewelry of the 1930s 
and was made by 
Carrier London. 
The magnificent 
Sautoir was made by 
Carrier in their 
London workshop, 
especially designed and 
commissioned for a distinguished 
member of England's aristocracy in 
1929/30. It's total diamond weight 
is a staggering 111.28cts. 


will be at Booth B4 

for the Antiques Show, 

and their shop at 

1 Burlington Gardens, London, England 

is open Monday to Friday, 9.30'5.30. 

Teh 011-447 1'499'7927, 

Fax: 011-447 1'495'057 J. 


The gallery of Doris Leslie Blau features an eclectic array of room 
si:e carpets and some collector pieces. The antique and exemplary 
carpets are Oriental and European, with a strong emphasis on their 
decorative aspects. They date from the mid- 19th century and early- 
20th century, with some period carpets and a few select tapestries. 

Illustrated: An exceptional example of a Western Turkish Oushak 
carpet, whose boldness of design and subtlety of colour brings forth 
a visual garden of delight. This genre of carpet has for decades 
proven to be a favourite amongst Europeans of discerning taste. 
Fortunately, we in America have, over the past few years, been 

opening our eyes to beauty wherever we can find it. The myth that 
only a Persian carpet offers us great quality, as well as great beauty 
has, at last, been dispelled. We have all come to understand that 
many different kinds of carpet can offer greatness in quality, 
configuration, and palette. The Oushak carpet measures 
16 X 12.10. 

Doris Leslie Blau, 15 East 57th Street, New York, New York 
10022. Tel: (212) 759-3715 

For more than seventy-five years, James Robinson, Inc. has been 
a name synonymous with the finest in English silver, offering works 
from the Elizabethan through the Georgian periods. There is also 
an outstanding selection of fine porcelain, and the firm is noted 
for its extensive array of carefully-chosen antique porcelain dinner, 
dessert, and tea services. James Robinson, Inc. has a distinguished 
reputation for fine antique jewelry from England and the 
Continent highlighting the Victorian, Edwardian, and Belle 
Epoque periods through the later Art Nouveau and Art Deco 
decades. A highlight of the outstanding collection of period jewelry 
being exhibited is the extraordinary goldwork from the nineteenth- 

century Paris workshops of Jules and Louis Wiese. The 22 karat 
gold Etruscan Revival double-Ram's head bangle and framed 
Roman coin earrings illustrate why the sculptural goldwork of these 
artists ranks among the most sought-after. 

At the dawn of the twentieth century, jewelers mastered the art of 
fashioning platinum, an extremely hard material, into finely 
articulated pieces of exceptional beauty and durability. This new 
capability, blended with a fashion for the dramatic produced the 
breathtaking diamond and black onyx bracelet and brooch shown. 
James Robinson, Inc., 15 East 57th Street, New York, New York 
10022. Tel: (212) 752-6166 




Brian Haughton Antiques will exhibit an extremely rare pair of 
Paris Vases painted with winter scenes, the reverse with maritime 
scenes. The gilding of the finest quality. Circa 1810. 
Brian Haughton, who is the Organiser of The International 
Antique Dealers Show, also organises two of London's major 
international shows. The International Ceramics Fair &. Seminar 

(14th- 17th June 1991) and The International Silver &. Jewellers- 
Fair &. Seminar (8th- 11th February' 1991), which take place at The 
Park Lane Hotel, Piccadilly. London W.l. 
Brian Haughton Antiques, }>^ Burlington Gardens, Old Bond 
Street, London WIX ILE. Tel: (071) 734-5491 
Fax: (071)494-4604 


Bruno Meissner is an art dealer with galleries in both Zurich and 
Paris. His innate sensitivity and the ability to discover the unusual 
or extraordinary, to spot artistic quality and beauty, are the main 
factors in his success as a major dealer. 

Bruno Meissner s preference for rare gold panels and the most 
important Baroque paintings, together with works of the late 18th 
and 19th centuries does not preclude him from including important 
Impressionists and special 20th century works in his galleries. 
Illustrated: Constant Troyon (1810-1865). "View from La Ferte 
Saint Aubin, near Orleans", oil on canvas, signed on bottom left: 

"C. Troyon". 129 x 192 cm {SOVz X 15Vi inches). Dated from the 

first period of Troyon, this painting represents an ideal landscape, 

typical of Barbizon school and certainly one of the most important 

paintings by Constant Troyon. 

After the Paris Biennale, the Galerie Meissner is delighted to be 

exhibiting once again in New York and will show a selection of old 

masters and XIX century paintings. 

Bruno Meissner, 23 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France Tel: (1) 

49 27 96 12 Fax: (1) 42 61 43 70: Bahnhostrasse 14, CH-8001 

Zurich, Switzerland Tel: (01) 211 9000 Fax: (01) 211 9371 

A La Vieille Russie, specialists in Russian Imperial art since its 

founding in 1851, is pleased to announce the publication in 

November 1990 oiRussian Imperial Style: the first - and only - book 

to showcase the lavish art and architecture, objets d'art, jewelry, 

and furnishings of Czart Russia. 

Prentice Hall Editions (with the cooperation of A La Vieille 

Russie), text by Laura Cerwinske, with photographs by Anthony 

Johnson. Featured are public and private collections in the Soviet 

Union and elsewhere around the globe, all in colour. 

A La Vieille Russie, Inc, 781 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 

10022. Tel: (212)752-1727 

A French Gold, Silver-gilt, Walnut and Mahogany Inkstand, 
Martin-Guillaume Biennais, Paris, 1809-19, containing an inkpot 
and cover and another with pen holders, both with eagle finials, 
centred by a fine miniature by Jean-Baptiste Isabey (1767-1855), 
depicting Hortense de Beauhamais, Queen of Holland, in a rose 
coloured gown and jewelled headband, flanked by Prince Napoleon 
Louis dressed as a renaissance page and Prince Louis Napoleon 
(later Napoleon III) as a putto, within swirling diaphanous veils, 
in a gold and translucent blue enamel frame, the spandrels applied 
with anthemions and scrolling flowers, in a contemporary, green 
tooled moroccos case with engraved silver-gilt clasps. 
E. & C. T. Koopman & Sons Ltd, The London Silver Vaults, 
Chancery Lane, London WC2. Tel: (071) 242-8365/7624 Fax: 


Established in 1906, Vemay & Jussel has traditionally dealt in tine 
English furniture and related works of art. Over the years the firm 
has developed an especial interest in 17th and 18th centur>- English 
clocks as well. While the primary- interest has always been, and 
will continue to be, English furniture, attention should be drawTi 
to the fact that, from time to time, some special clocks are in the 
firm's collections. 

Illustrated: dating from the last years of the 18th centur\-, a skeleton 
clock in the form of a globe on a tripod stand. The eight day 
movement, which strikes the hour on a single bell, is by Henr>' 
Gratte, London. It is one of only three known examples of a 
skeleton clock in this remarkable form. 

Vernay & Jussel, 625 Madison Avenue, New York, New \brk, 
10022-1801. Tel: (212) 308-1906 Fax: (212) 308-1944 


Garrick C. Stephenson, one of New York's leading antique dealers 
for 30 years, has assembled a remarkable collection of 18th and 
early 19th century French, Russian and Continental furniture for 
display in his gallery at 625 Madison Avenue. 
The gallery is also well known for extraordinary mirrors and unique 
decorative objects. Of particular interest to the connoisseur is a 

well chosen collection of Chinese and Jnpancsc lacquer. 
Illustrated: a mahogany lit de repo bearing rhc mark o{G. lacob 
French late ISth/i-arly I9rh century. 

Garrick C. Stephenson, 625 Madison Avenue, New York, New 
York. Tel: (212) 753-2570 Fax: (212) 832-4893 


Since 1849 when Charles Frederick Hancock estabUshed his own 
business on the comer of New Bond Street in the heart of London's 
fashionable West End, Hancocks & Company have enjoyed the 
highest reputation as jewellers and silversmiths. During the 19th 
century most of the crowned heads of Europe honoured Hancocks 
with their patronage, indeed, to this day, they proudly bear the 
Royal Warrant from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, The Queen 
Mother. Hancocks maintain an extensive collection of the highest 
quality antique jewellery and silver, complemented by their 
renowned selection of antique sporting jewellery and silver which 
recently has been enlarged by the addition of their beautiful range 

of silver gamebirds, stags and modem sporting jewellery. 
Hancocks, now at No. 1 Burlington Gardens, London, W. 1., strive 
to enhance this tradition of excellence, an excellence which was 
rewarded as early as 1857 with the honour of manufacturing the 
Victoria Cross, the principal decoration for valour in Great Britain. 
Illustrated: Three examples from their collection of antique 
jewellery, including a magnificent pendant watch by Marcus &. 

Hancocks & Co (Jewellers) Ltd, 1 Burlington Gardens, London, 
WIX 2HP. Tel: (071) 493-8904 Fax: (071 ) 493-8905 

E & J Frankel, established in 1967, has developed an international 
reputation as one of the most important Oriental Art galleries, 
featuring important Chinese ceramics, jades, paintings, sculptures, 
etc., dating from the last 6000 years, and Japanese objects and 
paintings, with an emphasis from the Heian through Edo period 
(9th century through 18th century). 

Illustrated: Seated pottery figure of a cutting chef. Han Dynasty 
(206 BC - 220 AD). Sichuan Province, China. Height 15 inches. 
E & J Frankel, Ltd, 1040 Madison Avenue (at 79th Street), New 
York, New York 10021. Tel: (212) 879-5733 
I^x: (212)879-1998 

A La Vieille Russie, specialists in Russian Imperial art since its 

founding in 1851, is pleased to announce the publication in 

November 1990 oi Russian Imperial Style: the first - and only - book 

to showcase the lavish art and architecture, objets d'art, jewelry, 

and furnishings of Czart Russia. 

Prentice Hall Editions (with the cooperation of A La Vieille 

Russie), text by Laura Cerwinske, with photographs by Anthony 

Johnson. Featured are public and private collections in the Soviet 

LJnion and elsewhere around the globe, all in colour. 

A La Vieille Russie, Inc, 78 1 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 

10022. Tel: (212) 752-1727 




Herrup & Wolfner specializes in American antiques and 

paintings of the 18th and 19th centuries. 

Illustrated: One of a pair of portraits by Christian Gullager ( 1759- 

1826). The artist studied in his native Denmark and in Paris before 

emigrating to America in the 1780s. Gullager consistently caught 

a spirit of gaiety and an elegant charm in his clients' portraits. The 

likeness of Nancy Door Clapp will be offered along with that of 

her husband, Caleb Clapp. The couple from Westminster, 

Vermont, posed for Gullager about 1790. 

Herrup & Wolfner, 12 East 86th Street, New York, 

New York 10028. Tel: (212) 737-9051 

_i L L V . . I *■' g . .-J 8 ■ ' . • ■■• k \ ^ l**! 


ji;k>' <^<^'^^^:n^^^^ ^ 

A. Beshar & Company, Inc. represents 92 years of experience in 
Fine floor coverings and is presently run by the fourth generation 
of the Beshar family. The gallery show-cases one ot the largest 
collections of Oriental rugs in the world along with an extensive 
selection of fine and rare European carpets. They include semi- 
antique and antique rugs and carpets in a range of sizes, from .tt 
X 4ft to 35ft X 35ft. 

Illustrated: A carpet with characteristic Peking design in navy blue, 
cadet blue, and light blue on a bisque ground wuh ivory border. 
Excellent condition. Circa 1900. 

A. Beshar & Company, Inc. The Cable BuUding^ 611 f^^f^^y^ 
Room 405, New York, New York 10012. le!: (2U) 529-/300 

Frank Care, specialists in Chinese and Southeast Asian An and 
Antiques, have been the source of ancient art of unparalleled 
excellence for world renowned museums and collectors for more 
than 60 years. 

Frank Caro are exhibiting a selection ot their current collection of 
ancient Oriental sculptures, ceramics, furniture, paintings, and 
bronze vessels that grace their elegant galler\- on 57th Street. 

.^lllong thoni is ii Runncsc litcMrc, t.iiwJ te;ik uood statue ot a 
Bodhisattva/Kmg dating tioin the Pa^an period ( 1 1 rh- 12th century 
AD). The figure, 62 inches high, and carved out ot a single tree 
trunk, was originally coated with lacquer and painted in red, traces 
of which still remain. It is noteworthy for the expression ot spiritual 
grace that the Miilpttu succeeded in capturing. 

Frank Caro, 41 East 57th Street, New York. Nevx York 10022. 
Tel: (212) 753-2166 Fax: (212)888-1510 


The Chinese Porcelain Company, established in 1985, specialises 
in fine Chinese ceramics and works of art, including sculpture from 
the Tang, Ming and Qing dynasties as well as porcelain made for 
the export market. 

Among the objects to be featured at the International Antique 
Dealers Show is (left) this rare Eighteenth Century mother-of-pearl 
tea caddy decorated with elaborately carved mythological scenes 
within ropetwist borders, the interior fitted with brass (4'/4 inches 
high, 6V-i inches long, Wa inches deep). Only one other similar 
tea caddy, formerly in the lonides Collection, is known and is 
presently in the collection of the Peabody Museum, Salem, MA. 

Also notable is (right) this fine pair of famille verte porcelain 

covered vases of the Kangxi Period (circa 1662-1722), each of 

octagonal baluster shape and decorated with landscape vistas, floral 

sprays and the Hundred Antiques motif between cell diaper and 

stippled borders (19'/2 inches high). 

Blue and white and additional overglaze enamelled porcelain of the 

Qing Dynasty will also be featured as will a fine selection of earlier 

wares and furniture. 

The Chinese Porcelain Company, 822 Madison Avenue, New 

York, New York 10021. Tel: (212) 628-4101 

F^x: (212)486-6374 

PICTURE SOURCES: Cover: (top) Photo 
graph by Philip-Lorca diCorcia; (bottom) 
Caspar David Friedrich, Arctic Shipwreck, 
ca. 1824; medium, oil on canvas; size, 96.7 
cm X 126.9 cm; Hamburger Kunsthalle. 
Page 9: (top left) Photo, Philip-Lorca di- 
Corcia; two Singapuras from Mutiny Farms, 
Shadow Hills, Calif.; (center) photo, Gary 
Buss; a spread from Two Bcul Ants, by Chris 
Van Allsburg, published by Houghton Mif- 
flin Co.; (top left) photo, Mark Hanauer/ 
Onyx; (bottom left) photo, Mark Lyon; 
(bottom right) photo, Clarchen Baus-Mat- 
tar; a scene from The Black Rider. Page 24: 
(bottom right) Giovanni Battista Piranesi, 
An Imaginary Prison, ca. 1756-57; medium, 
pen and brown ink wash; size, 218 mm x 
253 mm. Page 34: (bottom right) Lovis 
Corinth, Blumen, 1925; medium, water- 
color on heavy watercolor paper; size, 1 3'/^" 
X I9V4". Page 42: Model, Veruschka; dark 
navy cashmere coat, 100 percent wool navy 
cardigan, cashmere-and-silk-blend leg- 
gings. Page 70: Embroidered lace top sheet, 
heart pillow, rectangular pillow, and em- 
broidered pillowcases, courtesy Ann Law- 
rence Antiques, N.Y.C.; lace neck roll, 
square lace pillow, and hehc antique pillow- 
cases, courtesy Anichini Gallery. Page 71: 
Point d'esprit curtains, princess lace bed- 
spread/tablecloth, and cocktail napkins, 
courtesy Ann Lawrence Antiques, N.Y.CJ.; 
lace finger-bowl doilies, courtesy Collector 

Antiques, New Orleans. Page 72: (top) 
Lace panel and pillowcases, courtesy 
Fran^oise Nunnalle, N.Y.C.; (bottom) lace 
panels and tablecloth, courtesy Jean Hoff- 
man/Jana Starr Antiques. Pages 75-83: 
Toys, courtesy Darrow's Fun Antiques, 
N.Y.C. Page 78: Child's antique eyeglasses, 
courtesy James II Galleries Ltd., N.Y.C. 
Pages 84, 87: Bengals, courtesy Junglebook 
Bengals, Bakersfield, Calif. Pages 85, 88, 
89: Singapuras, courtesy Mutiny Farms, 
Shadow Hills, Calif. Pages 86, 91: Ameri- 
can Curls and American Wirehairs, cour- 
tesy Ironstone, Hampshire, 111. Page 90: 
(right) Sphynx, courtesy Sandra Adler, 
Westchester County, N.Y.; (left) Selkirk 
Rex, owned by Jeri L. Newman, Living- 
ston, Mo. Page 93: Model, Ritza/Zoh; 
makeup, Rumiko/Suga Salon. Page 96: (top 
left) Medium, charcoal ink and paper col- 
lage; size, 18'/2" x 12"; (top right) medium, 
charcoal and graphite on paper; size, 25'/4" 
X 35"; (bottom left) medium, oil on paper; 
size, 30" X 22"; (bottom right) medium, 
graphite on vellum; size, 18" x 18". Page 
98: Carole Seborovski, Charcoal Ink and 
Green Gray Paper, 1989; medium, charcoal 
ink and paper collage; size, 18'//' x 12". 
Page 99: (top left) Medium, graphite, car- 
bon, pigment, and transfer type on paper; 
size, 291/4" X 21 '/4"; (center left) medium, 
watercolor on paper; size, 18" x 18"; (bot- 
tom left) medium, pastel on paper; size, 

20'/4" X 29^/4"; (top right) medium, char- 
coal on paper; size, 16" x 16"; (center 
right) medium, graphite, beeswax on paper; 
size, ll'/4 X 9"; (bottom right) medium, 
Prismacolors on rice paper; size, 7" x 10". 
Page 103: Golf club, courtesy Bridgestone 
Sports. Page 108: (bottom) Courtesy Vogue. 
Copyright ®1952 (renewed 1980) by the 
Conde Nast Publications, Inc. Page 113: 
(top) Meister Francke, The Lamenting 
Women (The Weeping Virgin), 1424-36; 
fragment of the Crucifixion panel of the 
Thomas Altar, St. John's Church, Ham- 
burg; medium, painting on oak wood; size, 
83.8 cm X 84.5 cm. Page 119: (top) Me- 
dium, oil on canvas; size, 154 cm x 1 15 cm; 
(bottom) ca. 1881; medium, painted alder 
with wood reliefs; size, 1.99 m x 115 m. 
Page 120: (top) Meister Francke, Christ as 
Manof Sorrows, ca. 1435; medium, painting 
on oak wood; size, 92.5 cm x 67 cm; (bot- 
tom) Caspar David Friedrich, Arctic Ship- 
wreck, ca. 1824; medium, oil on canvas; 
size, 96.7 X 126.9 cm. Page 121: Caspar 
David Friedrich, Traveler Looking over the 
SeaofFog, ca. 1818; medium, oil on canvas; 
size, 94.8 cm x 74.8 cm. Page 126: Pht)to, 
Mark Hanauer/Onyx. Page 132: Thomas 
Lakins, ca. 1883-85; medium, oil on can- 
vas; size, 27v«" X 36Vh". Page 134: Date, 
1918; medium, oil on canvas; size, 36'/4" x 
24". Page 1 36: Date, 1923; medium, oil on 
canvas; size, 3P/h" x 39'//'. 

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^ U C X 

O N. S. 

Time for specialists in tea caddies, movie posters, garden statuary 

September's sales do not 
provide a really useful 
gauge of the outlook for 
the auction market, which 
closed on such an unsettled 
note last season. The majority 
of the month's offerings are 
rather specialized — important 
on their own terms — but, 
frankly, finding a seat at the 
sale should not be a problem. 

On September 8 at noon, 
Bonhams, in London, will of- 
fer the entire Herbert Ward 
Collection of Royal Com- 
memorative China, about 400 
lots in all. The material, span- 
ning fourteen reigns, ranges 
from a fine blue-dash delft 
James II portrait charger to a 
rather innocuous little souve- 
nir piece marking the Queen 
Mother's eightieth birthday. It 
will be interesting to see it this 
is a case where the value of the 
whole (as a whole) exceeds the 
sum of the prices that the parts 
fetch individually. 

On the 12th. Phillips West 
Two, in London, will offer a 
wonderful variety of Fine 

Toys and Trains. There is a 
first-rate collection of Dinky 
toys, together with extensive 
selections of those matchless 
Bing & Marklin locomotives, 
and railway sets. On the 12th, 
New York's William Doyle 
Galleries presents one of its 
hugely popular Belle Epoque 
nineteenth- and twentieth- 
century sales, which seem to 
have a lock on the tastes and 
wallets of New York's Upper 
East Siders (or the dealers who 
turn right around and sell to 
them directly at retail prices). 

Airplane buffs will have a 
double bill in England. On the 
13th, at Bentley Priory, Stan- 
more, Middlesex, Phillips will 
hold Its Battle of Britain 50th 
Anniversary Auction, which 
will benefit the Royal Air 
Force Benevolent Fund's 
"Reach for the Sky" appeal, 
for the support of needy RAF 
vets. On the 15th, at the RAF 
Museum, in Hendon, Sothe- 
by's presents its own, spectac- 
ular version — Aeronautical 
Memorabilia and Aircraft: The 

Royal Flying Corps and Royal 
Air Force, 1912-1990, to ben- 
efit the RAF Benevolent Fund. 

Back in New York, on the 
14th and 15th, Christie's will 
feature an extraordinary trove 
of Early American Banknotes 
from the Archive of the 
American Banknotes Compa- 
ny. What is interesting here is 
how consummate craftsman- 
ship and quixotic design often 
combined all sorts of improb- 
able elements, such as Santa 
Claus, George Washington, 
Indians, bulls, ducks, eagles, 
and dogs. 

Also in New York, on the 
18th, Christie's East presents » 
the Terence J. Fox Collection 
of Tea Equipage, an ency- 
clopedic selection of more 
than 200 wood, porcelain, ce- 
ramic, and, of course, silver 
tea caddies dating from the 
seventeenth to the twentieth 
century. Because of the cad- 
dies' conspicuous presence in 
any tea-serving ceremony 
(whether religious or social), 
they became a veritable ba- 

rometer of the cutting edge of 
contemporary craft and design 
in each successive generation. 

The same day, at Vicenza's 
Orogemma '90 watch fair, 
Christie's Rome presents ex- 
quisite eighteenth-to-twen- 
tieth-century wrist and pocket 
watches. The twentieth-cen- 
tury material consists of 
crowd-pleasers produced by 
the classic Swiss houses — Pa- 
tek Philippe, Rolex, Vacheron 
& Constantin, and others. 

In the final third of the 
month the action picks up 
with solid, if not princely, pic- 
tures sales. On the 2()th, 
Christie's London will offer a 
delightful double session of 
Traditional and Modern Brit- 
ish Pictures. On the 26th, in 
New York, Sotheby's presents 
a double session of American 
Paintings, perhaps more deco- 
rative than distinguished, rife 
with opportunities for collec- 
tors whose budgets tend to 
top out at about $50,000. Also 
on the 26th, Sotheby's Lon- 
don will hold a multisession 
marathon sale of Modern Brit- 
ish Paintings and, continuing 
on the 27th, Victorian and 
Modern British Watercolors. 

On the 24th, Phillips West 
Two will start to auction off 
some 2,500 lots of original 
Cinematographic Posters 
from Argentina, at the rate of 
some 500 a day. Spanning the 

Ahoi'c: (Classic Mimhrcs poly- 
chrome howl, estimated at up to 
$60, ()()(). Left: Note ismed by the 
Bull's Head Bank in the IH5()s; es- 
timated at $250-S350. 



^^*'"^BIt starts with all out 
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Rembrandt BUGATTI - "Bisons d'Amerique", 1 907. 

Fonte Hebrard. Signe. 

H. 32 cm, Long. 88 cm, Prof. 20 cm 

STAND 1 06 

4 1 RUE D E S E I 
• 7 5 6 P A R I 
TEL 43 29 50 

N E 
S • 

8 4 

FAX 43 29 90 73 

Y ^ 

MOBILIER ? 920 - 1 930 

Armand-Albert RATEAU 

"La Tempete", 1922. 

Piece unique. Exceptionnel pare feu 

en bronze dore et laque. 
H. 92 cm, Larg. 63 cm, Prof. 26 cm 

STAND 106 

4 1 R U t D E SEINE 

»75 06PARIS# 

lEL 4 3 29 50 84 

PAX d :] 29 90 73 

Set of four finely 

chiseled and gilded bronze appliques. 

France, circa 1795. 8V2"x 18" 


315 E. 62nd St., New York, N.Y. 10021 212-838-2320 

chandfliers/ldrnps/scDnces/candeldbrd/decorative accessories 
Sorry, no catalog 

A U C T I C^ N S 

Giudcii sldtues 
like this Mercury 
arc expected 
to be har<iains 
at Sotheby's. 

period troni the thirties to the 
present, the collection predict- 
ably presents posters from 
genuine classics {East of Eden, 
Gentlenten Prefer Blondes, Gone 
with the Wind, Snow White and 
the Seven Dwarfs) as well as 
from films whose poster art is 
more interesting than they 
ever were. Note that this is a 
field that naturally lends itself 
to order bidding, it you can- 
not rationalize the expense of 
being there. 

Another specialist sale is at 
Sotheby's on the 25th. Garden 
Statuary and Architectural 
Items are on the block at Sum- 
mers Place, Billingshurst, 
West Sussex, where the mate- 
rial will be displayed through- 
out forty splendid acres of var- 
iously landscaped gardens and 
grounds. The statuary tends to 
be marble or bronze, mostly 
nineteenth century, and is, re- 
latively speaking, a bargain. 
Of particular appeal are a pair 
of nineteenth-century Italian 
bronze hgures ot a seated 
Mercury and of the Barberini 
Faun, on gray marble bases. 

In New York, Fine Ameri- 
can Indian Art will be sold on 
the 25th at Sotheby's. The sale 
features a remarkable trove ot 
twenty-three prehistoric clay 
vessels trom an anonymous 
Arizona collection, including 
tour brilliant polychrome pic- 
ture bowls ot great grace and 
rarity. — -James R. Lyons 



AT 212-980-0015. 




O O L^ I^ E O 


V "^ a 

New life for old linen 
By Caroline Rennolds Milbank 

Antique linens are far 
more beautiful than 
anything made today, 
not only because of handwork 
that can no longer be dupli- 
cated but also because they 
have a sort of patina. Linen as 
a fabric is valued for its resil- 
ience and strength, and after 
long, loving use it acquires a 
sheen and feel that new linen 
will not have for decades. In 
fact, linen is among the very 
few textiles that actually be- 
come more beautiful with 
continued use. In general, an- 
tique linens are often less ex- 
pensive than new all-cotton or 
linen sheets and tablecloths. 
As the Boston dealer Diane 
Jones, of London Lace, puts it, 
"Ralph Lauren has been great 
for my business. Clients come 
m all the time with one ot his 
ads, saying, 'This is the look I 
want, and what do you have 
that I can afford?' 

Collectors of antique linens 
admit that they take a lot of 
time and effort — though noth- 
ing like what the vast invento- 
ries of linen ot the nmeteenth 
century required in the days 
before washing machines and 
electric irons. Many collectors 
do the job themselves, learn- 
ing what washing method 
works best with what spot and 
developing the sixth sense that 
tells whether a piece that 
tempts you to buy it will last. 

Ten years ago you could 
not give away the contents ot 
your grandmother's linen 
closet. No one wanted the re- 
sponsibility of washing, iron- 
ing, and storing heaps of 
French-lace blanket covers, 
delicately embroidered top 
sheets, or Brussels-lace table- 
cloths. The art of maintaining 
them was disappearing, along 
with able, silent, and plentiful 
household staffs. 

But today collectors arc be- 
moaning the loss of what their 
grandmothers cheerfully sent 
off to the Goodwill. They rec- 
ognize what trousseau linens 

can do for a house. Coco Cha- 
nel once described a house that 
had yet to be furnished: "It 
was a bit unreal. There's no 
linen in it yet — no life." Sens- 
ing this, collectors are glad to 
tackle the worries of looking 
after old linens in exchange for 
the satisfaction of having a ta- 
blecloth or a sheet as fine as 
their other treasures. Linens 
can lend coziness to formal 
rooms and enliven those fur- 
nished with the bare basics. 
Shops have begun to specialize 

Man probably first wove 
the fibers of flax into linen 
some 3,500 years ago. Linen 
cloths with the openwork that 
developed into lace have been 
used for ecclesiastical purposes 
throughout the centuries. Me- 
dieval manuscripts show intri- 
cate patterned linen cloths 
covering tables, and in The 
Last Supper Leonardo depicts a 
table covered with patterned 
linen. The modern tablecloth 
probably evolved from the 
cover cloth used to protect the 




in antique linens and ads for 
estate and tag sales to men- 
tion them in order to draw 
collectors; antiques shops 
now otter the occasional table- 
cloth or crocheted coverlet. 
Little, however, has been 
written about the history of 
domestic linens. While the lace 
with which they are decorated 
is often described, the subtle 
and enchanting white-on- 
white embroidery is usually 
omitted from texts on needle- 
work. Appreciation of linens 
was once handed down from 
one generation to another, 
taken so for granted that no 
one thought to make a study 
of them. 

fine Oriental and domestic 
rugs spread on tables in the 
seventeenth century. While 
the rug covered the table by 
day, at dinner a snowy white 
linen cloth was placed on it. 
The cloth was shaken between 
courses and removed altogeth- 
er for dessert. Napkins, too, 
were sometimes spread out in 
place of the cover cloths at 
smaller meals. The tablecloth 
was folded in a linen press, 
and the resulting stiff folds 
were much admired, standing 
up in a grid ot sharp creases all 
along the tables length. 

In the early eighteenth cen- 
tury, every course to be eateii 
during dinner was handsome- 

ly arranged on the table, ob- 
scuring the cloth. Later it be- 
came fashionable to sit down 
to a relatively empty table, to 
which succeeding courses 
were brought one by one — a 
custom known as service a la 
Russe. Since the tablecloth was 
no longer covered with serv- 
ing dishes, it required further 
decoration. Patterned dam- 
asks, rare and expensive, and 
cloths worked with various 
embroideries and lace inserts 
became more popular and 
more elaborate. By this time 
bed quilts, covers and cover- 
lets, and sheets woven from 
flax or cotton, as well as table 
linens, were commonly listed 
in household inventories. 

Nineteenth-century photo- 
graphs of interiors show the 
Victorian horror of an unem- 
bellished surface. Magazines 
like Godey's Ladies' Book ex- 
plained how to make antima- 
cassars, sofa cushions, elabo- 
rately fringed and mono- 
grammed towels, carriage 
covers, and crib hangings. In 
America this was mostly cro- 
chet and macrame-type work 
done at home; fine lace was 
imported from Europe. 

When a girl married she had 
enough pillowcases, table- 
cloths, napkins, sheets, and 
towels to last a lifetime. Since 
it was the custom to wash 
everything at once, often only 
quarterly or once a year, the 
supply of linens had to be im- 
mense. For the annual laun- 
dering, all the pieces were 
brought out from the huge 
baskets in which they had 
been stored, to be soaked, 
boiled, rinsed, blued, starched 
(with potato water), hung out 
to dry, and ironed with a cun- 
ning assortment of irons. 

Today, beds tend to be big- 
ger and dining tables smaller 
than those of our forebears, so 
the most sought-atter linens 
are large sheets and smallish, 
preferably round, tablecloths. 
Large, square Continental pii- 












t^ G 


low shams arc desirable and 
hard to find; so arc napkins 
big enough to cover a lap gen- 
erously. Large place mats are 
popular. In cities like Boston 
and San Francisco with streets 
ot town houses, lace curtains, 
valued both for charm and pri- 
vacy, are snapped up. In New 
Orleans local habits call for 
banquet cloths to cover buffet 
tables. C^alifornians and Tex- 
ans look tor anything large for 
their big, airy houses. Every- 
one likes linens with figural 
lace and/or embroidery: putti, 
grapevines, ribbon motifs, an- 
imals, scenes from famous 

For the many puzzling 

pieces whose origi- 
nal purpose has 
been forgotten, lin- 
en collectors have 
inventive solutions. 
Lambrequins (one- 
edged runners that 
once covered man- 
telpieces, window- 
sills, and shelves) 
are used as valances 
over lace curtains. 
Tablecloths become 
bedspreads and 
shower curtains. 
Runners for refecto- 
ry tables can be 
sewn to plain linen 
sheets to be turned 
back over the blan- 
ket. Doilies and the 
oldest, smallest 
place mats can be 
made into boudoir 
pillows, and runners 
into bolsters. Some 
embroidery can be 
framed, and table- 
cloths have been 
hung on bed testers. 

Least popular 
(and least expensive) 
is anything embroi- 
dered in color. 
Damask is not suffi- 
ciently appreciated 
yet, in spite of the 
fact that its patterns 
can be marvelous 
and that there is in- 
terest in contempo- 
rary damask. 

Since what ap- 
pears in shops and at 
estate sales is often 
of the loving-hands- 
at-home school, the safest 
(and most expensive) way to 
buy them is to go to a top 
dealer, where everything has 
been washed, ironed, and 
measured. However, the chase 
is part of the pleasure of col- 
lecting, and as the collector 
gets a feel for what stains will 
come out and what fabric will 
last, as well as for the qualities 
of lace and embroidery, then 
the box hidden under a table 
in the auction room, filled 
with what seem unsalvageable 
bits, holds great promise. D 

Caroline Retinoids Milbank is the 
author ofC'outure and New 
York lashion. 

Where to 

Look for Old Linen 

Antiques shows, estate sales, 

auctions, and consignment 

shops arc good sources, though 

supplies arc running low. A 

number of dealers still specialize 

in antique linens. 

New York City and vicinity: 

Anichini Gallery. 150 Fifth 

Avenue. (212) 633-0788. By 

appointment, or through 

Barneys New York, 106 Seventh 


Ber{>dort Goodman. 754 

Fifth Avenue. (212) 753- 


Cherchez. 862 Lexington 

Avenue. (212)737-8215. 

Jean Hojjman/jana Starr Antiques. 

236 East 8()th Street. (212) 


Ann Lawrence Antiques. 250 

West 39th Street. (212) 


Fran(;oise Nunnalle. 105 West 

55th Street. (212)246-4281. 

The Victorian Garden. 136-58 

72nd Avenue, Kcw Gardens 

Hills. (718)544-1657. 

Elsewhere in the Utiited States: 

Collector Antiques. 3123 

Magazine Street, New Orleans. 

(504) 897-0904. 

Gable Galleries ofWelshfield. 

13915 Market Road, Burton, 

Ohio. (216) 834-4872. 

London Lace. 167 Newbury 

Street, Boston. (617) 267-3506. 

Rei^ina Linens. 3369 Sacramento 

Street, San Francisco. (415) 


How TO 

Take Care of Linens 

Do not use the washing ma- 
chine, the dryer, or chlorinated 

Soak the piece in cold or luke- 
warm water with mild soap. 
Change water frequently, and 
keep an eye on any stains. 
Apply a paste of mild soap di- 
rectly to a stubborn stain and 
soak again. 

As a last resort, add a mild 
bleach (Snowy or Biz) to the 
paste and reapply it, soaking 

Rinse between soakings until 
you can drink the water. 
Some recommend boiling; oth- 
ers, putting linens, while wet, 
out on the grass to he hlc.u lied 
by the sun. 

Save the buttons! 


B Y 

Y Frost 

Tender Buttons, in an 
Upper East Side town 
house, is one of Man- 
hattan's most charmingly 
quirky establishments — both a 
museum of buttons and a but- 
ton store. "We began in 1963, 
when a lot of huge buildings 
were being constructed near- 
by," says Diana Epstein, who 
runs Tender Buttons with her 
partner, Millicent Safro. "We 
wanted to idle people down, 
so they would focus on what's 
not so obvious." 

The shop reflects the own- 
ers' love of both order and the 
wild and romantic. Here, 
among boxes stacked Chinese- 
laundry style, the browser will 
find an egalitarian universe: 
Lord Nelson blazer buttons 
(recent replicas from antique 
dies, about $5) lie alongside 
dogs and bunnies (about $15); 
rare enameled cherubs (turn of 
the century, up to SI 00) coex- 
ist with stoneware teddy bears 
(1990, up to $7). 

Button fanciers are a breed 
apart. "They don't have the 
usual collector's killer in- 
stinct," Epstein explains. 
"They don't part with their 
collections — unless they die or 
need money. And button col- 
lectors live a long time, so if 
you're after a specific button 
you have to wait." Epstein 
and Safro themselves are vir- 
tuosos of patience; assembling 
their one-of-a-kind blazer sets 
(Civil War period to mid- 
twentieth century, S2()() to 
$650) can take up to ten years. 

In February, the two wom- 
en opened a second store, in 
Chicago; and Harry N. 
Abrams is publishing their 
new book on buttons as art. 
"Buttons cover every art and 
craft imaginable," says Ep- 
stein. "Each day I find some- 
thing I never dreamt was out 
there." 143 Last 62nd Street , 
New York (212-75H-1004); 
946 North Rush Street, 
C;//;V(J(,'() (M2-3.i7-7().i.i). D 

Polly I-'rost irrotc about Joshua 
Hell for the July 1990 issue. 


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The New Golden Ase of Kids' Books 

Where the real talent is 

By Michael Dirda Photographs by Gary Buss 

Once upon a time children's by a lucky conjunction of blessings: the 

books were the stepchild of baby boom of the last decade, an unusually 

publishing, a useful but well educated new generation of parents, 

lackluster scullery maid in the addition of children's literature to read- 

the trade's kitchen. Then, in ing hsts in schools, and, most important of 

the 1980s, lo and behold, this homely per- all, an extraordinary flowering of talent 

former emerged as a dazzling, megamil- among the writers, illustrators, and editors 

lion-dollar star. The great classics are abun- who are dreaming up kids' books today, 

dantly in print, and many new titles — Chris Choosing from the myriad children's 

Van Allsburg's The Polar Express, for in- books now available is a daunting proposi- 

stance, or Martin Handford's The Great tion. In these pages, Michael Dirda gives us 

Waldo Search — are so ingenious that they a personal overview of the field's finest 

land on the adult best-seller lists. Sales of fabrications, new and old. — The Editors 
children's books this year will in all 
likelihood pass $1.5 billion, four 
times the figure of eight years ago. 
This transformation was sparked 

"Kids are a much more demanding audience ^^ than adults'.' 

You have brains in your head. 
You have feet in your shoes. 
You can steer yourself 
any direction you choose. 
You're on your own. And you know 
what you know. 

And YOLl are the guy who'll decide 
where to go. 

— From Oh, the Places 
You'll Go!, by Dr. Scuss 
Children's books, at their exuberant, 
subversive best, often resemble experi- 
mental literature or avant-garde paint- 
ing more than ordinary fiction. They 
conjure up, after all, a realm of talking 
animals and fantastic journeys, where 
nothing is too bizarre or too wonder- 
ful, where wishes come true and there 
may be a wrinkle in time, a place where 
one can imagine the impossible three 
times before breakfast. Nothing alien is 
alien to it. 

"Fantasy is true, of course," says 
Ursula K. Le Guin, the prizewinning 
author of books for both children and 
adults. "It isn't factual, but it's true. 
Children know that. Adults know it 
too, and that is precisely why many of 
them are afraid of fantasy. They know 
that its truth challenges, even threatens, 
all that is false, all that is phony, unnec- 
essary, and trivial in the life they have let 
themselves be forced into living. They 
are afraid of dragons, because they are 
afraid of freedom." So it is not surpris- 
ing that few adults sit down to read 
Russell Hoban's The Mouse and His 
C/n'Wor Paula Fox's The 
Slave Dancer — even 
though they are better 
than almost anything on 
the adult best-seller list. 
This is too bad, because 
it means that, unless 
you are under the age of 
sixteen or read aloud 
regularly to kids, you 
will quite probably nev- 
er enjoy these or such 
other consummate works of art as Phil- 
ippa Pearce's Tom's Midni^^ht Garden, 
Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea novels, 
Alan Garner's The Stone Book, Kathcr- 
ine Paterson's Brid<^e to Terahit\\a, Leon 
Garfield's Smith, Virginia Hamilton's 
The Ma(^ical Adventures of Pretty Pearl, 
and Daniel Pinkwater's Alan Mendel- 
sohn, the Boy from Mars, to name only a 
few. These books are artfully con- 
structed, deeply humane, consistently 

Dai'id Macau- 
lay ill his 
studio (above) 
and livo fnn^es 
from his iuj^c- 
nious Black 
and White. 



Nothing alien is alien to the best children's literature. ^^^ 

exciting. Their sentences may some- 
times be simple, but their substance 
touches the soul — or the funny bone. 

Not only is ours a great age of story- 
telling; it is also a golden age of illustra- 
tion. Raymond Briggs's The Snowman 
is a silent Christmas carol. Richard Jesse 
Watson's Tom Thumb will take your 
breath away. A book like the Mark Hel- 
prin/Chris Van Allsburg Swan Lake is 
practically a livre d'artiste, as beautifully 
designed and printed as anything this 
side of the Stamperia Valdonega or the 
Arion Press. Anyone who glances at 
Nancy Ekholm Burkert's illustrations 
for Snow-White will agree with the nov- 
elist John Gardner: "Looking at them 
you wish they were the first pictures 
you'd seen in your life." 

It is absolutely wrongheaded to think 
that one must resort to a critical double 
standard to read picture books with 
pleasure or sympathy. Maurice Sen- 
dak's In the Night Kitchen, Tomi linger- 
er's The Hat, and Jean de Brunhoff's 
The Travels ojBabar are 
perfect: the language, 
the pictures, the action 
— all these work exact- 
ly as they are supposed 
to. Indeed, the one in- 
disputable sign of a clas- 
sic children's book, as 
for any work of art, is 
simply that one cannot 
wish it to be other than it is. Theodor 
Geisel, better known to us all as Dr. 
Seuss, achieves such intensity by stick- 
ing to a few basic principles: "I write to 
entertain myself, and then I cut the story 
down to the bare essentials to be clear 
and uncomplicated. I try to make it fun 
and sometimes throw in a little philoso- 
phizing. You don't dare write anything 
condescending or boring or sloppy for 
children. They just walk away from it. 
Kids are a much more demanding au- 
dience than adults, because they don't 
have to be polite." 

Everyone now recognizes Dr. Seuss's 
and Maurice Sendak's genius, and their 
books are both lovingly collected and 
read to pieces by whole families; but 
they are only the first among equals in a 
company that includes such brilliant and 
diverse talents as David Macaulay, Jerry 
Pinkney, Shirley Hughes, Richard 
Egielski, William Joyce, Margot Ze- 
mach, Michael Foreman, Ed Young, 
Leo and Diane Dillon, the late John 


Nancy Ekholm 


(rijiiht) has 



and the Seven 



Today^s best picture hooks could he displayed in museums. 

Steptoe, Trina Schart Hyman, Alice and 
Martin Provensen, Charles Keeping, 
and plenty of others, who must share 
Daniel Pinkwater's marveling satisfac- 
tion in being a writer of books for chil- 
dren. "No other kind of author," he 
says, "hears from readers who say, 'I 
have read your book fifteen times, and I 
take it to bed with me.' 

The best place to explore the world of 
children's books is a library or book- 
store. Browse. Talk to the librarian or 
bookseller. Remember that you must 
become as a little child to enter the king- 
dom of heaven. 

If you still feel confused, tell them 
you are looking for something for your 
nephew. Or use your own favorite 
authors as a hook. If you love Randall 
Jarrell's poetry and prose, you will natu- 
rally want to read his classic The Bat- 
Poet and The Animal Family. Admirers 
of the poet Ted Hughes's work might 
start with his brilliant urban fairy tale 
The Iron Giant. The Booker Award- 
winning novelist Penelope Lively made 
her name in children's books (see her 
witty and chilling The Ghost of Thomas 
Kempe). So did the novelists Paula Fox 
and Russell Hoban. Ann Beattie, Don- 
ald Barthelme, and Stephen King have 
written for kids. Nearly every poet tries 
his hand at verse intended for young 
people: check out The Rattle Bag, edited 
by Seamus Heaney and Ted Hughes, or 
the recent Sing a Song of Popcorn, edited 
by Beatrice Schenk de Regniers et al. 
and illustrated by nine of the best book 
artists now going. The latter is a superb 
treasury of long and short, funny and 
sad, old and new, exquisite poems, such 
as Mary Ann Hoberman's "The Folk 
Who Live in Backward Town": 

The folk who live in Backward 

Are inside out and upside down. 

They wear their hats inside their 

And go to sleep beneath their beds. 

They only eat the apple peeling 

And take their walks across the ceil- 
ing. — ®1959, renewed 
1987, by Mary Ann Ho- 

For some grown-ups, 
childhood itself provides a 
back door into juvenile liter- 
ature. Once out of adoles- 
cence, a reader discovers 

dancing, I assume they a.^ dancing quadnlles. 

"Imagine the volume of calculation going on in the n^ 
those privileged folk as they danced. It must have shan , 
counting houses of Bessarabia. .\nd they all were sche, , 
gain favor in die eyes of diose whose eyes had looked u, 
emperor himself. Meanwhile, I, in my pantaloons with 1 , 
the knees, was being walked past them right to the , 
whom diey dreamed. .\nd how did I get myself in sJ 
envied position.? I didn't do anything. I merely said wha 
to be the tmtft, with no calculation whatsoever. .\nd I ha j 
had the desire to be in die emperor's good graces, since a ; 
my profession, unless he has betrayed what has brought h i 
in die first place, has no need of favors. 

"Now, you would think that die emperor would be sc . 
of giant in ver\' fancy clothes, sitting on a dirone in a hig 
somewhere in his labyrinthine palace, sunrounded by b il 
young women in coquettish fluster and officers throw |i 
their chests like combat pigeons. Not at all. They brougf 
a white-bearded bald old fellow who was lying on a worn 
man carpet in front of a half-dead fire. He had a book lie 
him, a catalogue of his railroad bridges, and he helo; 



that something strange and sad happens 
to books: they lose their magic. Get to 
be forty, and a novel, however well 
written or exciting, is finally just anoth- 
er novel. But at fourteen it is a whole 
new world of cloud-capped towers. 
Treasure Islands, and Ncverlands, of 
journeys to the Lost World or even to 
the Center of the Earth. Many adults 

who collect children's literature started 
by looking for the titles they devoured 
under the covers as kids. Happily, as 
new parents discover, the second-best 
period for being entranced with books 
arrives when one reads aloud, by a too- 
dim night light, to one's own children. 
We enjoy their pleasure and remember 

our own. 


You can't write anything boring or sloppy for cliiUrai. 

Once you latch on to a writer or illus- 
trator you like, pick up a number of his 
or her books. Suppose you are just a 
nuts-and-bolts person and think that all 
children's books look smarmy, like The 
Velveteen Rabbit. Try David Macauiay's 
The Way Things Work, a monumental 
manual that shows in detailed schema- 
tics and diagrams the innards of the 

machines around us. This project, you 
will discover, grows out of Macauiay's 
long-standing fascination with engi- 
neering marvels, an obsession he first 
Hironiclcd in such books as (Aithcdral, 
Cu'He, Ur'k'rground, and Pynuiiid. 

It so happens that Macaulay has a 
more fanciful side as well, but one close- 
ly Hnked to his architectural exp 

A luxurious 
adaptation of 
Swan Lake. 
written hy 
Mark Hilprni 
and illustrated 
hy Clhrii \ 'an 

Consider Molel of the 
Mysteries, hi that classic 
ot "science nonfiction" 
he imagined a far-future 
archaeological dig at an 
ancient, sand-covered 
twentieth-century mo- 
tel. At one point the 
Curator of Yankology 
dons a sacred collar that 
suspiciously resembles a 
toilet scat. Later, in 117/)' the Chuken 
Crossed the Road, Macaulay constructed 
a circular Rube (k)Idberg-like picture 
book — in its end is its beginning. This 
taste for experimental narrative and 
surrealistic events reaches new heights 
in Macauiay's most recent experiment, 
the intricate Black and White. Here he 
tells four separate stories, occurring .it 
slightly different time periods, that 
gradually converge. It is an ingenious, 
demanding picture book, inspiring a 
strong appreciation of the architecture 
of narrative. 

When they are carefully thought out 
and dazzling to look at, picture books 
can be a lot more than just kids' stutT. 
Ordinary novels simply package 
words, but a good picture book is itself 
the artistic artifact: its size, design, text, 
and illustrations all work together. 

lake a simple matter like size. Ikatrix 
Potter revolutionized children's books 
by shrinking tliem. Her minuscule al- 
bums are clearly intended U^r a sm.ill 
child's hand, but their size .iKo luinors 
their quiet, intimate character. Hv cdii- 
trast. the Habar albums were originallv 
published (and are now again available) 
in large-format, folios. 
Jean de Hruiilmff needeil iliosi- \\ iile- 
open spaces for his restless 
effects, especially those glonousK pan- 
oramic double-page spreads. A re.uier 
loses himself in these giant pages. 

"A picture book iiu ites tlu- illiistr.uor 
to express is be- 
tween the liiu's ,iiid (^y 
elaborate," say [,eo ami 
Diane Dillon. C'aldecott 
award-winning artists. 
"It is a child's doi^r into 
a world of ideas and 
places — and an illustra- 
tor's door to creative 

Are an album's pic- 
tures in color or in black 


Some kids^ hooks land on the adult best-seller list. 

But on yoo will go 

thoush ^ '**'*' 

On you will go 

though your <«mi« C^ 

OnyouwiUgo , , , , 

tb,^ rt* Hakfan-Kxafa bo«l 

On»«d up nuoy 

a frightening ci«fc, 

though your arms may g« «« 

and your sneakeis may l"k. 

and white? Leonard Everett Fisher 
creates magnificent, monoHthic mass- 
ings of Hght and darkness in The Wailifi(^ 
Wall and Pyramid of the Sun, Pyramid of 
the Moon. Here the brooding starkness 
of the black-and-white images invests 
these sacred places with appropriate 
weight and solemnity. On the other 
hand, James Stevenson's colorful tall 
tales about Grandpa and 
Uncle Wainey, like 
James Marshall's comic 
thrillers about the gentle 
Miss Nelson (who peri- 
odically transforms her- 
self into that fearsome 
substitute teacher Miss 
Viola Swamp), resem- 
ble Sunday-paper car- Egielski: a treat 
toons, making clear that f^^ ^y y^^^^. 

any perils are fanciful " , 

1 ', , 11 -,1 est readers. 

and that all will come 

right in the end. 

A recent book that brilliantly em- 
ploys the relation between pictures and 
text is We're Goin(^ on a Bear Hunt, retold 
by Michael Rosen and illustrated by 
Helen Oxenbury. One of the most 
rhythmically precise picture books of 
recent years, it exploits a singsong 
refrain, onomatopoeic sounds, and an 
alternation of color and black-and- 
white pictures to create a soothing, 
andante pace. But once the five brave 
hunters actually encounter a bear, 
everything takes off Instead of full- 

Thc Tub 
People, writ- 
ten by Pant 
Conrad and 

by Richard 

page pictures, we find three strips to the 
page as the bear pursues the panicked 
family; sentences are staccato; the "hot- 
ter" color pictures take over entirely, 
the better to keep up the steam-roller 
excitement. Everything concludes in a 
grand double-page finale: "We're not 
going on a bear hunt again." The end 

paper even functions as a coda, reveal- 
ing a sad bear shuffling beside the sea. 

In Two Bad Ants (a kind of insect ver- 
sion of Honey, I Shrunk the Kids) Chris 
Van Allsburg plays with perspective, 
presenting one backyard and kitchen as 
they appear to a pair of foolhardy ants. 
In The True Story of the 3 Little Pij^s, Jon 
Scieska and Lane Smith present Mr. A. 
Wolf 's side of this much misunderstood 
story: the result is a funny introduction 
to point of view and unreliable narra- 

In Oh, the 
Places You'll 
Go! Dr. Seuss 
inspires kids 
to brave the 

tion. Henry James 
would have approved. 

Children's nonfic- 
tion, at its best, can be 
equally impressive. Da- 
vid Peters's two al- 
bums. Giants and Dino- 
saurs, ingeniously depict 
all these monster animals in proper pro- 
portion to one another: a blue whale 
takes six pages. Kenneth Lilly and Jim 
Arnosky are naturalists with paintbrush 
and pencil. Jean Fritz's biographies, of 
the founding fathers and others, will 
enthrall even the most totally rad kid. 
Rhoda Blumberg on the California gold 
rush, Russell Freedman on Lincoln or 
bison, Patrica Lauber on volcanoes, or 
James Giblin on the history of win- 
dows — each is more informative, more 
delightful than a PBS special. Joanna 
Cole's The Magic School Bus inside the 
Human *Body (illustrated by Bruce 
Degen) will tell you more about your 
internal systems than most doctors are 
ever likely to do. 

Obviously, the world of children's 
books is like a zoo. You cannot visit all 
the animals in a single day. In fact, you 
can spend the entire afternoon looking 
at just the giraffes or the seals, which 
only means that you had better make 

TV Tub NV,1,„ p,^^ ,„ j„, ,„ ,^^ gj^ 


plans to visit there pretty often. 

Some people think it must be easy to 
write a children's book. Just take a 
group of happy woodland creatures, 
preferably small, cuddly, and Covered 
with fur, use cutesy-wutesy\vords, and 
then toss in lots of brightly colored pic- 
tures. Mix these sugary ingredients all 
together, et uoila, another Peter Rahhit, 
The Wind in the Willows, or Horton 


Children's books are now a $1.5 billion industry. 

Hatches the E^^. 

Sure. Which is why the same classics 
keep being read from generation to gen- 
eration. It is no easier to create Babar 
than it is to create Madame Bovary. In 
fact, the great children's books are more 
like ancient myths than they are like 
modern best-sellers. They tap into the 
never emptied reservoir of young 
hopes, fears, and dreams. The sign of 
their success is simply that one cannot 
imagine a world without Wtiere the Wild 
Things Are or Green Eji^s and Ham. 

Besides the newer books mentioned 
above, here is a core curriculum of clas- 
sics that every child — 
and adult — should 

Nursery Rhymes. 
Many editions, most 
marketed according to 
illustrator. Good choic- 
es include Blanche Fish- 
er Wright's edition of 
The Real Mother Goose; Raymond 
Briggs's Mother Goose Treasury; lona 
and Peter Opie's versions of the popular 
rhymes. The edition matters less than 
learning these rhymes by heart. Imagine 
how weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable 
life would be without Jack Sprat, Moth- 
er Hubbard, and Little Bo-Peep, not to 
mention the haunting "How many 
miles is it to Babylon?" 

Fairy Tales. At bedtime all stories 
should begin, "Once upon a time." 
Check out the classic Victorian "color" 

Sing a Song 
of Popcorn, a 
superbly illus- 
trated anthology 
oj children's 

And no n*'"'*""""'""'™' 

AnJ 1)1" "i-"' '" "■•' '" ■■ ""' 

fairy-tale books, edited by Andrew 
Lang {The Blue Fairy Book is the first), 
andjosephjacobs's retellings of English 
and Celtic folktales. The Pantheon Fairy 
Tale and Folklore Library covers the 
entire world, with individual volumes 
devoted to Grimm, Andersen, Chinese 
folktales, and so on. A particularly 
handsome selection of the Grimms' 
fairy tales is The Juniper Tree and Other 
Tales from Grimm, edited by Lore Segal 
and Maurice Sendak. Trina Schart 

Hyman, Marcia Brown, Paul Galdonc, 
and Paul C). Zelinsky have brought out 
outstanding illustrated versions of some 
of the better-known stories. 

Myths. Ingriand Edgar Parin D'Au- 
laire have illustrated oversi/e eilitions ot 
the classic Greek .md MortiuTu myths. 
Good investments both. huii\ sti>- 
ries — e.g., ot Iheseiis, the Argonauts. 
Hercules — can be touiid in separate \ ol- 
unies, with pictures by Leonard lAcrett 
Fisher. Warwick I iiitton, .nul other 
Tai I Tai is. Li (i- 

HNDS. AND Fl)l Kl Al F.S. 
See iUiger I amelvn 
Greens Kitu; .Xrlliui .\nd 
Rohiti Hood; Virginia 
I lamiltoirs The Rvople 
Could //)'. a colleition 
ot Ameru Mil bLu k lolk- 
tali's, John Huihotsi's 
gatherings (it Natu e Aiiutu an legends; 
Louis Unteniuvers I'lic \\oild'\ (Ural 
Stories ami i'lic lirchrin^^ci and Otlict 
Great Stories; Isaac Baslievis Singer's 
Stories for Ghildren. Lots of indiMdiial 
volumes: Steven KelK>gg's Pecos Bill 
and Paul Buiiyan; (lerald Mcnennott's 
coK)rtiilly geometric .\i/-n/v/ ///( Spider 
and ,4rr<)ir to the Sun. 

iilHI I Srouil N. Purists will reaii the 
Uible directly to their children. If you or 
tiie kids balk at Leviticus or Numbers, 
try Walter de la Mare's Stories from the 


Sitiic il fust 
appeared, in 
I'm Jctidc 
lUuiiliofI 's 
riic Story of 
B.ibar has 
Ihcii ,1 iliissi( . 

The sentences may sometimes be simple, but their 



When the ship reached New York 
City, the Lazardos visited Central 
Park. After a light snack of 750 hot 
dogs, they caught a train to Pimlico 

It was Bob's first train ride. 

Bible, Lore Segal's The Book of Adam to 
Moses (illustrated by Leonard Baskin). 
or The Taize Picture Bible. 

The Golden Age. Highlights of the 
first flowering of children's literature, 
between the early nineteenth and the 
early twentieth century: 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and 

Throuj^h the Looking Glass, both by 

Lewis Carroll. The world turned upside 

down. Or, just maybe, right side up. 

The great a 'venture stories: The 

Three A^. keteers and The Coutit 

of Monti -tn, by Alexandre 

Dumas; ireasure Island, by 

Robert Loui'> Stevenson; 

Twenty Thousaiu: Leagues un- 


der the Sea, journey to the 
Center of the Earth, From 
the Earth to the Moon, 
and The Mysterious Is- 
land, all by Jules Verne; 
The Lost World and The 
Adventures of Sherlock 
Holmes, by Arthur Con- 
an Doyle; Kini^ Solo- 
mon's Mines, by H. Rid- 
er Haggard; The Time Machine, The War 
of the Worlds, and the other science-fic- 
tion stories of H. G. Wells; Rudyard 
Kipling's Kim; Mark Twain's To»i Saw- 
yer and Huckleberry Finn; Edgar Rice 
Burroug,hs\Tarzanofthe Apes;}. R. R. 
Tolkien's The Hobbit; T. H. White's 

.4 /'i^sj hit: 

IVilliiitn Joyce's 


Bob and His 


with the Fam- 

ilv Lazardo. 

The Sword in the Stone. These are all tales 
of swashbuckling derring-do or ofjour- 
neys to places where no one has gone 

The Wind in the Willows, by Kenneth 
Grahamc. Toad, Rat, and Mole to- 
gether in the coziest of all possible 

Winnic-thc-Pooh, by A. A. Milne. 
Back to the Hundred Acre Wood and 
the days of Christopher Robin. Ah, that 
we could! 

The Tale of Peter Rabbit, The Tale of 
Benjamin Butmy, and others, by Beatrix 
Rotter. Naughty animals. Tales by the 
preschooler's Jane Austen. 

Peter Pan, by J. M. Barrie. Best seen as 

substance touches the soul — or the funny bone. 

a Christmas pantomime, the novel con- 
tains some chilHng innuendos: are the 
Lost Boys in fact all dead? 

The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodg- 
son Burnett. Some say, with good rea- 
son, that this is the greatest English-lan- 
guage children's book of the century. A 
garden helps to heal the damaged souls 
of two young children. 

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, by L. 
Frank Baum. You've seen the movie; 
now read the book. And remember, 
there are some twenty-plus installments 
in the Oz saga. 


The Story ojBahar, by Jean de Brunhoff. 

The first great modern picture book — 
and still wonderful. Many children find 
The Travels oj Babar even better. 

The Story of Terdhiand, by Munro 
Leaf; illustrated by Robert Lawson. An 
unforgettable fable of nonconformity, 
pacifism, and integrity. The I )isney car- 
toon is for once pretty faithhil to tlic 
original, though the 
Lawson drawings 
are irreplace- 

Madeline, by 
Ludwig bc- 
m e 1 m a n s . 
O n c c t ! . r e 
weretweK. I'f- 

tle girls who walked in two straight 
lines; the smallest ami most daring o\ 
these l\irisian sclu>olchildren was Mad- 
eline, rhank heaven for little girls 

The Little House, by Virginia I ee 
Burton. Not all change is progress: in 
this classic a little house longiiiglv won- 
ders about life in the citv and then tiiuls 
hersell engulfed bv ur- 
ban blight An uii- 
p r o ba b I e . ct)m- 
forting ending. 

Atid to Vhink 

rthil I Saw It on 

Miilhrrry Street, 

(Continued on 

pane 14S) 



dollars' worth of blood transfusions, must be 








refused entry to your house because your hus- 

band is blisteringly allergic to him, and as a 

result of living outdoors becomes covered 

with burrs that have to be clipped ever so care- 

fully from his fur with nail. scissors. 

Time was when a cat like Whisky would 

have been more than enough — when, if you 

By Ann H o d g m a n 


Photographs by P h i I : p - L o , c a d i C o r c i a 


Now^for the first time^ cats are more popular than dogs. 




wanted a cat, all you wanted was a cat. Every- 
one could name a few dog breeds, but cat 
breeds were just not something with which 
one needed to be conversant. You might shop 
around for a specific color of cat, but that was 
about as fussy as you got. Cat shows were for 
eccentric old ladies who liked worrying about 
their Persians' going off their feed; exotic cats 
were recherche; and the idea of cats as collect- 
ibles was just silly. 

To an increasing number ot cat owners 
today, the notion that anyone might bother 
owning a cat like Whisky is what is silly. 
There are hundreds of thousands of pedigreed cats on the 
registers of cat-breeding associations, and more are added to 
the list every year. The number of cat shows is climbing 
annually as well. Last year the International Cat Association, 
the organization responsible for regulating the nation's most 
prestigious cat shows, licensed 243 shows (including the 
largest. New York's hiternational Cat Show, held in Madi- 
son Square Garden). Dozens more were sponsored by other 
cat fanciers' associations. 

All of this, of course, makes Whisky look mangier by the 
minute. It also casts an ever brighter light on the rare cat 
breeds — smoke-colored Korats, slender-necked Devon 
Rexes, foxtailed Somalis, not to mention the newer and rar- 
er cats — and helps to explain why they are attracting a grow- 
ing amount of attention among the general public. 

It might be said, as a generality, that at the moment 
Americans prefer sleek, pointy cats to round, fluffy ones. 
Even Siamese cats — which one would not have believed 
could possibly need improvement — are being bred for thin- 
ner, more angular faces. Round-taced Siamese are jeered at 
in the trade as "apple heads. " Perhaps an increasingly urban 
population craves increasingly wild-looking pets; perhaps 
cat owners have simply become tired of cats that look as 


though they were posing for a Gainsborough 

A cynic might say that the reasons for this 
trend are obvious. Surely it was only a matter 
of time, after all, before people should have 
begun to feel that designer cats were as essen- 
tial to the well-appointed apartment as a 
Stairmaster; that, as long as you could buy a 
member of your family, you might as well 
buy an attractive one; and that with cats, as 
with ice cream and cars, there is simply no 
point in not having the best. 

Unlike dogs, many of whom are bred to 
improve their performance as retrievers, shepherds, or oth- 
er workers, cats are bred only for their looks and tempera- 
ment. But how wrong is that? We do not chide art collectors 
for seeking out beautiful paintings, after all, and for cat 
breeders, perfecting a new breed is akin to creating a living 
art form. "Artists work in paints; I work in genetics," one 
cat breeder told me. Indeed, there must be something deeply 
satisfying about cat breeding, since, according to another cat 
breeder I spoke with, 50 percent of the breeders she knows 
are allergic to cats. » 

For cat lovers, the knowledge that a cat is rare gives it a 
touch of wildness, of otherworldliness, that sets it apart 
from the Whiskys of the world. There are 54 million cats in 
the United States today. If you own a cat of which there are 
only two hundred in the world, you cannot help feeling 
honored when it climbs into your lap. 

In cat terms, "rare" generally means that there are under a 
thousand members of the breed in existence. By those stan- 
dards, the Selkirk Rex exists on another plane of rarity alto- 
gether: there are only nine Selkirk Rexes on the planet. As far 
as I am concerned, that is just about enough. 

I recently encountered one-ninth of the world's Selkirk 

Rexes at the International Cat 
Show. A black-and-white male 
named Oscar Kowalski, he was 
hardly an art form in the mak- 
ing. He was not beautiful; he 
was not ugly; he just was not 
anything. An inert, ponder- 
ous-looking fourteen-pounder 
with a black coat as curly as a 
Persian lamb's, Oscar was ut- 
terly unfazed by the bustle 
around him. Setting off a hand- 
ful ot hrecrackers in tront ot his 
cage probably would not have 
roused him; all he did was lie in 
his basket and breathe. "Seri- 
ous, dedicated breeders are 
sought and will be carefully 
screened," announced the 
handout from Oscar's breeder. 
It is to be hoped that the 
screening includes a test tor 
boredom tolerance. is interesting about the 



Perfecting a new cat breed is like creating a living art form. 

Selkirk Rex is that it illustrates the exceeding caution with 
which a new breed is introduced to catdom. Selkirk Rexes 
first lumbered to life in 1987 as the result of a spontaneous 
dominant coat mutation. (The fact that this curly Rex gene is 
dominant is rare in itself; most other documented Rex muta- 
tions in the animal world are recessive.) The tlrst kitten to 
display the mutation was a female born in a normal litter of 
house cats. Christened Miss DePesto, she was plucked out 
and bred to a Persian, producing a litter of six kittens of 
which three were curly. Oscar, one of her sons from that 
litter, was bred back to his mother (it has to h;ippen once in a 
while); this produced a four-kitten litter with three of the 
four curly, hi the meantime, Oscar's sister Sheila was being 
bred to a red Persian and produced r ■ curiy females. Slow- 

ly, caretully, the Selkirk Ue\ breed thus heg.ui lo emerge 
into the world. 

Successtully creating a new cm breeii t.ikis .1 long inne 
lU"peated inbreeding might [irodiuc more kittens exhibiting 
the desired gene, but it would also prodiue t.its prone to 
physical cjuirks, ill health, ami all the other pitl.ills ol 
inbreeding. It will take perhaps ti\e years before Selkirk 
Rexes can be made available lo the gential [niblu . I will woi 
rush to buy one, though. 

Since none ol us is likiK' to own a Selknk Rex an\ tune 
so(Mi, let us take a loi>k at some o\ the more appeahng rare 
breeds on the scene. The Bengal, also known as the house 
leopard and, more tackily, as the leopardette, is one of the 
most striking of the new breeds. There is moral as well as 


i 01 OKI |) 



A lU N(.AI 




lAlSI l> 




\bu can have a cat that looks like a leopard or feels like suede. 


aesthetic appeal in this breed's appearance: Bengals are being 
bred to perpetuate the markings of the endangered Asian 
leopard cat, a house-cat-size wild feline found in Asia, par- 
ticularly in India and the Malay Peninsula. The first Bengal 
was the offspring of a black domestic tomcat ("chosen tor 
his tolerant nature," observed a handout at the International 
Cat Show) and an Asian leopard cat female. Today the best 
Bengals combine the gorgeous black-and-gold "rosette" 
pelt o( the Asian leopard cat with the — how shall I put 
this? — litter-boxability and temperament of the house cat. 

The Asian leopard cat is wild, after all, and it takes a few 

FAR R1C;ht generations before all the wildness has been bleached out of 

its descendants. Fourth- and fifth-generation Bengals gener- 

AN AMERICAN ally have the most reliable personalities, one breeder told 

me. ("The standard defines growling, hissing, or biting as 

disqualifying behavior," the Bengal handout assured ner- 

ENJOYS AN vous potential breeders.) 

There are now around four hundred Bengals in the Unit- 
OUTINC;. Q^ States. Show-quality Bengals can go for as high as three 
thousand dollars; pet-stock cats are more commonly priced 
between six hundred and a thousand. If that seems like a lot, 
perhaps some would-be Bengal owners will be enticed by 
the fact that the Lo<. Aui^cla Times recently placed the Bengal 
on its list of "New Status Seekers" — along with Bogner ski 
wear and personal dog trainers. 

Since a cat's fur is obviously one of its main attractions, 
many rare breeds besides the Bengal owe their existence to 
their unusual coats. One such breed is the Singapura, a 
Singaporean import whose sleek sepia-and-ivory pelt — 
along with its huge eyes — gives it the leonine quality that 
makes the Bengal so appealing. Unlike Bengals, Singapuras 
are reliably friendly as well. "They need people as much as 
they need food," says Tommy Meadow, who with her hus- 

band, Hal, was responsible for introducing the breed to the 
United States. One of her Singapuras was trying to sit on the 
telephone as she spoke to me. 

As its name suggests, the American Wirehair also pos- 
sesses a noteworthy coat, but not a conventionally beautiful 
one. The American Wirehair might best be described as 
looking like an ordinary house cat that has stuck its paw into 
an electric socket. Like the Selkirk Rex, the American Wire- 
hair is the result of a genetic mutation; unlike the Bengal, it 
has distinctly plebeian origins. The first litter of Wirehairs 
was discovered by chance in a barn in upstate New York. 
Before the farmer who owned the barn realized what he was 
onto, a marauding weasel had killed all but one of the kit- 
tens. Luckily, the surviving kitten was able to father a few 
wirehaired offspring. Even now, though, twenty-four 
years after their discovery, American Wirehairs remain 
exceedingly rare. One cat guide remarks, "Breeders still 
have little control over the desired coat other than breeding 
the best Wirehair cats to American Shorthairs with thick, 
densely textured coats and hoping for the best." 

As befits a breed born in a barn, American Wirehairs are 
hardy and good-natured. It is their coats that are tempera- 
mental. Brushing a Wirehair can create permanent bald 
patches; so can letting*it outdoors, where it could come into 
contact with all those dangerous bushes and trees. More- 
over, the Wirehair attracts as much lint as a black blazer and 
must be bathed at least once a month. For owners who do 
not mind these requirements, though, the American Wire- 
hair is an appealing animal: a classic-looking cat with just 
enough of a difference to make it distinctive, and a good 
family pet as well. 

A rare breed that makes an excellent pet is the American 

(Continued on paj^e 149) 










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D I 





Cinderella Dresses 


X t'cs Sdint 
Ldtirctit's i^old- 
H'quiiicd hooded 


hcuwl's fit 

mum I s 

ted cocktail suit 
with \^ohi-triinnicd 


^ eojjrey 
Beene appraises 
his evening cre- 
ation, a wine/ 
gold tulle-ofer- 
tafjeta gown. 

O ' n 




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front of a mirror. She is the most evening conscious of all 
designers because in a sense her collections have all been con- 
ceived for nightclubs. Westwood turns day into night: for 
her, every time is dress-up time for all tomorrow's parties. In 
the early seventies, this Queen of Clubs, with Malcolm 
McLaren, dressed the rock band the Sex Pistols and created 
the punk look, which revolutionized street wear. 

No other designer, apart from Christian Lacroix, has had 
more influence on the recent art of fashion than this eccentric 
Englishwoman: she used the anti-fashionableness of the Brit- 
ish aristocracy — country tweeds, tartans, riding clothes — to 
witty and often elegant purposes before anyone else. And her 
ideas have a way of turning up in Paris and New York. The 
master of custom-made evening dresses, Victor Edelstein, 
calls her show "the most important of them all," and fashion 
students in Paris speak of her with reverence. 

Out of the more than 1 ,200 evening outfits I saw at the fall 
1990 ready-to-wear collections in Milan, London, Paris, and 
New York, the most narrative were Westwood's noble 
visions of a inotidaiiie in garnet stretch-velvet gown, hair held 
high with pearls, and draped in a gorgeous silk scarf printed 
with a reproduction of Boucher's Daphnis and Chloe and 

thickly edged in gold, tipsily walking in cartoonishly high 
heels. In addition to Westwood's, the best evening wear sug- 
gested fairy-tale portraits charged with a high tension 
between innocence and sexual knowledge (which is, let's face 
it, what fairy tales are all about). All of these precious clothes 
were edged, overlaid, printed, dipped, or entirely colored 
with gold, as befits an occasion for alchemy. 

Yves Saint Laurent's hooded gown turns his latest muse, 
Lucie de la Falaise, into another Madonna, truer to the Chris- 
tian Virgin. Calvin Klein's short gold frock suggests inno- 
cence before the Fall, more a pagan nymph than a virgin. 
Armani weaves a melancholic, sexually ambiguous tale about 
a righteous Joan of Arc in a gilded coat of mail. (He is the only 
designer whose entire fashion vocabulary springs from grief 
yet whose sad visions are consistently beautiful.) The very 
merry widow with her short skirt and veil appeals to Karl 
Lagerfeld for Chanel, and Ungaro sees a vieux monde vamp 
with the desinvolture of imperial Russia. Geoffrey Beene takes 
his cues from the brothers Grimm: his clothes always com- 
bine vulnerability with decadence. This year's triple-tiered 
black-lace, gold, and ruby gown recalls the wilder Rose Red 
rather than the sweet Snow White from their fierce tale. D 

Charged with a tension between innocence and sexual knowledge. 

Klein 's ^old 
jjuipurc lace 
T-shirt dress. 


combines stripes 
and florals, 
in black and 
fiold lame. 



.n the looking 
glass: Viuienne 
Westwood dons 
her own stretch- 
velvet sheath and 
drapes it with a 
Boucher scarf. 

The Unknow^n 
Artists' Best Friend 

Wynn Kramarsky finds and nurtures new talent 

Wynn Kramarsky spends his working hours in a Manhat- 
tan brownstone office, a suite of smalhsh rooms abloom 
with art. Most of it is on paper and most of it is minimal- 
ist. Some of the pieces wear familiar signatures: there is 
Sol LeWitt in abundance, as well as Richard Serra, Alice 
Aycock, and Joel Shapiro. And then there are the works 
of Ann Ledy, Andrew Topolski, David Jeffrey, Nancy 
Haynes, Linda Lynch: not one of 
them a brand name — yet. If it 
takes a certain daring to acquire, 
support, and campaign on behalf 
of young postminimalists hardly 
anyone has ever heard of, then 
Kramarsky may well be the Evel 
Knievel of the New York collect- 
ing community. 

Nothing about Kramarsky sug- 
gests a personality prone to high 
risk, except that he is, by nature, 
something of a zealot, a quiet cru- 
sader. In his salad days, he was 
young Werner Kramarsky — 
called Wynn by almost every- 
one — a Wall Street manager who 
could be found among the foot 
soldiers laboring to reform city 
Democratic machine politics. In 
his middle years he worked, with calculatedly low visi- 
bility, as a special assistant to a Republican mayor, John 
Lindsay, and kept an eye on health and hospital affairs; 
later, he was the civil-rights commissioner in the admin- 
istration of a Democratic governor, Hugh Carey. 

For the past decade, collecting has been not so much a 
preoccupation as a joyous obsession. Kramarsky is a 
robust sixty-four, and he spends great stretches of time 
prowling galleries or visiting studios, often in the compa- 
ny of a museum curator who is likely to enjoy both his 
expertise and his generosity. He also functions as an 
informal information bank for a half dozen friends who 

The art Kramarsky ferrets 

out (^oesfor a song. His family's van Gogh 

went for $82 million. 

have come to depend on his eye and his energy. 

Collecting works on paper has little chic in an age 
devoted to wall-size painting and plaza-size sculpture, 
and, in some circles, the befriending of obscure artists 
would be considered a weird, reckless approach to col- 
lecting. Still, Kramarsky buys the art of unknowns with 
the quiet assurance that they merit recognition. When he 

decides he wants a piece — and his 
decisions are by no means hasty — 
he will often buy a second one to 
offer to a museum drawings col- 
lection. When he admires the 
work of an artist who does not 
have gallery representation, he 
will gently canvass dealers until 
one becomes infected with the vi- 
rus of his enthusiasm. 

It is tempting to think of Kra- 
marsky's interests in terms of nor- 
mal generational rebellion against 
the art he grew up with, but in 
deference to his parents he will not 
entertain, that possibility. The 
homes of his childhood were 
sumptuously adorned: van Gogh, 
Cezanne, Seurat, Gauguin, De- 
gas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Pissarro, 
and Renoir shared space with works on paper by Wat- 
teau, Fragonard, Boucher, Rembrandt, Guardi, and Tie- 
polo. Most of these treasures had been acquired in Europe 
before Siegfried Kramarsky, a banker, brought his family 
here in flight from the Nazis and looming war. Some of 
their late father's art now hangs in the homes of the three 
Kramarsky children. At least one spectacular canvas has 
lately crossed the Pacific. On behalf of the family estate 
trust, the van Gogh Portrait of Dr. Gachet was sold at auc- 
tion to thejapanese industrialist Ryoei Saito last May for 
an astronomical $82,500,000, a new record; it is an occa- 
sion Kramarsky skates over with stalwart reticence. 

By Helen Dudar 

Kramarsky at his office wuh work he /,.. ,- . .^ !oni^-lrrm mtn.,, ., ()u the wall from hit: Caroh- ,Sr/.<.r<.rxi;,^ Char. <mI Ink N Crccn 
Gray Paper (]989) and Two - ^ vc (1985). Tuo uniitkd works arc hy Itrik S,,^ or ithc o,n- propped up.Jrom I'm. the other, 1974). 




Kramarsky does not just make his 

discoveries in galleries; he finds artists in their studios. 

Gallery owners get their bright ideas from him. 

Late one afternoon a few weeks after the van Gogh 
headhnes, Kramarsky, shirtsleeved and at his ease, sat in 
his office, facing a row of drawings by a thirty-year-old 
artist named Carole Seborovski. He first saw her work, as 
he sees much of the art he buys, in a group show in a 
minor gallery: "I walked in and saw a charcoal drawing 
that was very linear, very difficult to see, and required a 
lot of work to get close to. And liked it enough to buy it. " 
Now he owns a number of Seborovskis, and the artist has 
been taken on by Lorence-Monk, a 
major SoHo gallery. 

The Kramarsky collection was 
launched almost thirty years ago when 
the first generation of minimalists — a 
term most of them dislike — began to 
show austere, strongly geometrical 
sculpture and paintings. He was drawn 
to the work on paper, to the intimacy it 
offered. "It's as close as you get to the 
artist," he says. "Drawing is a less 
overtly emotional, less demonstrative, 
less spectacular, if you will, form of 
expression than painting. There is less 
surface appeal, and it requires a more 
intellectual relationship with the work. 

"Most of the surface relationships 
with Impressionist painting," Kra- 
marsky continues his thought, "arcjust 
that; it's surface. The art is so warm, so 
enticing, so springlike — even the win- 
ter scenes are springlike — that you're 
immediately drawn to them. If you 
work on them for a time, there is a lot of 
material which has nothing to do with surface appeal. But 
surface draws many people, and that is very different 
from my relationship with the work I collect. 

"The Postimprcssionists and then the Abstract Expres- 
sionists aggressively reached out to you. What's here is 
more like an invitation to look at hoiv something is done. 
You get a view of the artist's intention by looking at the 
process. It's interesting that only children, youngsters 
around the age of five or six, have an immediate attraction 
to a lot of minimalist art. Absolutely love it. A child 
doesn't need to have a story told to it; it doesn't need lit- 
erary content. Children respond to the rhythmic aspects 
of this art and to the geometry." 

Kramarsky 's office collection numbers upwards of 250 
pieces, some of them on loan to friends and exhibitions, 
many more stored in bins that fill one room of the suite. 
Occasionallv he has succumbed to work outside the min- 

A Seborouskt colh^e (1989) 

imalist mode — Louise Nevelson lead intaglios, a Robert 
Rauschenberg print, an elegant little Deborah Butterfield 
twig horse. He has paid anywhere from $300 to $20,000 
for a piece, but he deplores the lower figure. How, he 
asks, can a struggling artist eat and work by selling a few 
drawings a year for a few hundred dollars? 

He leads a visitor along the walls of the office. If one 
thinks of minimalist art, particularly the foundry-made 
sculpture, as remote, impassive, and invincibly imper- 
sonal, the drawings come as a quiet rev- 
elation. Each piece visibly bears the 
hand of its maker; each evokes a sense of 
purpose, an orderly artistic intelli- 
gence. Here is a Seborovski, a shadowy 
work with pne slender crimson hori- 
zontal line shimmering in a thin wash of 
black. Here is David Jeffrey, the coal- 
town scholarship boy whose family has 
toiled in West Virginia's mines for gen- 
erations; the piece is coal black, layer 
upon layer upon layer of charcoal 
achieving an eerie depth and density. 
And here is Andrew Topolski, who has 
taken a map and sliced graceful patterns 
through its surface. Kramarsky worries 
about Topolski, who has galleries in 
several European cities but cannot find 
representation here. At some point, 
each of these younger artists stirs his 
concern. "It's a tough life," he says. 

Needless to say, many artists become 
friends, and so do dealers. You would 
not expect a dealer to be anything but 
flattering about a major client, butjoycc Nereaux Weber, 
partner in thejohn Weber gallery, in SoHo, which shows 
Sol LeWitt and Alice Aycock, cheerfully risks alienating 
other clients when she describes Kramarsky as "my 
favorite collector in the whole world." 

"He's not collecting because he thinks it's going to 
make him rich or bring him social cachet," she says. "He 
continually surprises me. He has a sensitivity to the art 
that's quite extraordinary; he's as knowledgeable as any 
dealer. And he's so supportive of the artists." 

Kramarsky waded into the world of art during his 
bachelor years, in the fifties, when he became a Cedar 
Tavern groupie. Those were the days when that fabled 
Greenwich Village saloon was the favorite watering hole 
of some major Abstract Expressionist figures, when 
Franz Kline and Wilieni de Kooning might be seen in con- 

(Cloutiuncd oti pat^c 150) 


l-t'Ji: David JejffreY . 
Untitled ns**?). 
below: David 
Ortins, Untitled 

Among Kramarsky 's 

finds, top to 

bottom: Andrew 

Topolski, A Sound 

Measure N - 29 

(1987); Taka 

Amano, Drawing 

38-10 (1989); 

Linda Lynch, Split 

Vessel (1989); far 

right: Ann Ledy, 

White Circle to 

Red Square f' 7 990 j. 




'.' - 







The Almost lAcatchable Fish 

By Jack Samson 

Some of the best and most experi- 
enced saltwater fly-rodders in the 
world have spent a career casting 
flies at the fish called the permit and 
have yet to land one. So elusive is it 
that catching even one of these sil- 
very, torpedo-shaped, forked-tailed 
speedsters is considered an angling 
triumph. The fly fishermen who 
have caught more than one repre- 
sent a select fraternity, or sorority, 
as the case may be. 

The permit — the origin of its 
name has been lost in the mists of 
angling history — inhabits the bone- 
fish and tarpon flats from Brazil to 
Florida, in the western Atlantic, and 
from Colombia to Mexico, in the 
western Caribbean. It belongs to the 
family Carangidae, which numbers 

The author, above, off the coast 
OF Honduras, with an eighteen- 

years as marvelous fighters, and the 
all-tackle record was caught April 
28, 1978, by Wilham M. Kenney, 
off Palm Beach, Florida, on conven- 
tional fishing gear. It weighed fifty- 
one pounds, eight ounces. The fly- 
rod record is smaller: forty-one 
pounds, eight ounces, set by Del 
Brown, at Key West, Florida, on 
1 March 13, 1986. 

> The permit is relatively new as a 
i fly-rod quarry, compared with such 


species as tarpon and boneflsh, 
which were sought and being taken 
by fly fishermen, using early split- 
bamboo rods and salmon reels, in 
the Florida area shortly after the turn 
of the century. It was not until 1912, 
when the wealthy Florida empire 
builder Henry Flagler extended his 

among its members such notable fighters as the jacks, Florida East Coast Railway from Miami to Key West, 

pompanos, amberjacks, and roosterfish. that ardent fly fishermen had a chance to try for permit. 

While most permit seen on the flats weigh between In 19()6Flagler and friends organized a fishing camp that 

five and fifteen pounds, much larger ones have been later evolved into the famous Long Key Fishing Club, 

caught in deep water on heavy tackle. Permit have been with the sportsman-novelist Zane Grey as its first presi- 

sought by anglers on reefs and over sunken wrecks for dent. At the club's annual fly-fishing competitions, 

Photograi^hs by Jose Azel 



In twenty years of trying, I landed only four 

members competed for eight different species of game fish, 
including the permit. 

By the time the famous Rod and Reel Club of Miami was 
founded, in 1929, a number of superb fly fishermen like Harry 
("Red") Greb and Homer Rhode had begun to seek the per- 
mit with flies. But it was not until after World War II that 
anglers like the late, great Joe Brooks made the sport come 
alive. Brooks, the fishing editor o( Outdoor Lije and author of 
half a dozen books on angling, not only pioneered saltwater 
fly fishing but popularized the sport. Yet even Brooks, for all 
his ability, was unable to catch a permit on a fly until the mid- 
1950s, although he had been trying for years. 

For the fly-rod angler, the problem with permit is simply 
stated. Unlike the tarpon and the bonefish, which will take a 
fly with relish, the permit will follow flies but will seldom 
take them. The most maddening trait of the permit is that it 
will sometimes follow a fly right up to the boat, or the feet of a 
wading angler, before deciding to refuse the offering. 

While a permit will eat all sorts of bot- 
tom-living invertebrates in addition to 
small fish, its favorite food is the small 
blue or sand crab, about two to two and 
one-half inches in diameter. And there's 
the rub. It has been very difficult for fly 
tiers to imitate that small crab with a fly 
that will both resemble the crab and be 
easily cast with a fly rod. 

In the early days of fly-fishing for per- 
mit, both in the Bahamas and in the 
Keys, anglers cast white streamer flies 
and such odd lures as the old Johnson 
Golden Minnow Spoon (fly-rod size, 
but hardly a fly) at permit — with poor 
results. Most permit were taken on 
bonefish flies, like the ones tied by the 
talented Chico Fernandez of Miami, but 
that was usually an accident. I took my 
first permit on one of Chico's bonefish 
shrimp flies while fishing a flat at Cat Cay in 1969. The per- 
mit, a little one of about three pounds, took the fly while I was 
casting to a school of bonefish. I could not understand why 
the guide was so excited. I caught my second permit on a fly at 
Turneffe Flats, in Belize, eighteen years later, and I had been 
casting flies at literally hundreds of permit in all those inter- 
vening years! 

Permit travel in schools, although individual fish will often 
come up from deep water to feed on the flats on outgoing and 
incoming tides. They feed rapidly, flitting like ghostly shad- 
ows across the sandy bottom with only their black anal and 
dorsal fins and sicklelike tail standing out against the white 
background. Permit feed head down, their rounded noses 
probing the bottom and the huge forked tail waving above the 
surface. It is a sight to make any fly fisherman weak-kneed. 

Compounding the problem of getting a permit to take a fly 
is the fact that a fish concentrates on the few square inches of 
bottom under its nose and virtually ignores everything else. 
One can land a fly all around that tiny feeding area, and the 
permit will pay no attention to it. Many permit are caught 
because they have a highly competitive nature while feeding 
in schools. A fly, which might attract little or no attention 

The best permit-fishing flats 

ARE OFF Posada del Sol, Guanaja, 


were the fish feeding alone, is sometimes grabbed because it 
lands near another "tailing" fish. 

It takes good eyes (equipped with polarized sunglasses) to 
see the wary permit. Experienced guides learn to spot the fish 
in shallow water by sighting its fleeting shadow on sandy bot- 
toms or by correctly reading what they term "shaky water," 
surface water activated by the underwater movement of 
swimming permit. Such guides — two veterans that come to 
mind are Gil and Linda Drake of Key West — can make a fly- 
fishing trip for these spooky fish successful. 

Do not let the occasional claim of some saltwater fly fisher- 
men — that catching permit on a fly is easy — fool you. It is a 
relatively simple task to anchor over a sunken wreck, dump a 
load of chum over the side, and catch permit on a fly rod by 
jigging large white-and-tinsel streamer flies in the depths. 
The permit mistake the flies for bits of floating chum. The fish 
put up a mighty struggle on the long rod; that is certain, but it 
is just as certain that this is no way to fly-fish for permit. 

The good news for fly fishermen is 
that permit flies have come a long way 
from the early bonefish flies. The first 
successful imitation of the tiny crab that 
permit favor was a fly tied in the early 
1960s by the Keys guide Nat Ragland. 
With small, shiny bead eyes, it pio- 
neered the family of "puff" flies that 
attracted many a permit. About a de- 
cade later, Harry Spear, a guide in Mar- 
athon, Florida, developed the first 
epoxy fly — a triangular-bodied, beady- 
eyed, hot-glue fly that sank to the bot- 
tom and interested permit as no fly had 
done before. 

I took my second permit — a whopper 
of about fifteen pounds — on one of 
Spear's epoxy flies. This event, a banner 
day in the life of a saltwater fly fisher- 
man, took place in Belize in the spring of 
1987. That fish took the epoxy fly like a trout taking a dry Iron 
Blue Dun. It fought like a tiger for forty-five minutes before 
coming to the net. I was tempted to have it mounted but rea- 
soned that the photograph of it would serve as well as a 
mount. So I released the prize. 

A few good, new flies have come along in the last couple of 
years. John Van Derhoof, a California tier, has come up with 
some excellent epoxy crab flies that have gotten me some 
good "follows," if not actual takes. Perhaps the best of the 
new lot was developed a few years ago by George Anderson, a 
fly-fishing-shop owner in Livingston, Montana, and two of 
his fellow tiers and saltwater fly fishermen: Jim Brungardt of 
Livingston and John Barr of Boulder, Colorado. It is made of 
deer hair, dyed dark brown, and does an excellent job of imi- 
tating the small sand crab so beloved by permit. 

What Anderson did was modify a good crab fly tied by the 
veteran angler Dave Whitlock; he then added weight to make 
it sink and attached six tiny rubber legs. He sent me two of 
these flies in 1988 — he calls them McCrab — just before I left 
for the small island of Guanaja, in the Bay Islands not far off 
the northeast coast of Honduras. 

(Continued on paj^e 151) 




But will J 's 
IVciipoii really 
help your (gallic? 




Line up for the hottest driver on the market 

By Mike Bryan 

olf may be ancient, venerable, 
and all that, but in one re- 
spect, at least, it is no different 
from Nintendo. The game's 
adherents are obsessed with 
high tech. The latest is "J's 
Professional Weapon," the 
awesome driver discovered 
by Greg Norman and Jack 
Nicklaus while they were 
playing a match early last 
winter with the Japanese pro 
Jumbo Ozaki, who helped 
design it. 

It seems that Jumbo was 
outhitting his more famous 
peers by fifty, sixty, seventy 
yards. Or should the credit go 
to his new club? Nicklaus and 
Norman were suspicious. 
They tried the Professional 
Weapon, powdered the ball, 
and were convinced. Then 
Ray Floyd almost won the 
Masters with it. 

What is the secret? Bridge- 
stone, the Japanese manufac- 
turer, uses a special weighting 
of the stamless-steel head that 
provides stability on impact. 
In addition, the graphite shaft 
is wrapped in a special way to 
produce the usual kick of 
graphite but without the 
torquing side effects. So they 
say. Some American manu- 
facturers assert there is noth- 
ing truly new here — but they 
would say that, wouldn't they? 
They will also rush their 
knockoffs onto the market. 

Just call J's Professional 
Weapon golfs latest light- 
ning in the bottle. Everybody 
wants one, and now they are 
available — sort of Three per 
pro shop per month is the lim- 
it, S4()() retail; and some have 
already been sold for $700 on 
the West Coa- ' ' ..ns is fair 

enough, but there have been 
other such elixirs and there 
will be more. A human being 
still has to put the swing on 
the ball. In fact, the average 
"handsy" amateur will prob- 
ably spray the shots with this 
advanced design. Funny 
thing about the new technolo- 
gy: bogey is still par for most 
players. That has not changed 
since the game began. We 
doubt it ever will. D 

Mike Bryan, a coiitrihutitii^ edi- 
tor to Golf iihi'i^aziiie, is the 
author of Dogleg Madness 
(Atlantic Monthly). 


By Michael Shapiro 

champagne in the centuries since dom perignon has tradi- 
tionally been a blended wine, combining chardonnay and 
pinot grapes. but as early as 1911, eugene-aime salon, a pari- 
sian furrier of considerable wealth and eccentricity, had 
the remarkable idea of making the world's first champagne 
from just one type of grape. %. . not only did he exclude the pinot; he insisted 
that his champagne be produced only in vintage years. taking his folly a step 
further, he stipulated that his chardonnay grapes be grown in a single 
locale— on twelve acres in the village of le mesnil-sur-oger, in champagne, 
the result of all this apparent nonsense is perhaps the world's 

finest champagne — very dry, with a 
bouquet suggesting hazelnuts. By the 
192()s, the champagne that bore Salon's 
name was the house champagne at Max- 
im's. Andre Jammet, the owner of La 
Caravelle restaurant, in New York, de- 
scribes it thus: "Salon is one of the more 
refined, more complex champagnes, 
and its taste lingers in your mouth. The 
grapes are of exceptional quality, per- 
haps the best there are. The wine is not 
very bubbly; the bubbles are smaller 
than those of other champagnes. Salon 
champagne should not be drunk as an 
aperitif It should accompany the finest 
food — caviar, fish, white meat, des- 
serts. It's a champagne to be enjoyed 
throughout a meal." 

Between 6,000 and 12,000 cases of 

Salon have been produced in each of the 
twenty-odd vintage years since the 
wine's inception, as opposed to the 
hundreds of thousands brought out 
every year by the large champagne 
houses. (Since Salon's death, in 1943, 
the tiny company has had quite a few 
different owners — including Pernod- 
Ricard and, for the past two years, Lau- 

I visited the headquarters of Salon and 
found them charmingly rustic. Salon's 
sole full-time employee. Marcel Na- 
mur, turns the bottles by hand, as he has 
done since 1948. (Many of the large 
champagne houses do this by mechan- 
ical means.) 

Unlike other vintage champagnes, 
which are put on the market as early as 

three yqars after they have been bottled. 
Salon is not sold until it has aged for at 
least eight years. Then only a third of the 
total vintage is released to the world 
market each year over a three-year peri- 
od. The 1982, for instance, is hard to 
come by in the rare stores where it is 
sold outside of France: Sherry-Leh- 
mann, in New York, and Fortnum & 
Mason, in London, stock it. Sherry- 
Lehmann's stock of '79 is gone, and the 
little that remains of the '82 sells for $ 11 
a bottle. Still, there are the '83s and '85s 
to come, and eventually, the much an- 
ticipated '88s. n 

Michael Shapiro wrote about Japanese hix- 
ury cars for Connoisseur 'i March 1990 
cover story. 



Photograph by Gary Buss 



The Very Best 

What sets Carnegie Hall's hun- 
dredth season apart trom its nine- 
ty-ninth? Less the stars — this, af- 
ter all, IS their space — than the 
extra ambition in programming. 
Here is a choice of the most excit- 
ing events (unless otherwise 
noted, in the Main Hall). 

Ubnder W)man 
of Carne2:ie Hall 

No grant from the embattled Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts 
has gone to a more imaginative 
project, or one more likely to 
have enduring results, than Car- 
negie Hall's centennial commis- 
sions. Thirteen new works will 
be heard, written by an honor roll 
of international composers for 
premier performers keen on chal- 
lenge. Of special interest: 

• Torn Takemitsu, hroin iiic 
flows what you caU Time, for the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra 
and the Canadian percussion en- 
semble Nexus, conducted by Sei- 
ji Ozawa (October 19) 

• Terry Riley, Tiic jadf Palace, 

A gray, chilly day in Moscow, 
and Judith Arron, executive 
director ofCarncgicHall,is 
trying to persuade officials 
of the Glinka Museum to 
lend some Tchaikovsky 
scores to a Carnegie exhibi- 
tion commemorating the hall's opening, in 
1891, at which the composer conducted. Four 
days of wearying talks through an interpreter 
have failed to produce a final commitment. 

"Look," she says, in her typically earnest 
manner, "we're very serious, and we've 
agreed to pay all costs. What will it take to 
make this happen?" The answer turns out to 
be a copy machine. Arron readily agrees to 
provide one. "Somebody left the room," she 
recalls, "and two imnutes later 1 had the score 
to Pique Ddiiic on my lap!" 

Well, it may not be leaping over tall build- 

tion's mission. Hitherto, Carnegie Hall has 
been musical America's prestige address, a 
place for the established creme de la cremc. At 
KM), it is making a bid for leadership not only 
in America but in the world. 

How has Arron done it? Of course, she has 
booked the brightest stars: Kathleen Battle, 
Mstislav Rostropovich, Leonard Bernstein, 
and on and on. More imaginatively, she has 
brokered no fewer than thirteen commissions 
for the world's most sought-after compos- 
ers — Japan's Toru Takemitsu, the Soviet 
Union's Alfred Schnittke, America's Terry 
Riley — specially chosen by the world's most 
esteemed ensembles and performers. Unlike 
the well-ii>tentioned premieres that most or- 
chestras ciutituUy present trom time to time, 
Sir Michael Tippett's new piece for Jessye 
Norman and the Chicago Symphony, Wil- 
liam Bolcom's song cycle for Marilyn Home, 

Judith Arron has put together one spectacular centennial calendar 

for the Saint Louis Symphony 
Orchestra, conducted by Leon- 
ard Slatkin (February 4) 

• Ned Rorem, a new piano trio 
for the Beaux Arts (February 8) 

• Bernard Rands, a new work 
for the Philadelphia Orcliestra, 
conducted by Riccardo Muti 
(March 18) 

• William Bolcom, new songs 
for Marilyn Home (March 26) 

• Sir Michael Tippett, By~an- 
tiiini, based on the poetry of 
Yeats, forjessye Norman and the 
C^hicago Symphony, led by Sir 
Georg Solti (April 15 and 18) 

• Alfred Schnittke, a new work 
for the ("leveland Orchestra, 
conducted by C'hristoph von 
Dohnanyi (May 2) 

New-music enthusiasts will 
also want to investigate the scries 
of the American Composers Or- 
chestra, featuring world pre- 
mieres at each of four concerts 
(October 28, November 1 1 , Jan- 
uary (), and February 1')). 

ings in a single bound, but it does mark one 
more small victory for Juciith Arron's cool- 
headed efficiency and quiet diplomacy — 
qualities that serve her well as she charts the 
course of the natit)n's most beloved and illus- 
trious concert hall. In the tour years since she 
was named general manager, the torty-seven- 
year-old executive has not only coped with 
the monumental disruption t^f the S6() million 
renovation; she has also expandeci Carnegie's 

fund-raising activi- 
ties overseas and 
updated the hall's 
old-tashioned secu- 
rity and administra- 
tive operations. 
"She's enabled us," 
quips John Fernan- 
dez, the director of 
hall operations, "to 
bring C'arnegie into 
the twentieth cen- 
tury before it es- 
capes us entirely." 

More than that. For the centennial season, 
she has put together an adventurous program 
that all but redefines the vener.ible institu- 

vJyiiton Marsalis hloii's his 
honi ill a star-studded cele- 
bration ofjaz:: (April 2H). 

and the rest have real potential for entering the 
international repertoire — and Carnegie pa- 
trons will have the thrill of hearing them first 
(see annotated schedule). 

On top of all this, Arron has organized 
professional-training workshops in contem- 
porary orchestral music and choral conduct- 
ing. Led by Pierre Boulez and Robert Shaw, 
these training sessions will draw the most 
promising students from around the world, 
turning Carnegie Hall into an international 
torum tor ideas. 

All this has been accc:)mplished on the quiet, 
by a woman with no visible flair for self-pro- 
motion — the music world's female Clark 
Kent. Of her first four years at Carnegie Hall, 
the best that could be said was that she had 
carved herself a comfortable niche in volatile 
surroundings. Her predecessor, the irascible 
Seymour Rosen, went his own way, tilting at 
windmills, often alien- 
ating the powers he 
should have courted. 
Arron likes consensus. 
She is a team player — 
but consider the team. 
{(Ainliiiiied oil piii^e 1 52) 

SelJ-effaciii',^, hard- 
workiiis^, pleasant , 
jiidilh Arron is the 
music world's jeinale 
Clark Kent. 


By Barbara Jcpson 

Photograph by Alcn MacWccncy 



J- ' -Yir - •: 




armc:hairs by j. j. 


(in balcony), and 
an amusinc; nine- 

RUSSIAN planter 

FOR roc;r'/: (BELOW). 

V G U 


•at ito ' 

ByJ.-C. Snares 

Photographs hy Fritz von dcr Schulcnburg 





^^^F ^^^^B^^^^^^^^^'' 




If the name Malniaison were not paint- 
ed on the door, you would think this 
was just another brownstone on Man- 
hattan's East Seventy -fourth Street. 
And you would not know that its five 
floors were filled to capacity with the 
largest trove of Empire furinture in the 
world, not only French but Russian, 
Swedish, and American. 
The owner's looks are equally deceptive. Roger 
Prigent is slight in stature, unassuming in manner. 
Yet he is widely recognized as the world's pre- 
eminent dealer in Empire furniture, a man who in- 
fluences taste in the most unpretentious and 
charming way — that is, he communicates his pas- 
sion, nothing more. 

When he was growing up on the outskirts of 
Paris, he lived in the shadow of Malniaison, the 
first real residence of Napoleon Bonaparte and his 
wife Josephine. "My parents took me to the cha- 
teau every weekend to play in the park," he 
recalls. "I remember the busts of the imperial fam- 
ily in the lobby; this is why I always recognize not 
only Josephine and Napoleon but also Charles, 
Letitia, Joseph, Elise, Caroline, Lucien, and the 
children Eugene and Hortense." He saw the fur- 
nishings, too, and was struck by the clean lines of 
Napoleon's desk as well as the plethora of orna- 
mental objects the general brought back from his 
campaigns: the obelisks and sphinxes, the papyri, 
hawks, lions, and snakes. All this stuck in Roger 
Prigent's memory. 


He emigrated in 1950 to New York, where he 
set up shop as a fashion photographer, quickly 
earning a spot among the best in the business. He 
photographed Suzy Parker and Carmen in the 
195()s, Veruschka in the 196()s, Lauren Hutton and 
Suzie Blakely in the 1970s, and Brooke Shields in 
the 198()s. As he flourished, he started collecting in 
his spare time. What interested him was what had 
been etched into his consciousness years before: 
the decorative arts in Napoleon's Empire style. "It 
wasn't fashionable and not terribly expensive," 
Prigent says. "I started with silver. I liked its 
simplicity and the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman 
motifs. Then I began getting furniture, too." 

Prigent acquired his Manhattan brownstone in 
1973, planning to live upstairs and work down- 
stairs. He built a sixty-five-foot extension to the 
S basement to use as a photography studio, com- 
I plete with dressing rooms. Meantime, he kept on 
5 collecting, becoming a top Empireexpert. First he 
filled one warehouse with objects in the 
style. Then he filled another. To get rid 
of some of his collection, he opened 
lis own antiques store, down- 


^ m 










town, in 1979, which his sister ran. For its name, 
they chose — what else? — Mahiiaison. 

Like a diabohcal substance in a science-fiction 
hhii, Prigent's thousands ot tables, chairs, paint- 
ings, sculptures, clocks, chandeliers, sconces, 
mirrors, and silverware developed a lite 
of their own. They entered his 
brownstone, invaded the rooms, the 
hallways, the dressing rooms, the 
stairwells, and eventually the stu- 
dio: chairs on top of tables, tables 
on top of dressers, busts of the 
imperial family on top of every- 
thing — up to the ceiling, hi the end, 
the photography, the fashion 
models, and the stylists moved to a 
rented studio, to which Prigent had to 
commute. His possessions had suc- 

^ cecdcd in owning him. 

S As if to justify this strange turn of 

K events, his collection has soared in 

8 value. When he started buying 

objects, few people wanted anything in the 
Empire style. Prigent remembers with ill-dis- 
guised glee picking up a splendid mahogany 
bookcase in 1968 at Sotheby's for $1, ()()(); today it 
would cost at least two hundred times that. In 
those early days, the number one col- 
lectible style was Louis XV, with 
its elegant, sinuous lines. Empire, 
which looked all the way back to 
ancient Rome for its inspira- 
tion, aimed to convey a sense of 
Augustan authority. "It is," 
says Prigent, "a mix of purity 
and proportion with overtones 
of megalomania." 

To Napoleon's eyes, every- 
thing that smacked of classical an- 
tiquity was in; it became his official 
style. He hired the architects 
(Charles Pcrcicr and Pierre Fontaine 
to be the arbiters of taste. Soon many 
((loiitiiiiicd oil pai^c 154) 

HON Al'Ain E'S ES- 
I Al E. Willi ART OECXl 

EAR! Y ri:(;i:n(T-; vi- 

I RINE. 1 El I: BUSl OF 

1 Al HER 




















f\ (;RAY and l^AINV. OR IN 



BURG swi:ar by I hi 


COUNT THE WAY MYTH sn lndidniorinaissanc i.c hyhah THERE IS A IIINI Ol- SUN- 

jDy Tilmnii Spciiiilcr 








shine, they loosen their shirts and 
lower the tops of their convertibles, 
and the ice-cream vendors take on 
extra cargo. Hamburg is a city of 
merchants, and people respond to 
the faintest sign of a trend. 

That day, the sun was even un- 
usually bright. It gleamed off the 
facades of the Jugendstil villas 
around the Outer Alster; threw sil- 
houettes from the churches and 
City Hall onto the Inner Alster; beat 
down on the Elbe, on the harbor 
and the maze of canals. Hamburg is 
a city of water. The claim would be 
valid even if seafaring had not 

played so important a role here. Living around water stands 
for a way of life, so it does not really matter if the harbor is 
econtomically as important as it was in the days of the sailing 
ships, or if the ecological state of the Elbe makes you deeply 
pity any fish that strays into Germany's second-longest river. 
If nothing but paper boats plied the waters, people would still 
consider the harbor the center of their universe. 

It is not just representatives of the local tourist industry 
who regularly begin sentences with the phrase "A bit like 
Venice. " At the heart of the most opulent shopping district in 
the Federal Republic, the Alster Arcades freely invite compar- 
ison with the city of the Doges. And in the terse style that typ- 
ifies the local dialect, the guides will also say, "More bridges 
than Venice." No matter what the subject, you want to 
understate it. Bragging is for southerners. 

Through a third party, the sculptor had directed me to meet 
him at the Alsterpavillon; there he would enlighten me on 
how the city deals with artists. He himself came from Vienna, 
an artist as monumental and unmistakable as his sculpture. 
They were doing good business at the Alsterpavillon, the 
famous open-air cafe on Hamburg's grand promenade, but 
there was no sign of my artist. No one on the terrace looked as 
if he had ever handled a jackhammer or a chisel. 

An older couple sat down nearby. The man was paying 
tribute to the weather in gray flannels and a navy blazer; his 
spouse was shielding herself from the sun with a straw hat and 
delicately crocheted gloves. Teenage roller skaters — young 
toughs in garish shirts, too-tight pants, and exotic haircuts — 
were leaping over chairs, swooping within an inch of passers- 
by nervously clinging to their packages. The woman was 
incensed. "Shameless," she said. "This is a public place." 

"Don't get all worked up," her husband said, trying to 
placate her. "They're just low class." 

In this city, "low class" is an insult only in exceptional 
cases. The social code sets strict rules about what insult may 
be considered offensive under what circumstances. You may 
call it open-nundedness — Hamburg residents like to think of 
it that way — or apathy, which Hamburg residents like less. 

"The community here has more than a slight problem with 
apathy; you can't rouse them," sighed the features editor at 


Die Zeit. Aside from Dcr Spie^^el, 
Die Zeit is the most prominent Ger- 
man weekly. Der Spie<^el is fa- 
mous — or feared — for its investiga- 
tive reporting; Die Zeit is famous — 
or feared — for its contentiousness. 
Both papers are published in Ham- 
g burg, and the Senate cites them 
i with pride when it explains that a 
I media metropolis sprang up here 
after the war, or why — week after 
^ I week — Hamburg has to tell the rest 
of Germany what counts m the 
world and what does not. 

"I have to rack my brains," the 
features editor continued, "to recall 
the last scandal. A scandal instigated by art, you understand, 
not politics — which is to say finance. Theater? That would 
have been before my time. Opera and ballet are social events, 
no matter what happens onstage. And sculpture — well, 
people really see it more as an investment." 

I thought of the conversation I had missed with my sculptor 
and mentioned his name. 

"Oh, right, Alfred Hrdlicka," the features editor ex- 
claimed, as if he had just remembered a chum from his school 
days. "But that, now, that wasjust a money problem; it really 
didn't have anything to do with art." 

It had to do with art, with money, and with the German 
past: at the Dammtordamm, those in power ni 1936 had 
erected a monument to the men killed in World War I. An 
artist who had long since made a name for himself as a vir- 
tuoso in memorials executed the monument — no blood-and- 
soil artist, but by no means a champion of the avant-garde, 
either. To depict the assigned theme, he chose the motif of 
soldiers marching in step. This visually epitomized the bad 
taste of the time, but it acquired its provocative significance 
only through the addition of inscriptions that declared, "Ger- 
many must live, though we may die," and included a list of 
battles as guides to the German future. This was objectionable 
when the sculpture was first created; that it should have sur- 
vived the war was even more of an outrage. 

At the same time, that made the work into something like a 
historical witness. When you destroy historical witnesses, it 
can easily look as if you are concealing evidence. Yet not get- 
ting rid of them can be interpreted as complicity. To judge 
from all the graffiti and an impressive number of ruptured 
paint balloons, a substantial segment of 
Hamburg's citizenry suspected com- 
plicity here rather than concealment. 

The Senate body made a prudent 
decision at this juncture: in 1984 it com- 
missioned a countermonument. The 
statue would not so much conceal the 
evidence as interpret it. The Viennese 
Alfred Hrdlicka seemed the right man 
tor thejob, though no one other than the 

lAllRES/hllEN (I'OP). 

In Hamburg, art has always grown out of commerce. 




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head mayor could correctly pronounce his last name. 

hi 1985, Hrdlicka unveiled the first part of his countercon- 
cept. He called the marble and bronze work Monument to the 
I'iitiins of War ami Fascism. It summons up memories of fire 
storms and concentration-camp inmates; it does not so much 
interpret its counterpart as it artistically blows it away. The 
challenge naturally led enthusiasts of the old monument to 
respond with paint balloons and scribbling of their own. His- 
tory knows no end. 

Hrdhcka did not complete his memorial. "Not because it 
was provocative, though, not in the least — neither artistically 
nor politically," said the features editor, as upset as one can be 
in Hamburg and still keep it in good taste. "He underesti- 
mated his costs and then wanted extra funds, hi this city of fat 
cats, of course, that didn't sit well. The senator for culture was 
on his side. But he didn't have a case with the senator for 
finance. When that guy thinks marble, he sees expensive bath- 
rooms. " 

"Hamburg never had a royal court," said the editor. "Here, 
art has always grown out of commerce — or the consequences 
of commerce, the foundations. I'll say it again: disagreements 
are almost always economic in nature. Take the quarrel with 
the constantly changing managers at the Schauspielhaus, Ger- 
many's greatest stage. It goes on because, in spite of all the 
public subsidies, they can't fill their house. So people here say, 
'They can't balance their books!' And in 
TOUR THE SFARKi iNc; ^jj scriousncss-it happened in the sev- 
INNKU ALSTEKiNTHis cutics — they propose converting the 

Schauspielhaus, one of the tireat tradi- 
tions ot the German stage, into a swiiii- 
BOA r BY Nici n niiiig pool. " 

I met the former mayor Klaus von Dohnanyi in Feter- 
strasse, where a piece of proletarian Hamburg from the ba- 
roque era had been lovingly reconstructed. Dohnanyi insists 
that one not separate the city's mercantile from its proletarian 
tradition. As a Hanseatic Social Democrat, of course, he has 
to see it that way. But since he is simultaneously an aristocrat, 
an intellectual, and artistically inclined, he already does not fit 
the Hamburg mold in three categories. That may be why he 
was such a popular mayor. 

A trumpeter was blowing a chorale from the Michaelis- 
kirche, emblem of the city; he does so every day at that hour. 
The former mayor enjoyed the ritual in his role as a loyal cit- 
izen ot Hamburg, but as a music lover he must have found it 
painful to hear the wind rearrange the notes in its own, willful 
way. The solitary trumpeter was not visible; the church tower 
was undergoing restoration and had been draped like a badly 
done Christo. They had removed the old copper dome, and 
the Hamburg municipal savings bank was selling little pieces 
of it as wristwatches. 

In choosing a restaurant, von Dohnanyi opted for the mid- 
dle-class rather than the proletarian strain in the city, at the 
Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten. The hotel is a pillar of elite Hamburg 
society, for ideological as much as for gastronomic reasons. 
Japanese investors purchasec^it for a tidy sum not long ago. It 
is exaggerating only slightly to say that the transaction shook 
many Hamburg residents' faith in the free market more than 
the combined teachings of Marx and Engels. 

Nothing in the restaurant betrayed these social upheavals. 
Men in dark suits were talking business in a restrained way, 
without raising their voices; the staff made it plain to the 
former mayor that they knew whom they had the honor of 

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serving but were much too discreet to let it show. 

"Now, if Hamburg were Monaco," von Dohnanyi said 
after the lobster bisque, "it would be better for the city. Then 
we could hang on to more than just eight of the forty billion 
deutsche marks we collect in taxes and duties. "Our exchange 
threatened to descend into a hairsplitting discussion of Ger- 
man fiscal policy, so I quickly got in a question about the 
sculptor Hrdlicka, who still had not turned up. 

In retrospect, I do not really understand anymore why I kept 
coming back to that incident. Maybe it was because too many 
of the people I was talking to had implied that all the excite- 
ment over a monument to the victims of war and fascism was 
irrelevant. In Hamburg, art is most in demand when it can be 
tied to commerce. Take fashion, for example: success has a 
name there, and the name is Jil Sander. She has managed to 
find the common denominator to Hamburg's notion of cul- 
ture: the best materials, but always used for function, instead 
of dazzling their lovers with her creations, the women im- 
press a board of directors — which wards off any implication 
of luxury and promotes sales. 

Jil Sander's triumph does have its costs, in that many wom- 
en of a certain class are as undifferentiated on the outside as 
their well-tended homes are on the inside. Still, these homes 
have grown a lot more colorful of late: the era of ostentatious 
cool has given way to the era of ostentatious opulence — in the 
privacy of one's own home, needless to say. 

"If I had to choose between fame and fortune," confided a 
businessman, whose family has for generations picked the lat- 
ter without misgivings, "I would choose fortune all over 

again. Fame causes too much of a sensation." 

The idea of causing a sensation provokes painful dizzy 
spells in the conventional Hanseat. After all. you do not drape 
yourself in jewelry, or live in castles, or contrive to get vour 
name mentioned in the gossip columns. They do that in 
Munich, maybe even in Berlin. But it is out t)f the question in 
Hamburg — at least, in traditional Hamburg. 

You could not actually tell from my host's house that he 
was one of the city's wealthier residents. 1 lis address did carry 
one of the only three postal codes that could apply to a home 
like that, of course, and the street had the sort of elegance you 
call "understated," but it was unmistakable. Even the burglar 
alarms were not much in evidence. Yet in the stairwell hung 
examples of graphic art that would raise the blood pressure of 
art experts and art thieves alike. 

"It you started early, say, after the war," my host com- 
mented almost apologetically, "it wasn't all that hard. A lot of 
them I just bartered for. Unfortunately, I don't have enough 
room tor most of them." What he did have "room" for — the 
Goyas and Picassos, Schieles and Klees — would still lie. at the 
going rate, beyond what museums in Hamburg, and not just 
in Hamburg, would be able to spend acquiring tiiem. 

As a result, the owner had already given a few museums a 
hand — for the limited duration of an exhibition. The little 
plaque next to the work of art would bear the phrase "From a 
private collection." Again: fame causes too much of a sensa- 
tion. The old money dreads it because that is how they were 
brought up; the newer money dreads it because they combine 
their yearning for tradition with fear of the tax inspector. 

"But you also have to weigh the fact," my host cautioned 
me, and here his voice grew a touch more nasal, " the new 






style in interior decoration favors art dealers more than it does 
museums. It's very simple — inch for inch, a picture expresses 
more prosperity than, say, books. But that, like all the rest, is 
just between you and me." 

"They don't make the most important decisions at City 
Hall. " With his hair and beard, the man telling me this could 
have been the living embodiment of the culture of the late 
sixties. "The important decisions get made at the Social 
Democratic conventions and in the city's ritzy clubs." That 
smelled a bit like warmed-over conspiracy theory. "The only 
opposition here is the newspapers. " he added. He was sound- 
ing more enlightened, when you consider that most of the 
Hamburg dailies are owned by a company that has never 
made a secret of its distaste for the Social Democrats. "And 
let's not forget, " said the proto-hippie after his next beer, "the 
grass-roots initiatives." 

"Grass-roots initiatives" covers pretty much everything 
that can be taken for a counterculture. It may be street theater 
or squatters, a popular referendum on the Third World or the 
integration of foreign children. The gays have their grass- 
roots initiatives, as do opponents of an extension to the harbor 
and defenders of small stores against the shopping malls. 

"When vou add it all up." a teacher complained, having 
invested two decades" worth of her creative extracurricular 
energy in these initiatives, "you come to the tragic conclusion 
that we were nothing but guinea pigs for economic expan- 
sion." We sat in a little bar in the area of the city known as 
Winterhude and looked out on a small park that owed its exis- 
tence to one of these grass-roots initiatives. The area had once 
been lower-middle-class, but then the landlords rented the 
apartments to young people. In groups, the latter could pay a 
lot more than the hereditary residents of 
the quarter, and they were actually 
proud to do so. because sharing an 
apartment showed an advanced degree 
of sociopolitical awareness. Those 
young people also saw to it that everv- 





thing in the quarter remained as it had always been. 

I recognized the dwarf with the flattened nose from a photo 
study on the more sordid aspects of St. Pauli. Tonight he sat 
snoring beside a jukebox that played German hits from the 
late seventies. He did not notice the woman who was stroking 
his right thigh, and he paid no attention to the white-haired 
dancer who had clipped a condom to her left ear. St. Pauli. or 
more precisely the streets around the Reeperbahn. sums up 
that form of bourgeois liberality in Hamburg that relates pri- 
marily to the sexual exploitation of human beings. The area 
borders the harbor and bases its reputation on a tradition of 
entertainment that goes back nearly two hundred years. 

Its appeal continues unspoiled to this day. Up to 30,000 
visitors cruise the red-light district on weekends, covertly or 
overtly curious about the many forms of sin it offers them. 
Their mood is inhibited and sweaty rather than relaxed and 
cheery. Few of them display an easy familiarity with vice — 
morality forbids it to one; fear, to another. 

The big fear here, of course, is of AIDS. In the bordellos, 
health certificates have more allure than lingerie: passions 
have shifted from sex to gambling. And you notice how 
many beer drinkers will not touch the glass they are offered 
and drink straight from the Ijottle. 

A whole collection of self-proclaimed Bukowskis feeds off 
the literary raw material of this scene. You are most likely to 
find them at La Paloma. a bar the painter Immendorf opened 
several years ago. Here, the attractions of the flesh are as close 
as the objects of contemporary art: there is a Joseph Beuys 
assemblage over the bar. and the New Primitivists A. R. 
Penck and James Lee Bears have left their marks on the walls, 
on the ceiling. 

"You've got to write the way the New Primitivists paint!" 
an author in a two-day beard and leather jacket exclaimed. 
"You have to show the horror and the rawness, the stench and 
the honesty of what's gone bad. And you won't hnd the mate- 
rial for that anywhere but here." It did not smell particularly 
raw in the bar. though. The customers were well dressed: 
most of their faces reflected good Hamburg manners. "I 
mean, isn't there some other scene?" a beautiful blonde asked 
the angry writer. "Someplace new?" 

You do not have to finish your Saturday night in Hamburg 
with an early-morning visit to the Fischmarkt. down by the 
Elbe in St. Pauli: reasons not to would be that every guide- 
book recommends it. and that the fish you might want at that 
hour is a scarce commodity here. On the other hand, to the 
extent you can still make it out. the architecture has the beau- 
tiful purity that distinguishes good Hamburg architecture. 
And vou meet people who. in the simplicity of their everyday 
appearance, elude every attempt to capture them: people who 
slept through the night and people who did not, birdcage 
dealers and stamp collectors, winos and African-hemp-tree 
fanciers. The market is m full swing until ten A..\l. Sometimes 
vou even run into friends, which is what happened to me. 
"I've been calling you for two days." said my friend. "That 
sculptor from Vienna is trying to reach you. It seems you 
missed each other. "D 


> TiUnan Sjntnilir irrilcs for Cieo iUui is the ciiitot of the (jCWIiVI 
r quarterly Kursbuch. The tratislatioti is by Lcii^h Haficy. 












B Y 


H o V I N c; 

Locals insist that Hamburg is not a fine-arts town, taking far 
more pride in the city's music and theater. Yet, despite the fact 
that both the traditional art museums, the Kunsthalle (fine 
arts) and the Kunst und Gewerbe (decorative arts), are old and 
tattered, they have a few surprising treasures, some of which 
stand unequivocally as the best in the world. 

In the second gallery of the Kunsthalle, you will find panels 
from the high altar of St. Peter's Church, made by a certain 
Meister Bertram in the late fourteenth century. It is primitive, 
yes; some will think it naive, perhaps excessively so; but it is 
direct, somewhat fierce, and possesses a sly sense of humor. 
The scenes depicting the Fall and the Expulsion from the Gar- 
den have a staccato power, like the beat of a drum. 

In the next gallery arc some fine works by another Ham- 
burg master of the early Renaissance, Meister Francke. The 
altar was painted for a chapel in St. John's Church. It is puz- 
zling that only one of the panels — that depicting the weeping 
Virgin — of this powerful altar has been restored. 

Proceed through the next dozen or so galleries — containing 
mostly unexceptional Dutch landscapes and still lifes — at a 
good clip. But pause in front of the remarkable Still Life with 
Goblet, from the circle of Willem Kalf The paintings from the 
sixteenth through the eighteenth century are only fair, with 
the exception of Canaletto's splendid view of Padua. The 
nineteenth century is best repre- 
sented by the German Impres- 
sionists Max Lieberman and Wil- 
hclm Leibl, both of whose por- 
traits are stunning. There are three 
singular French Impressionist 
works: a Degas showing a young 
woman donning a hat; a huge 
equestrian portrait by Renoir; and 
Edouard Manet's theatrical courtesan Nana. 

Noj: surprisingly, among the twentieth- 
century holdings, the German artists Cor- 
inth, Nolde, and Beckmann star. Edvard 
Munch is also well represented. The contem- 
porary collection is insipid, yet pay homage 
to Paul Klee's Golden Fish and the startlingly 
fresh-looking sculptures by Moholy-Nagy. 

The best is yet to come: at the very back ot 
the museum, not in chronological order, are 
the galleries devoted to the early nineteenth 
century and the pinnacle of the Kunsthalle's 
holdings. There are ten masterpieces by one 
of the most intriguing and controversial. 


painters in history, Caspar David Frie- 
drich. No other museum in the world has 
as many top-grade Friedrichs as the 
Kunsthalle. In the entire United States 
there is but one, at the Kimbell Museum, 
in Fort Worth. The Friedrichs are the real 
reason to visit the Kunsthalle; budget an 
hour for this one gallery alone. 

Caspar Friedrich (1774-1840) was a 
Romantic landscape painter, a mystic, a 
punctilious draftsman, a spiritualist, a pa- 
triot — and a grump who alienated almost 
everybody. An intense and enigmatic 
painter, he expressed himself by means of t)p zola fame 
a mystical and spiritual code, one far out 
of fashion these days. To approach Friedrich's work, one 
should know what he wrote about painting: "The artist 
should paint not only what he sees before him but also what he 
sees within him. If, however, he sees nothing within him. 
then he should refrain from painting. . . . Otherwise his pic- 
tures will be like those folding screens behind which one 
expects to find only the sick or the dead." 

Friedrich's beautifully crafted paintings are filled with per- 
sonal symbols and can be read like a series of hieroglyphs. For 
example, all foliage signifies life force, a withered branch 
means transience, the moon is a symbol for Christ, rocks are 
taith, and water stands tor deatii. The penetrating ot Frie- 
drich's art involves the betrayal of a secret; it is as if one were 
overhearing someone at prayer, as one contemporary critic 
wrote. With Friedrich, it is not so much a painting one con- 
fronts but an exploration of the depths of human existence. 
Yet his works are neither overtly religious nor didactic. Their 
divine harmony between the drawing and the color makes 

them shimmer before the viewer's 
eyes gently, even sinuously. 

Four paintings stand out above 

the others. Old Heroes' Ciriivvs, of 

1S12, with its brooding scene of 

tombs, is a p.itriotu initcry against 

Napoleon. Two French soldiers 

ga/e into the depths ot a ca\e at a 

sarcophagus, evoking the soldiers 

at the tomb of Christ just before the Uesur- 

rection. No sky is apparent, sooppresseil is 

the nation, but a glow of light in the u(iper 

left and the tir trees signity some ho(H- 

(iermany will be liberateil. 

One of the most images Ineilnch 
created is I'raveler l.ooL-iii\^ orei the Se,t oj 
l'o\l, of bSIS, in w huh a man stands precar- 
uuislv ,itop a peak, ga/iiig inti> the mist 
below . I le seems abcnit to plunge to his 
death. It IS belie\eil tliat Friedrich p.uiited 


Tlamhtirg's few art treasures stand as the best in the irorhi 



H a 






this gripping picture in memory of a friend 

who had just died. But its meaning is more 

universal. Perhaps at least for one traveler 

through life the ultimate has been reached, 

even if it seems incomprehensible. 

Ships in Moonlii^lit seems at first poetic — 

ah, the moon; the unreal silhouettes of the 

sails, slack in the calm. But with Friedrich 

nothing is what it first appears to be. The 

very air seems heavy; the calm must be that 

preceding a frightful storm. 

Friedrich's masterpiece is Arctic Ship- 
wreck, of 1824, which, although inspired by 
contemporary accounts of 
polar expeditions, is not re- 
portage about the horror of 
the north. The powerful, 
cruel landscape of ice floes 
and icebergs speaks of man's impotence in 
the face of nonrational powers, hi the huge 
gray-green slabs of primordial ice are 
echoes of an ancient architecture, long dead 
by the time of Stonehenge or the Parthe- 
non, steps for some temple dedicated to 
infinite power, one that did not necessarily 
either favor or care about mankind. One of 


Friedrich's harshest critics dismissed his 
works, saying that in them he was interested 
only in the "pathological arousal of emo- 
tion." Facing this monumental ode to finali- 
ty one feels that was just what he had in mind. 
Allot about a half hour for the aesthetic 
pleasures of the Kunst und Gewerbe mu- 
seum. The galleries devoted to ancient 
Egyptian and Greek and Roman art are 
pleasant but by and large didactic. There is, 
however, one stunning masterpiece in the 
second ground-floor gallery, a limestone 
head of a burgher — only four inches tall — 
which may have been carved by the great 
German sculptor Veit Stoss around 1490. 

A sweep through the galleries devoted to 
furniture and decorative objects from the art 
nouveau period to the thirties will prove 
worthwhile, and two objects tucked away in a narrow corri- 
dor are the best of their kind anywhere. One is the oddly com- 
pelling T-shaped breakfront carved and crafted by Paul Gau- 
guin, with its assertive foliage in high relief stained various 
hues of brown and black. Next to it, a superior screen by 
Pierre Bonnard is most cartainly his best. Finally, the 
museum has exceptional eighteenth-century porcelain, espe- 
cially Nymphenburg and Flora Danica. D 






".fiistijy the visit. 









A D 

When the wall fell in Berlin in 
1989. the crash startled a lot of 
people. Among those jolted 
into a new world was the city 
of Hamburg, which is sud- 
denly finding itself in the cen- 
ter of the future instead ot lan- 
guishing off the beaten path in 
the northern corner of the 

It is a city polished and 
ready for its new role — a focal 
point of culture and wealth 
spiced with the sinfulness and 
urbanity of a great port. 
Hamburg looks the part. Ar- 
rayed around two man-made 
lakes (the Inner and the Outer 
Alster), a series of canals, and 
the mouth of the Elbe River, 
it has long been considered by 
insiders the most beautiful 
and gracious city in Germany. 
To get the most out of Ham- 
burg, one should take the 
trouble to see it three ways: on 
foot through the inner city, 
by boat through the lakes and 
canals, and by car on the ele- 
gant Elbchaussee. 

(about 2' 2 hours) 
This is the most walkable of 
German cities, with the lovely 
parks around the Alster. nu- 
merous bridges over canals 
and inlets, and convenient pe- 
destrian wharves along the 
waterfront. A surprising 
number of old buildings sur- 
vived both the fire of 1 842 and 
the Allied bombing; these 
have been lovingly restored. 
In addition, the inner city has 
been transtormed over the 
past twenty years into a rich 
maze of shopping prome- 
nades behind the historic 
facades. These "passages" (as 
they are called), which link up 
the Rathausmarkt and the 

E R I E P E 

Gansemarkt. serve as a leisure 
area for meeting friends. 
strolling, and window-shop- 
ping or stopping at one of the 
many cafes or stand-up bars 
serving gourmet and tast 
food — which in Hamburg 
can mean oysters and 

A walking tour begins at 
the Rathaus, or City Hall, 
built in 1897 and one of the 
most important historic 
buildings in German Renais- 
sance style. In front, the spa- 
cious square and wide steps 
leading down to the Inner 
Alster is the best place to view 
the charming Alster Arcades, 
designed by Alexis de Cha- 
tcauneut in 1843. 

Turn left in back of the 
Rathaus and head for Deich- 
strasse via Neue Burgstrasse 
(see map). Pass the blackened, 
bombed-out tower of the St. 
Nikolai Church, which is 
maintained as a memorial. On 
Deichstrasse and Cremon are 
rows of splendidly restored 
harbor houses of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centu- 
ries. (You might want to try 
the sweet-and-sour eel soup, a 
local specialty, at 43 Deich- 
strasse.) From here wander 
along the Zoll Kanal for the 
best views of the monolithic 
Gothic-style brick ware- 
houses of the Speicherstadt. 
Hamburg is still the worlds 
leading importer and export- 
er ot tea. cottee. and spices, 
and this valuable cargo is 
stored here, in one of Ham- 
burg's most treasured his- 
toric sites. 

Cross the Zoll Kanal at the 
end of the Speicherstadt. and 
head across the Messberg to 
the Chilehaus. a stunning 
brick monument with uncon- 

ventional lines, built in 1924 
by Fritz Hoger. It is one of the 
most important of the so- 
called Kontor houses, origi- 
nally constructed to provide 
many small companies with 
office space around imposing 
entrance halls. 

From the Chilehaus turn 
left on Messberg to the Deich- 
torhallen, the exciting, new 
contemporary-art complex 
built inside the former flower 
market. The impressive dis- 
play area (6,000 square me- 
ters) will host touring exhibi- 
tions several times a year. In 
September you can catch con- 
temporary paintings from the 
Saatchi collection. 

Return to the Chilehaus 
and follow Niedernstrasse to 
32—33 Schopenstehl. which 
has one of the few late-baro- 
que facades in the city. Cross 
Domstrasse and go back to- 
ward the Inner Alster. along 
thejungfernstieg, Hamburg's 
promenade. Turn left onto 
Grosse Bleichen. glancing at 
the whimsical, turn-of-the- 
century Jugendstil facades on 
Poststrasse, and continue 
along Wexstrasse toward St. 
.Michael's Church. 

Try to time your walk so as 
to arrive there at ten A.M.. or 
at noon on Sunday. That is 
when a trumpeter mounts the 
steeple for one of his daily 
flourishes. The church, built 
in 1751 by Johann Leonhard 
Prey, is a soaring baroque ode 
m white, gold, and yellow; it 

IS considered one of the most 
architecturally important 
churches in the Protestant 
world. Its acoustics are su- 
perb, and should a concert 
coincide with your visit, be 
sure to get tickets. Take a last 
stop across the Krayenkamp, 
behind St. Michael's, to 
glance at the restored Kra- 
meramtswohnungen, a 
courtyard of tiny houses built 
for widows of shopkeepers in 
the seventeenth century. 

From downtown Ham- 
burg, it is about a ten-minute 
walk (or you may prefer a 
cab) along the Alsterufer to 
chic Poseldorf. a quarter of 
fine Victoriana on the left 
bank of the Alster. rich in 
great trees, cobbled court- 
yards, and iron street lan- 
terns. Jil Sander, West Ger- 
many's most famous design- 
er, maintains her original 
shop, on Milchstrasse. The 
boutique is full of elegant, un- 
derstated classics. The many 
fine shops here include Su- 
zanne O. a pricey boutique, 
and Seconata. the chicest sec- 
ond-hand store in the city. 

For a taste of the wealth that 
publishing and shipping have 
brought this city, turn right 
on Magdalenenstrasse, lined 
with beautifully restored late- 
nineteenth- and twentieth- 
century houses. Here you will 
find the two best-known art 
galleries in Hamburg: Brock- 
stedt (No. 11), where Ham- 
burg's most famous living 








artist, Horst Jansscn, exhib- 
its, and Levy (No. 54), which 
features twentieth-century 
stars such as Man Ray and 
Otto Dix. 

By Water 

Hamburg's amphibious soul 
can best be appreciated on the 
two-hour canal tour across 
the Outer Alster and then 
through the canals past the 
gardens of Hamburg's count- 
less villas and mansions, most 
of them invisible from the 
street. On this voyage, those 
who prize architecture will 
note Jugendstil vying with 
classicism, neoclassicism, 
Victorian, artdeco, postmod- 
ern, and some lamentable 

From the small, covered 
boat, you also get a splendid 
view of the city from the mid- 


die of the Inner and Outer 
Alster; six green steeples rise 
above the nineteenth-century 
fa(;ades ringing the lakefront, 
brightened by the elegant 
landmark of the white Atlan- 
tic Hotel. Four of these canal 
tours leave daily from the 
Jungfernstieg (phone: 
34. 11.41). There'are two oth- 
er tours: the harbor tour, tor 
big-ship buffs; and the charm- 
ing waterway trip of the Fleet, 
or Hamburg's inner-city ca- 
nals, which replicates a lot ot 
the inner-city walk. 

The Elbchaussee and 

Nowhere is the Anglophilia 
thar permeates Hamburg lite 
more evident than in the great 
country estates that line the 
scenic bluffs above the Elbe. 
A ateen-minute drive will 

bring you to the E^lbchaussee, 
with its English-style, lush 
parks and stunning homes. 
The latter range from eigh- 
teenth-century classical villas 
to early-twentieth-ceiitur\' 
Jugendstil mansions. A visit 
to the 1S32 Jenisch Park and 
Haus, a museum dexotetl \o 
preserving the trailitii>ns of 
I lamburg's I .aiuUiiUtscy . gives 
a good notion ot lite in these 
great houses. The furnishings 
inside include baroi|ue. Mie- 
dermeier, and rococo. 

Follow llie Fdhchaussee to 
Blankenese, where the co/\', 
old tishennen's cottages with 
reed-thatched roi)ts perch 
precaru>usly above the Elbe, 
each on a pK)t ol land ex.u tl\ 
big enough for the house and 
a teeny garden. Explore the 
bluffs, crisscrossed with stone 
paths, and descend the wind- 

mg steps to the banks ol the 
ri\er. I la\e cottee and cake at 
the delightful turn-of-(he- 

centiiiA Sti.ind I lotel. 

15AI I I I 

Since l*>73. when the Mil- 
waukee-born choreogr.ipher 
•ind ilaiuei John Neumeier 
t(U)k o\er tlu- I l.milnirg lial- 
let. he has turned it into one of 
the st.Ms 1!) the il.nue world. 
His iiino\.iti\e interpreta- 
tions of cl.issu .il pieces such as 
Riitnco iUui julicl aiul Ins mov- 
ing, .ilw .i\s fascinating origi- b.illets draw tans from all 
over CJerm.iny. Neumeier iii- 
n>rporates a wide range of 
d.mce St vies and does not hesi- 
tate to combine them even in 
classical ballets. 

The following .in ini the 
program \oy September and 
October: .\ M id mi in ni ii 


H a m b 




Night's Dream, Romeo and Ju- 
liet, Des Knaheti Wimderhorn, 
and Fiitifte Sinfonie (Mahl- 
er's). Reserve tickets through 
your hotel or write to Tages- 
kasse der Haniburgerischen 
Staatsoper, 35 Grosse-Thea- 
terstrasse, 2000 Hamburg 36; 
phone: 35.17.21. 


Hamburg is a theater town; 
there is even an English-lan- 
guage theater for the charm- 
ing drawing-room comedies, 
which lose much in transla- 
tion. For the best in German 
theater, check four houses. 
The first is the Thalia Theater 
(Alstertor; phone: 32.26.66). 
It has been the showcase for a 
number of avant-garde Rob- 
ert Wilson productions — a 
mixture of spectacle and dra- 
ma — and his latest. The Black 
Rider, is by far the most suc- 
cessful. This musical, by Tom 
Waits, the American rock 
musician, will have one of its 
many reruns this fall. 

The Deutsches Schauspiel- 
haus (39 Kirchenallee; phone: 
24.87.13) has reverted to a 
more classical repertoire since 
it lost its controversial direc- 
tor Peter Zadek. It boasts a 
fme stable of actors from the 
classical theater. In Septem- 
ber and October, Goethe's 
Torquato Tasso will be di- 
rected by Hans Neueatels. 
And in October, Demokratie, 
by the Nobel Prize winner Jo- 
seph Brodsky, will have its 

world premiere here. 

Experimental theater, bal- 
let, opera, rock musicals, 
comedies — anything could be 
on the program in one of six 
halls of the converted factory 
Kampnagelfabrik (20-24 
Jarrestrasse; phone: 
2.79. 10.66). Peter Brook first 
produced his Carmen here. In 
September Liv Ullmann will 
present the Festival of Wom- 
en, highlighting artistic and 
cultural works of women 
around the world. 


Anything goes at Schmidt's 
Variety Theater, on the Ree- 
perbahn — cabaret, stand-up 
comics, .and one-man pro- 
ductions. At midnight on Sat- 
urdays, at the big mahogany 
bar, informal entertainers im- 
provise what sometimes is a 
great show. On the mile-long 
red-light Reeperbahn — an in- 
tegral part of Hamburg night- 
life — the Cafe Keese is a pop- 
ular dance hall, and Cuneo's, 
an Italian restaurant on the 
corner of the "infamous" 
Herbertstrasse, is always 
jammed with Hamburg's in- 
telligentsia and sports fans. 
Finally, the Fabrik offers the 
best jazz and rock from home 
and abroad (36 Barnerstrasse, 
Altona; phone: 39.15.65). 


The following list is based on 
the restaurants' ambience as 
well as their cuisine. Each will 
cost under $100 a person (not 
including wine). Reserva- 
tions for all are essential. 

Landhaus Dill (404 Elb- 
chaussee; phone: 82.84.43). 
There is a limited bistro menu 
at lunch as delicious as the 
more copious offerings at din- 
nertime. Fine soups, excellent 
fish, fair to generous por- 
tions, and a country-inn at- 
mosphere lend special flavor 

to this one-star charmer, in 
the midst of the great villas. 

Petit Delice (21 Grosse 
Bleichen; phone: 34.34.70). 
In the summer, a terrace over- 
looking the Fleet increases the 
number of diners by thirty- 
five. The brief, taciturn menu 
does not do justice to the food 
but does hint at its eclectic 
range: Japanese sashimi, fol- 
lowed by Viennese boiled 
beef! The secret is that every- 
thing is perfectly prepared. 

Anna e Sebastiano (30 Lehm- 
weg; phone:; din- 
ner only). Cool jazz in the 
background and an artist at 
work in the kitchen. Delicate 
portions of gourmet Italian 
cuisine arranged with such 
talent on the finest porcelain 
that the eye is fed what t?he 
stomach is denied. Rated one 
star in Michelin. 

// Giardino (17-19 Ulmen- 
strasse; phone: 47.01.47). 
Over 400 bushes and trees fill 
the small courtyard, where 
thirty guests dine in fine 
weather. Inside, another forty 
can rub elbows with Helmut 
Schmidt, John Neumeier and 
his ballet troupe, and other 
Hamburg luminaries for a 
dinner best labeled nouvclle 
Europe — a mix of Austrian, 
German, French, and Italian 
dishes, all well done. 

L'Auberge Fran^aise (34 
Rutschbahn; phone: This is easily the 
finest French restaurant in 
Hamburg. Just ignore the 
bourgeois interior and enjoy 
the superb food and wines. 
Rated one star in Michelin. 

Fischereihafen (143 Grosse 
Elbstrasse; phone: 38.18.16). 
This spacious restaurant, 
right on the harbor, is consid- 
ered by many to be the best 
fish restaurant in northern 
Germany. Local and import- 
ed fish and shellfish arc per- 
fectly prepared from both lo- 

cal and international recipes. 

Restaurant Peter Lembcke 
(49 Holzdamm; phone: 
24.32.90). This bastion of fine 
German cuisine has been serv- 
ing Hamburg's serious busi- 
nessmen since 1910 with such 
favorites as stuffed oxtail and 
lentil soup with bacon, along 
with excellent wines. 

Note: Two restaurants that 
received stars from Michelin, 
Landhaus Scherrer and Le Ca- 
nard, are not currently on the 
insider's list. The complaint: 
the excellent kitchens are 
sometimes overshadowed by 
overbearing personnel. 

Hotels (briefly) 
The Atlantic-Hotel Kem- 
pinski and the Vier Jahreszeit- 
en, large, well-run hotels, 
have won deserved interna- 
tional acclaim. For those who 
prefer a more intimate atmo- 
sphere, along with delightful 
appointments and high stan- 
dards of service, we add three 
names: Hotel Prem (9 An der 
Alster; phone: 24.17.26) is a 
family-owned hostelry fur- 
nished with genuine antiques 
collected by the founder, Ru- 
dolf Prem. Its charming sea- 
food restaurant. La Mer, is 
also highly recommended. 

Garden Hotels (60 Magda- 
lenenstrasse; phone: 44.99.58) 
consists of three turn-of-the- 
century town houses in the 
peaceful exclusivity of Posel- 
dorf. The rooms are wee but 
have been decorated with flair 
and individuality. 

Hotel Abtei (14 Abtei- 
strasse; phone: 44.29.05) has 
only twelve rooms. Each is a 
gem in English mahogany. 
The hotel is quietly situated in 
one of Hamburg's smartest 
residential areas. D 

Adele Riepe is a longtime report- 
er in the New York Times 
Bonn bureau. 

i\ city of culture spiced with the sinfulness qfa great port. 


rr iMMMK^ci.i \i) 



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118, fg Saint-Honore - 75008 Paris - Tel. : (1) 4^,42.47.34 

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Their ski'', and professional experience give collectors every 

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0»(' really stmti<;jc actor; a fimscum para^ivi; tenor on the hci^^lits; 
ill love with ohi wallpaper 


When 1 met Kvlc Mac- 
Lachlan. in i9S2on 
thcsot ofD/(/;c. ho 
was twenty-three years old, 
the possessor of a movie-star- 
ish youthful beauty that had 
landed him the role of the stal- 
wart hero in David Lynch's 
big-budget space epic. Under 
any circumstances, but partic- 
ularly under these, he was ex- 
traordinarily modest. "Well," 
he said dittidently. "of course 
you don't want to know any- 

thing about me. What can 1 
tell yc:)u about David?" 

This humility must have 
stood him m gt^od stead when 
Dutic flopped and he fell into 
the actor's limbo of underem- 
ployment, from which Lynch 
rescued him with starring 
roles in Blue I 'dvct and the TV 
series "Twin Peaks. " Mac- 
Lachlan proved to be a quirky 
pertormer trapped in stan- 
dard-issue handsomeness. 
Cast for that handsomeness in 
Dune, he was lost and dull. 
Hut as the Oedipallv curious 

Jettrey in Blue I 'elvet, he sug- 
gested strange stirrings inside 
that good boy's head. And as 
FBI Agent Cooper m "Twin 
Peaks," he is blithely weird, 
the most eccentric detective 
since Sherlock Hc^lmes. 
Holmes shot bullets into the 
wall ot his flat; Cooper throws 
stones at bottles, according to 
what is apparently a Zen 
methodology ot crime solv- 
ing. He also relies a lot on his 
dreams. Possibly he is psy- 
chic. Possibly he is just from 
another planet. 

Actually, he hails from 
Yakima, Washington, and dis- 
covered acting in high school. 
He decided on his career while 
at the University of Washing- 
ton at Seattle, graduating 
shortly before he was hired to 
star in Dime. But Lynch has 
not been the only one to sus- 
pect that beneath that conven- 
tional wrapping MacLachlan 
bears the gitt ot strangeness. 
His best film performance so 
tar has been for jack Sholdcr, 
who. just after Blue I 'elvet, di- 
rected him in the low-budtrct 

I'l 1(1 I ()(.!< AIM I Ol K\\ \ MA( 1 AC III AN ISV MARK IIANAUI U 



science-fiction thriller The 
Hidden. In The Hidden, Mac- 
Lachlan really is an FBI agent 
from another planet, but he is 
not just playing oftl)eat. He 
brings unexpected depths of 
feeling to his B-movie role. 
His graceful, deadpan per- 
formance has the delicate 
comic tinnng ot Buster Kea- 
ton, and some of Keaton's iso- 
lation and melancholy as well. 
Now he is not only return- 
mg to television as Agent 
C^.ooper but has been cast by 
Oliver Stone in his forthcom- 
ing movie about Jim Morri- 
son — as the Doors' house in- 
tellectual and keyboardist, Ray 
Manzarek. He is clearly on his 
way to bringing more and 
more much needed oddness to 
the screen. — Lhiyd Rose 

Uoyd Rose is a free-lance wriley 
M'ho lives in IVdshim^fon, D.(^. 


At a time when museinn 
directors are increas- 
ingly under fire, Anne 
d'Harnoncourt stands out for 
her calm, unperturbed stew- 
ardship at tlie Philadelphia 
Museum of Art. So sure is her 
leadership that the Whitney 
Museum ot American Art, 
now floundering without a di- 
rector (see page 155), is re- 
portedly highly interested in 
her. D'Harnonccnirt, torty- 
seven, deflects such reports. 
"There are aKvavs rumors in 
the art field about this mu- 
seum director or that. The 
Whitney has never directly ap- 
proached me."" 

But she would be an under- 
standable choice. In her eight 
years as director in Philadel- 
phia, she has quietly built a 
reputation that places her 
among the nation's most re- 
spected in the field. "Ycni 
can't get any better than 
Anne," says CMiarles Stuckey, 
an Impressionist scholar and a 
curator at the Art Institute of 
CHiicago. Mark Rosenthal, 
d'Harnoncourt's former twen- 
tieth-century curator and now 
a consultant for the (iuggen- 
heim Museum, agrees. 

"Her sublime confi- 
dence and security 
with herself and the 
world make her a 
wonderful museum 
director," he says. 
"She's not to be in- 
timidated by the 
board and knows her 
job is to lead." 

Her physical pres- 
ence (six feet in 
stocking feet) 
evokes comparison 
to Julia C^hild, as do 
her trilling voice 
and unpretentious 
brought impecca- 
ble scholarly cre- 
dentials to her po- 
sition, as she had 
had more than fif- 
teen years of cura- 
torial experience 
in Philadelphia 
and C Chicago, dur- 
ing which time 

she became a leading expert on 
Marcel Duchamp. Beyond 
that, her gracious diplomacy 
has enabled her to cultixate a 
wide array of friends and land 
a number of important collec- 
tions. "Style. Bt)dv lan- 
guage," is how her chairman 
of the board, the art collector 
Philip I. Berman, describes 
her way with people. "And 
she IS so knowledgeable, so 
well connected, that you don't 
have to worry that she doesn't 
know what she's talking 
abcnit. She does. " 

I )'l fu'iumcourt was born 
into the nuiseum business. 
Her father, Rene d'l iarnoii- 
court, was a legendary direc- 
tor of New York's Museiun ot 
Motlern Art, renowned kir 
cultivating living artists. She 
grew up acc|u.iiiited with 
nian\' of the important mu- 
seum directtus ot that genera- 
tion and learned firsthand 
abt)ut dealing with artists and 

Ill her feiiuie in Pliil.ulel- 
phi t ' - inuseuni has pre- 

.,ied a series of' blockbusters, 
such as the Marc Chagall ret- 
rospective ami the 1 Mego Ri- 
ver^ ■■xhibition (in 1986). She 
v :, the first to organize (along 

I'l K ) I ()(.KAI'I i (M ANNI I )|| 'XKNONC ( )t IM HN lU I I >1 I It >l \1 \\ \ 

With the Art Institute ot Chi- 
cago) a main moth retrospec- 
tive of the contro\ works 
of Ansehii Kieter, which re- 
ceived critical acclaim before it 
moved to the Museum ot 
Moilern Art. The museum's 
slun\ ol works bv jasper jiihns 
was presented m P)SS at the 
Venue Hienn.ile, w here he 
won the gr.iml pri/e. C Conser- 
vative Phil.idelphia turneil mit 
en masse' to sc'e one ot the best 
pn\ Mte lolk'c tioiis ol I leiu h 
Iinpressionisis .iiid Posiiiu- 
pressionists, in the bequest ot 
the late board t h.iii man I iinr\ 
Mcllheniu , .is well .is l.isi 
war's retord-bie.ikmg exhibi- 
tion ot Walter Annenbeig's 
collection. It d'l larnou- 
court wlu) (. liiu lieil Annen- 
berg's agreement to exhibii his 
paintings atier he li.ul lui lu J 
down stuli reijuests lioin in.i- 
)or nuiseunis around the eoiiii- 
tr\ lor \ I hree \ears ago 
the museum receiveil Aiinen- 
berg's gitl of two 
Cle/anne sketchbooks .ind is 
among the museums in line to 
receuH- his f'ull tollettion. 
I )"1 larnoiK ;uiri w as not in- 

terested 111 the directorship 
w hen she was tust .ipproaehed 
about It, 11) IV7'^ bec.iuse she 
te.ired that her administr.itive 
duties would make her lose 
touch w nil .in. But in l'>S2 
she made an .irrangemeni with 
the nuiseimi presuient. Robert 
Moiitgoiner\ Scott. I le be- 
came a tull-time ailinniistra- 
tor. treeing Anne \or the more 
creatne work. "ikisicilK . 
Aline is responsible lor the .irt- 
woik and Ini responsible lor 
the business side." Si ott e\- 
pl.iiiis "rni 111 the r.its' nest; 
she's oil the gK>r\ ' 

I ogether they h.ive over- 
si,\ii line ot the most siu cesstui 
lund-i .iisiiii', I .iiup.ii'.'jis III tlie 
I it\ . Ill w liK h the museum has 
so t,n i.iisvd SI ^ iiiillion ol its 
SSii million to siippU- 
iiieiit Its historualK skimp\ 
eiiilow iiient. Ihes li.ive also 
brought about an merdiie se.i 
ch.inge 111 the .irt nuisvums in- 
ner circle, long ,i stutt\ en- 
i lave of the Philadelphi.i M.iiii 
Line. Benn.iii. elected chair- 
man this sjMiiig, is the tirst 
(.iilsuf 1 III position who 
IS not oiiK jew ish but is also 






a self-made millionaire. 

For now, d'Harnoncourt is 
handling beautifully the "ter- 
rific pressures ot the heated-up 
art market and an increasing 
art audience" and plans to stay 
at the institution that she con- 
siders to have one of the most 
diverse collections in America. 
Ciiven her success in Philadel- 
phia and the dearth of good 
museum leadership, however, 
it IS probably only a matter of 
time before some other mu- 
seum — it not the Whitney — 
attempts to woo her away. 

— Liiciiida l-'Iccson 

Lucinda h'Iccson covers culture for 
the Phihidclphici Inquirer. 


Who IS tluit':: There on 
the stage of the New 
York C:ity Opera, in 
a visibly uiiderrehearsed per- 
formance of Vincenzo liellini's 
/ Piiritdiii, .1 smiling, pear- 

shaped man, badly wigged up 
as the cavalier Arturo, was do- 
ing something that comes nat- 
urally to very tew tenors. He 
was singing high notes. And I 
clo mean high notes: high C's 
and n's, not those effortful lit- 
tle B-Hats that tamous tenors 
are forever trying to pass off 
as high C's while turning into 
sweaty red tomatoes. 

Here was a tenor to nail to 
the floorboards. But just as we 
brightened to this prospect, he 
left for Europe. That was nine 
years ago. These days, no- 
body asks. Who's that? If it is 
large and singing high in an 
improbably titled and definite- 
ly obscure opera from the ear- 
ly-nineteenth-century bel can- 
to era, chances are pretty good 
the smiling apparition is none 
other than (^hris Merritt. 

Born in Okl.ihoma C]ity 
thirty-eight years ago, Merritt 
is a throwback to a time when 
vocal acrobatics were as much 
part of a tenor's equipment as 
a big ego. Twice in a row — 
first as Arnoldo, in Rossini's 


IVilliam Tell, torn between 
love and cluty, and then as Ar- 
rigo, in Verdi's / Vespri Sicili- 
aiii, torn between love and 
duty — he has opened the sea- 
son at La Scala, in Milan, an 
honor accorded to no other 
American tenor. Major com- 
panies reviving forgotten 
works by Rossini, Bellini, and 
Donizetti are booking him for 
their fiendishly acrobatic tenor 
roles through 1W6. 

This season, for a change, 
Merritt is spending some of 
his time in the United States. 
Come November, he makes 
his Metropolitan Opera debut, 
in Rossini's Seniiramide. as a 
minor Oriental potentate, in 
line with the company's tradi- 
tion of underplaying major 
talent. Much grander is the 
part of King Admetus, which 
Merritt sings this month in a 
rare revival of C^hristoph Wil- 
libald Cluck's Alceslc at the 
Lyric Opera of ('hicago. jes- 
sye Norman, a sopr.ino of 
equally imposing proportions, 
sings his c]ueen. with Robert 

Wilson directing a production 
already seen in Stuttgart and 
said to be almost lively by his 
usual, limb-numbing stan- 
dards. Anyone hoping for 
Merritt's trademark notes, 
though, is gc:)ing to be disap- 
pointed. Admetus, a poised 
hero in the classical mold, 
goes only up to a B-flat. Piece 
of cake for Merritt. 

— Mauuela HoelterhoJJ 

Manuela Hoelterhoff is the hooks 
editor of the Wall Street Journal. 


Poodles in Paris. Cow- 
boys and Indians. Art 
deco battleships. Wall- 
paper used to look this way — 
and thanks to Suzanne Lip- 
schutz and her Manhattan 
store. Secondhand Rose (270 
Lafayette Street, at Prince; 
212-431-7673), motifs like 
these still can be found. Lip- 
schutz, a native New Yorker, 
has been collecting and selling 
vintage patterned papers and 
linoleum for more than twen- 
ty years. "No one does this to 
the extent that I do," she says 
with unconcealed pride. 

Lipschutz grew up in the 
early fifties with wallpaper 
throughout her family's home; 
she vividly remembers the "3- 
D pineapples" in the dining 
room. But it was not until she 
bought and renovated an old 
house in upstate New York 
that the obsession took hold of 
her. "We had to knock down 
walls, but we couldn't save the 
beautiful old paper," she re- 
calls. "It was perfect, and I 
was determined to replace it." 
To do so, she looked in lo- 
cal hardware stores that had 
been in business since the days 
earlier in the century when 
they had regularly stocked 
wallpaper. Many, to her 
amazement, still had ample 
stocks of old patterns niolder- 
ing in the basement. She al- 
ready had an antiques store, 
named after a I92()s song 
UKule popular by the comedi- 
enne lanny Brice, and so it 
was a simple matter to add 
wallpaper to her wares. 

Today Lipschutz still finds 






<A X 


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much ot her inventory m the 
same way, at prices ranging 
from one dollar to thirtv-five 
dollars a roll. Ciuided by a sort 
ot diviner's sense of the pres- 
ence ot wallpaper, she has ac- 
cumulated over 5(),()<M) rolls of 
paper, some dating to as hir 
back as 191(1. which she sells 
at an average price of fifty dol- 
lars tor a double roll of si\t\ 
square feet. 

Although Lipschutz has 
many private clients — "1 have 
one customer who keeps add- 
ing rooms to his house be- 
cause he can't stop wallpaper- 
ing. " she confides — the bulk 
ot her orders comes from Hol- 
lywood production designers. 
who have used her papers in 
such films as Dnri»;sj .\li<< 
Diiisy and the forthcoming 
Roihy I '. Surprisinglv enough, 
this does not make her partic- 
ularly happy- "l get upset 
\\ hen the movies take great 
paper because I know that once 
the production is over.its going 
to be trashed. " 

C")ld-tashioned \\ all paper, 
she points out. is actuallv 
made ot paper (most modern 
wall coverings are vinyl- 
coated, for easy care) and put 
up with wheat paste. '"You 
can rip it. pull it, play \\ ith 
it." she says with a smile. 'It s 
a childish thing. And iiorhiiio 
has the impact ot wallpaper; it 
is the cheapest way to craiis- 
tc^rni a room. C")nce people 
have bought old paper thev 
never want new paper again. 
It luroims the wall. And then it 
lasts toi'ci'vr. Mv twent\-vear- 
old son still has the paper m 
his room he had when he was 
a babv!" 

Has there e\er been a wall- 
paper she wanted that she 
could not get? She takes a mo- 
ment to think. "W ell. the 
beauty parlor at the Breakers 
Hotel in Palm Beach had this 
incredible paper ..." But if 
Suzanne Lipschutz is looking 
tor a certain old pattern, 
chances are it will be at 
Secondhand kose soon — and 
up on someone's wall soon af- 
ter that. — Wiiuic S. Miuiiii 

Wviciv S. Mnriiii is ii |nr-l^1ln^ 
wrifn who fpiciiilizcs in prolilo. 



I < 





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^1990, Laitcls' End, Inc. 

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State . 


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^ R T- AND M -^ NP E Y 

Deaccessin^ the accessible in exchanj^e for the inaccessible 

By Michael F. Robinson 

Eakins's Swimming Hole: put up lor s<ilc by one Texas uuiscuin, houi^lit by luuuhcr for SIO inillioii to keep a uuistctpiccc in the state. 

Traditionalists in the art 
world have been 
sounding alarms lately 
over the spate of spectacular 
deaccessions being conducted 
by American museums. In the 
last year or so, a nimiber of 
important museums — the 
(iuggenheim, the Walker Art 
C^enter, Fort Worth's Modern 
Art Museum — have either 
sold, traded, or offered to sell 
older works of top-notch 
quality from their collections. 

often for the purpose of ac- 
quiring contemporary art that 
the public does not like (at 
least, not yet). The buyers are 
usually dealers or private col- 
lectors, and thus the older, fa- 
miliar works are removed 
from public access and some- 
times from the country. 

The controversy is not just 
another skirmish between the 
mainstream and the avant- 
garde. At Its root are the 
drastically new circumstances 

in which museums must raise 
money for operations and ac- 
quisitions. Until a tew years 
ago, they were able to thrive 
on the old principle "To con- 
duct a charitable enterprise 
with an annual deficit is to in- 
vite re-endowment," as Ben- 
jamin Ives (lilman advised in 
191S in Museum Ideals of Pur- 
pose atui Method. They also 
routinely sold oft odds and 
ends of secondary quality 
from their storerooms, items 

otten acquired as part ot be- 
quests of whole collections. 

Since the recent changes in 
the applicable tax laws, how- 
ever (see Cornioisseur, May 
1989 and Jantiary 1990), pri- 
vate donations ot money anci 
artworks to museums have 
sharply declined, torcmg cura- 
tors to revise their deacccssion 
standards ever upward. As 
one e.x.isperated senior curator 
commented, "Every time we 
are asked tor an object on 


( ONNOISSI lil< 

This year, | | 

the XVth Biennial Antique Shon ' 
is dedicated to Love 
in Art. 





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G R .A ^' n ^ 

^ 'HH''¥l^^ September 21 
^^^ Qctoher 7 

Information : Syndicat National des Antiij: 

■s. rue Clement Marot - 15()im PARIS FRANCE- Tel. : (I) 47.20 

1 _ X' . u , \A ^ A : .. ,. I u .. .. ™ .. _ ., u I- - - ^ 1 

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loan, I go to the board with an 
insurance vahiation and have 
to deal with the question 'Why 
don't we sell it?' " The num- 
ber ot museums doing busi- 
ness with Christie's has tripled 
in the past ten years from 
twenty-eight to eighty-eight, 
and at Sotheby's six art mu- 
seums alone sold S3S.6 million 
worth of art between 19S5 and 
the summer of 1988. hi 1989 
the numbers were even higher 
(see box). 

Such high-profile figures 
have drawn publicity in them- 
selves, as well as harsh critical 
scrutiny of the museums' 
choices of what to sell — or 
trade — and what to buy with 
the proceeds, hi July of last 
year, for instance. New 
York's Museum of Modern 
Art traded four paintings — a 
Monet, a Kandinsky, a Re- 
noir, and a Picasso — along 
with proceeds from the sale of 
another three for van C.ogh's 
Portrait of Joseph Roiiliii, with 
private dealers in Switzerland. 
The three pictures — a De 
C'hirico, a Mondrian, and a l^i- 
casso — netted SlO million at 
Sotheby's. Critics were dis- 
mayed by what they saw as 
the inequity of the trade and 
by the removal of so many 
paintings from the public do- 
main. In an interview with the 
New Wvh Times, MOMA's 
director of painting and sculp- 
ture. Kirk Varnedoe, had to 
take pains to emphasize that 
the donors or their heirs had 
been fully consulted and that 
these were paintings for which 
tiiere had rarely been room on 
the walls. The Renoir, for 
one, "simply didn't belong to 
the story of modern art that 
we are telling." 

The American Association 
of Museums' 1978 publication 
MusenDi Ethics offers the fol- 
lowing guidance on the ques- 
tion of museimi sales: "In the 
delicate area of acquisition and 
disposal of museum objects, 
the museum iiiiist weigh care- 
fully the interests of the public 
for which it holds the collec- 
tion in trust, the donor's intent 
111 the broadest sense, the in- 
terests of the scholarly and the 
cultural community, and the 
institution's fmancial well- 

being. . . . Every institution 
should develop and make pub- 
lic a statement of its policy re- 
garding the acquisition and 
disposal of objects. . . . Ob- 
jects should be kept as long as 
they retain their physical in- 
tegrity, authenticity, and use- 
fulness for the museum's pur- 
poses. . . . Only for clear and 
compelling reasons should an 
object be clisposed of against 
the advice of the museum's 
professional staff" 

The practical interpretation 

Modijiilidin's IJov in a Blue lackct, 

sold by the CjiK^i^eiihciDi tor S 1 1 .h in, 

of this statement varies from 
museum to museum, but the 
deaccession procedure folk)ws 
essentially the same steps 
everywhere: curatorial agree- 
ment that the object is surplus, 
board approval for this change 
111 status, and finally the sale or 
other disposal of the object. 
At a small institution like 
the Delaware Art Museum, 
the prt)cedures are relatively 
simple. Rowland Elzea, the 
associate director, explains 
that the curatorial department 
makes a unanimous recom- 
mendation to the board's col- 
lections committee, which ac- 
cepts or rejects it by a simple 
majority. Though the board 
niav reconsider the recom- 

mendations of the committee, 
it usually accepts its decision. 
With insignificant exceptions, 
all deaccessed material is sold 
at public auction. "We feel 
that auction is the most open 
way of doing things," says El- 
zea. "We have a public trust. 
All of our deaccession pro- 
ceeds go to provide acquisi- 
tion funds. Our major deac- 
cession, a few years ago, was 
our complete set of Audubon's 
Birds of America. Before then 
we had an only minimally en- 
dowed acquisition 
fund. We sold with 
the permission of 
the son of the origi- 
nal donor and have 
named the fund af- 
t e r the donor.'' 
The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art has » 
published a detailed 
description of its 
two-part process of 
disposal, set up in 
1973: "deaccession" 
proper — the remov- 
al of the item from 
the museum's col- 
lection — followed 
by a separate "dis- 
posal" procedure, 
allowing time be- 
tween the two steps 
for further consider- 
ation of its status. 
Deaccession is di- 
vided into nine 
steps: disposal into 
four for objects 
worth less than 
$25, ()()(). eleven for 
those worth more. The sys- 
tem of checks and balances is 

Museums and their financial 
activities are ultimately re- 
sponsible to the attorney gen- 
eral of the state in which they 
are legally domiciled. Pamela 
Mann, of the Charities Bureau 
of the New York attorney 
general's office, points t)ut 
that there are no laws specifi- 
cally regulating sales by mu- 
seums but that the attorney 
general does have a general 
subpoena power to make sure 
that the terms ot bequests or 
gifts have been complied with 
and the power to verify that 
an overall stantlard of pru- 
tlencc has been used in the 


conduct of the institution's fi- 
nancial affairs. The depart- 
ment was involved two years 
ago in the plans to sell large 
parts of the collections of the 
New-York Historical Society, 
which had so badly misman- 
aged its funds and collections 
that it seemed in imminent 
danger of collapse. While the 
office is never involved with 
any aesthetic decisions, Mann 
docs say that the attorney gen- 
eral was concerned about the 
problem of museum sales and 
would be considering various 
approaches in consultation 
with the state's museum direc- 
tors. What concerns her more 
is the proposed Museum Rec- 
ords Bill, which makes ade- 
quate record keeping — and 
public access to the records — 
mandatory for museums. The 
state's museums have been op- 
posing it as too onerous. 

Deaccession is drawing ever 
more public attention as more 
and more museums look 
beyond their storerooms for 
salable items. In May of 1989, 
for instance, the Walker Art 
Center, in Minneapolis, sold 
off fifteen nineteenth-century 
paintings at Sotheby's. The 
museum had long since begun 
disposing of its original collec- 
tion of nineteenth-century and 
antique art, having decided to 
focus on contemporary art 
with emphasis on twentieth- 
century American art. The 
sale realized $10.5 million for 
the museum, S8.25 million of 
which was paid for one work, 
Frederic Church's Home by the 
Lake, the world-record price 
to date for a nineteenth-cen- 
tury American painting. The 
funds will be used to increase 
the Walker's annual acquisi- 
tions budget from $120, ()()() to 
$550,000. Several of the paint- 
ings in question had been 
hanging in the neighboring 
Minneapolis Institute of Arts. 
Despite some deaccessions of 
its own, another local institu- 
tion, the Minnesota Museum 
of Art, which sold a Degas 
pastel for $1.2 million in the 
Irises sale of November 1987, 
was able to buv only one ot 
the Walker paintings, Albert 
Pinkham Ryder's The Pond. 
Neither museimi could attord 



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any ot the other pictures, 
whicli had been privately ot- 
tered betore the auction. 

What one thinks ot such be- 
havior depends on one's per- 
spective. The S'cii' Yoii; Tii)ic< 
chose to discuss it under the 
subhead "Whole Regions May 
Be Deprived," while m an in- 
terview in Museum \'cu'.< 
J. Carter Brown, of the Na- 
tional Callery, expressed the 
view that the Twin Cities re- 

Aihului lOiiDOfiisiiil Ljh\isiciiliciin 
liciuccssioii: (^IhiOiill's Anniver- 
saire A7(7i('(/ S14.^^ inillioii. 

git>n now "is inipox erished. " 
The IWishiii^toii Post com- 
plained. "Thanks to selling ott 
giants ot the I'Hh centurv, the 
nuiseuni has the money to buy 
up more pygmies ot the 
2(Hh."" Three art museums are 
near neighbors in Minneapo- 
lis-St. Paul, each specializing 
111 art ot ditterent periotls and 
st\ les; yet no individual, 
group ot citizens, or municipal 
body telt so culturally de- 
prived or impo\ erished as to 
bu\ the pictures and gi\e them 
back to one ot the museums. 
That is just what happened 
last spring when the Modern 
Art Museum ot'Fort Worth 
consigned to Sotheby's tor 
sale Thomas Eakins's master- 
piece The Su'iininiin^ Hole. 
with an estimate otSlO to SI 5 
million, to create an acquisi- 
tions endowment tor twen- 
tieth-century art. The Eakins 
hid been hanging tor the last 
year in the Anion C^irter Mu- 
seum m keeping with a joint 
understanding reached in 1')()<S 
about the nature and scope of 
the citv's art museums' collec- 

tions. The Modern had opted 
tor post-l'^)4() American and 
post-l*^)2() European art; the 
Carter, for American art up to 
U)4(). The two had been nego- 
tiating a private sale of the Ea- 
kins. but the Carter withdrew 
in January. Local publicity 
about the consignment gener- 
ated so much concern about 
cultural impoverishment that 
the picture was withdrawn 
trom the sale and the Anion 
Carter was able to tind addi- 
tional tuiids and make the pur- 
chase, tor SIO million, bv the 
middle of lune. 

Meanwhile, in New York. 
the new director ot the Solo- 
mon R. Guggenheim Founda- 
tion, Thomas Krens. has em- 
broiled the art world in an in- 
tense debate over what could 
be described as a new torni of 
museum imperialism. The 
Ciuggenheini ahead v has one 
ccilony abroad. l'egg\- Cug- 
genheim's palazzo in Venice, 
besides w hich there are hopes 
ot leasing the tormer customs 
house at the eastern end ot the 
Ciranci C^anal. Krens an- 
nounced last February that the 
Cniggenheim proposes to add 
to its nascent empire the mini- 
malist-art coUectic")!! of CAHint 
Ciuseppc l\inza di Biumo and 
his estate outside Milan. It also 
aspires to open another mu- 
seum, outside Salzburg, in 
•Austria. To help finance this 
expansion, in Mav the mu- 
seum siild a Kandinsk\ , a 
Modigliani. and a Chagall at 
Sotheby's tor S47.3 million, 
turther intiiriating traditional- 
ist critics. Still more money is 
needed tor these global ven- 
tures, and one wonders w here 
it w ill come trom, especially 
111 light ot Krens's answer to a 
.Wtc \orh T;//jc.v question 
about raising money tor the 
Panza purchase: "We w ill take 
on the responsibility, and we 
don't have to identity the 
sources ot the tunds." 

In such situations museums 
have been using their collec- 
tions as a financial asset, albeit 
to buy more and ditterent art. 
Yet a tentative conclusion of 
the Financial Accounting Stan- 
dards Board that museums 
should be required to include 
the \alue ot contributed works 

ot art. perhaps retroactively, 
on tmancial statements has 
been met with almost univer- 
sal disdain in museum circles. 
Thev claim not onlv that it is 
impossible to give accurate 
values but that the value of a 
museum's collection is, in any 
case, irrelevant to its real fi- 
nancial position, which is the 
ditterence between operating 
expenses aiiei operating in- 
come. What IS more, the mu- 
seums say. this proposal 
would "introduce a mercenary 
aspect to the art world which 
has not hitherto existed and 
would, at best, be capricious." 

The economist William D. 
Grampp, in his recent book 
Priciii^i the Priceless: Art, Artists 
iiiitl luoihviiiis, argues that such 
talk is economically senseless. 
Museums exist m the same » 
world of money and scarce re- 
sources as the rest ot us. He 
points out that one major cc^n- 
sequence ot their not recogniz- 
ing the cost ot holding art (tor 
example, to own a painting 
worth SI million when inter- 
est rates are (S percent is to 
choose to tbrgo an income ot 
at least SSO, 000 per year) is 
that museums are too large 
and inevitablv tend to grow 
larger vet. 

What IS the sireat tear about 

deaccession sales? To t]uote 
J. Carter Brown again. 
"There is no ctMitrol over 
where [the work of art] ends 
up. It's very likely it will leave 
the country, or at least leave 
the public domain." But 
where, atter all, did the paint- 
ings in American museums 
come tVom? Since the brg 
three — Boston. Chicago, and 
the Metropolitan — were estab- 
lished, in the 1870s, substan- 
tial parts of their collections 
must have come trom abroad 
by way ot the art market, di- 
rectly, or as gitts trom private 
collectors. The Met got 
art^und 85 percent of its hold- 
ings by bequests t^r gitts, tor 
example, and some of the 
most important paintings in 
Brown's own museum, the 
NaticMial Gallery, came in a 
single, en bloc sale from the 
Hermitage, in Leningrad. Is he 
not really admitting that mu- 
seum directors have tailed to 
persuade the picture-purchas- 
ing classes to support museums 
rather than buy tor their own 
w alls pictures that were tor- 
merly owned by museums? D 

Miiliiiel Rohiiisoti, who ii'rites for 
Art ^ Auction tiiui Connois- 
seur, has worked at an auction 
house and as a private dealer. 

Summary OF 1989 Sotheby's Museum Sales 



Haninier I'ric 

of Lots 



S .1,239.400 

Impressionist and Modern 






Nineteenth-Century European 



0\d Masters 



Latin .•\nierican 


8,. 500 





Number Haiiiiiier Price 
of Lots 

454 S 7.020.640 


Number li.unnicr Price 
o\ Lots 

18') S 467.950 


Number I lanimer i'rice 
of Lots 

903 878.735,940 

I \u 


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Rumiifii^ oil empty; a cLissicist's touch 

In terms ot design, the most 
perfect ideas are often the 
simplest. Consider the 
modern sailplane. Combimng 
great strength with virtually 
no weight, the sailplane can 
travel vast distances without 
any sort of internal power. Its 
beauty stems frc:)m the tact 
that its form and function are 
inseparable. "As we near the 
end of the century with enor- 
mous human and environ- 
mental problems, our concept 
of beauty is bound to change, " 
says the designer-engineer 
Paul MacCready. "Soon we'll 
be less concerned with how 
something loohs and more 
concerned with how ctticient- 
ly it ir('ri.'>'." 

Best-known as the father ot 
the Gossamer Condor (the 
world's first human-powered 
aircraft, of l'-)??). the Gossa- 
mer Albatross (the first hu- 
man-powered aircraft to cross 
the English Channel, in 1979), 
and the Solar Challenger (a 
unique solar-powered plane, 
of 1981), MacCready brought 
his knowledge of low-power 
and high-efficiency machines 
to the ground in 1987. That 
year, he designed and built the 
Sunraycer, a solar-powered 
car funded by General Mo- 
tors, which won the 1987 
World Solar Challenge, a 
grueling l,86()-mile race 
across the continent of Austra- 
lia. Averaging nearly forty- 
two miles per hour. Sunraycer 

not only won; it beat the sec- 
ond-place finisher by more 
than two days. 

Accounting for his success, 
MacCready noted that, as far 
as he knows, Sunraycer was 
the first vehicle in the history 
of Cieneral Motors in which 
no stylist was involved. "But 
what good is a solar-powered 
car?" someone wondered, to 
which the designer countered, 
"What good is a newborn 

Very good indeed. Shortly 
thereafter, CjM commissioned 
the sixty-two-year-old Mac- 
Cready, founder and president 
of the (California-based envi- 
ronmental and vehicle firm 
AeroVironment, to tap the re- 
sources of twenty-three GM 
divisions and affiliates in a se- 
cret program to develop what 
may mark the first major ad- 
\ance in personal transporta- 
tion in this century: a nonpol- 
luting all-electric vehicle with 
the same performance, com- 
fort, and safety as a conven- 
tional gasoline-powered 
sports car. 

Displayed at this year's Los 
Angeles Auto Show, the GM 
Impact stunned spectators and 
experts alike. "From the very 
beginning, we restricted our- 
selves to proven technologies 
so that GM would have a 'real 
world' car that could be put 
into production without wait- 
ing for any breakthroughs," 
says MacCready. 

Even todav. the averai^e car 

wastes most of its energy, ow- 
ing to poor aerodynamics, in- 
ternal friction (caused by drive 
train, brakes, tires), and en- 
gine inefficiency. "After all, 
engines convert gasoline into 
heat," he says, "only a frac- 
tion of which is converted into 
motion, which turns the 

Knowing that conventional 
lead acid batteries deliver only 
one percent of the energy ob- 
tainable from the same weight 
ot gasoline, the shy, bespecta- 
cled MacCready estimated 
that by pushing every other 
technology to the limit, he 
could achieve gasoline per- 
formance with batterv powei*. 

Once the basic design was 
set, MacCready examined the 
Impact like a detective, me- 
thodically locating and elimi- 
nating every source of energv 
loss and excess weight he 
could find. For example, in- 
stead of using a single electric 
motor, requiring the use of 
gears, he incorporated two 
smaller motors, attached di- 
rectly to the front wheels. 
Powered by thirty-two ten- 
volt batteries developed by 
GM's Delco Remy division, 
the dual-motor configuration 
can deliver an astonishing 1 14 
horsepower instantly, whether 
the car is at a standstill or trav- 
eling at highway speed. 

"The public perceives elec- 
tric vehicles as slow-moving, 
similar to golf carts." says 
John Z Werner, the tlirector ot 

GM's Advanced Product En- 
gineering division. "Yet the 
Impact shatters that percep- 
tion." To prove the point, 
GM tested the car head-to- 
head against the Mazda Miata 
and Nissan 3(H)ZX. From a 
standing start, the Impact out- 
distanced the other two cars, 
achieving sixty mph in eight 

In tact, punching the Im- 
pact's accelerator at sixty mph 
literally throws the driver 
back into the seat. Whv? '"At 
sixty miles per hour the mo- 
tors use only 10 percent of the 
car's total pow er, and. with no 
gears to shift, the remaining 
90 percent is available with no 
delay." notes MacCready. 

Another factor is the sleek, 
ultralight fiberglass body 
sculpted at GM's Advanced 
Concepts Center, in Thousand 
Oaks, California. Since drive 
shaft and exhaust svstem need 
not be accommodated, the 
car's underside is perfectly 
smooth, allowing it to slice 
through the air. Its shape, 
wide 111 the front and narrow 
in the rear, greatly reduces the 
turbulence normally left in a 
car's wake. "In effect, nearly a 
third of the foreign oil we buy 
is spent stirring up the air, " 
says MacCready. "When you 
think of the dollars involved, 
its madness." 

To extend the Impact's 
range further, AeroVironment 
developed a regenerative brak- 
ing system. "Every time your 
toot lifts otf the accelerator, " 
says MacCready, "the motors 

GM's hnpiht: tiihilly, ati electric 

uir that lives up to 

its looks. 

Give¥)ur Furniture 
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the turn of the century 
the owner of an exclusive 
London antique gallery 
developed Antiquax for 
use solely by his aristo- 
cratic clients. They needed 
a paste wax polish that 
would protect, feed and enhance the 
irreplaceable antiques they purchased 
at his establishment. Now this same 
secret formula of carefully blended fine 

waxes is available to 
everyone! Easy to apply 
Antiquax gives wood a 
soft, mellow long-lasting 
shine that repels dust and 
will not fingermark. Join 
the world s leading gal- 
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well as the stateliest of 
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insurance (total, $11.95 each). 


H.M. SPECIALTIES, Dept. CNWX 090; P.O. Box 1117, Radio City Station; New York, NY 10101 

Enclosed is my check or money order (no cash, please) payabk> to H.M. SPI^X'IALTIKS tor 

$ Please send me tin(s) of Antiquax C«) $11.95 ($9.95 plus $j!.()() lor >hii)pin,u. 



handling and insurance each). 

SHIP TO (please print) 


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I (Sorry, we cannot handle Canadian, foreign or C. 0. D. orders. ) Please allow 30 days for delivery from our rccoi|)t of your 
I order. We ship via United Parcel Service wherever possible. Overseas orders may take up to six weeks by Parcel Post 

The Hearst Corporation 

250 W. 55 St.. iNew York. NY 10019 






start to convert the car's kinet- 
ic energy into electricity, 
which is fed back into the bat- 
teries." With a httle practice, 
he notes, the Impact can be 
driven with only one pedal, so 
that its energy-robbing disc 
brakes are reserved tor final 
stops. As a result, the car can 
travel about 100 miles be- 
tween charges, both on the 
highway and in the city — even 
with conventional heating or 
air-conditioning. Recharging 
time ranges from two hours at 
a 220-volt industrial hookup 
to eight hours at home, with 
the electrical cost averaging 
1 .5 cents per mile. 

Though othcially silent on 
the subject of production, GM 
is now lobbying the govern- 
ment to modify its weight and 
structural requirements tor 
electric vehicles. If successful, 
this could put the Impact on 
the road within the next few 
years and elevate Paul Mac- 
Cready to the status of cult 
hero. But will drivers trade 
short range tor high pertor- 
mance and zero pollution? "In 
California they will," predicts 
the designer. "Nationwide, 
it's a political question. Until 
we start paying the true cost of 
gasoline at the pump, which 
experts estimate at over three 
dollars per gallon, we will 
never have the incentive to 
conserve." — Paul Kmikcl 

Paul Kuukel often u'ritcs on de- 
sign subjects. 

Ecirrini^s fit for an empress. 

The guns that Paul Lan- 
tuch engraves and in- 
lays with gold and plat- 
inum could easily be museum 
pieces, but they are not his 
only creations. He makes 
medals (one for the 350th an- 
niversary of New Haven, 
where he now lives; another 
for the 650th anniversary of 
Vilnius, where he was born). 
He is a skilled etcher, sculptor, 
and painter in egg tempera and 
watercolor. He has designed 
book jackets and labels for 
wine bottles. Yet all this is by 
the way. What is most im- 
portant is the "antique" 
jewelry he makes. "Jewelry," 
he says simply, "is my 

When you examine one of 
his jewels — a gold ring set 
with a milky chalcedony stone 
engraved with an image of 
Pegasus and surrounded by a 
delicate spiral border, say, or 
earrings with a Roman head 
engraved on each dangling, la- 
pis-backed gold oval — you can 

hardly believe it is newly 
made. The work is finely de- 
tailed, with extraordinary at- 
tention to each angle; to the 
finish, neither too shiny nor 
too matte; and to the exqui- 
sitely engraved semiprecious 
stone that complements its 
richly sober setting. One 
might suppose the piece had 
come trom a 2,0()0-year- 
old tomb. 

Paul Lantuch makes his 
jewelry in response to an aes- 
thetic that speaks to him ur- 
gently. He was born in Lithu- 
ania torty-tour years ago and 
studied graphics, sculpture, 
and industrial design at the 
Academy of Fine Arts, in Vil- 
nius. But there were things he 
was not taught. "I was very 
curious about old, forgotten ' 

weekends, for his family and 
friends. In 1982, on a trip to 
New York, he happened to 
pass the Ares Rare Gallery, on 
Madison Avenue, its window 
full of fine antique jewelry. He 
went in to show his own 
work, and the owner asked 
him to restore a Renaissance 
lion cameo ring. After several 
such restorations, he created a 
collection for the gallery. 

"It wasn't very big," he re- 
calls, "but it was very difficult 
to do." Lantuch has gone on 
making jewels tor Ares Rare. 
He works with eighteen- and 
twenty-two-karat gold, using 
semiprecious stones like lapis 
lazuli, bloodstone, and agate, 
in which he engraves "beauti- 
ful faces" — a lion's head, a 
gritfin, a bust in profile with 

techniques," he says. "I was 
looking for some rare books 
to teach me, but I just had to 
learn by experience because a 
these crafts have largely disap- 
peared in the Soviet LJnion." 

Undismayed by his lack of 
formal training in the engrav- 
ing of stones or in goldsmith- 
ing, Lantuch determined to 
become an artist in jewelry by 
studying pieces he admired 
and by trial and error. "The 
techniques I taught myself 
were very ancient and very 
difficult," he says quietly. 
"It's probably much easier to 
learn from someone else, but 
this way is better because you 
understand everything com- 
pletely. Sometimes you go in 
the wrong direction, but you 
learn a lot, so in the end it's a 
complete process." 

In 1980, after immigrating 
to the United States, Lantuch 
and his wite came to New 
Haven, Ck^nnecticut. "It is," 
he explains, "a little bit out ot 
the contemporary current. " 
He soon found a job embel- 
lishing guns tor a tirearms fac- 
tory near New Haven. While 
he worked on guns weekdays, 
he began to make jewelry on 

Owed to a ( jrciian urn. 

.44 niagnutn: en- 
iiraved, i^old inlaid. 

a classical feel to it . 

His inspiration comes from 
reading and imagination. "I'm 
reading a lot of books about 
antique times, post-antique 
times, the times in between 
antique and Middle Ages. I'm 
very interested in this transi- 
tion period between antique 
culture and medieval culture 
because it reminds me of my 
country in its present situa- 
tion, when some cultures are 
dying. The transition situation 
is always very interesting." 

For twenty years, Lantuch 
has seen and been a part of 
many trends. "In the sixties, I 
was a modernist," he says, 
marveling. Today he is a tra- 
ditionalist. No one art, he be- 
lieves, can survive in a vacu- 
um. Sometimes he feels "like 
three little trees — jeweler, 
etcher, engraver — all growing 
simultaneously and feeding off 
of one another in the process." 
— Raslia Mansouri 

Raslia Mansouri is a free-lance 
writer based in New Yorh. 



) ^^ 

G, . . . uh . . . P . . .Q 

. . • Lill . • • 0. 1 • • • ^^ 

A 2-year education project by WCYB-TY BOSTON 

A Hearst Television Station 

Nobody gets closer to people 
than Hearst people. 

Freedom of speech. It's an awesome responsibility. The people of Hearst belie\e that it tieinaiuls 

the highest standards of quality communication and a total comniiinieni lo the coiiiiiuiiiities we sene. 

Whether it is a TV project to improve education, a new product study in the (kkkI 1 i()u,sckeepii\u Institute 

or the editorials in today's newspapers, we treasure the responsibility. It's our iKTiias^e. It's our coininitment. 

The Hearst Corporation 

magazines • broadcasting newspapers • lxx)l<.s/business publishing 

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newspsper features syndication 

) 1990 nw MrvM tjorparmtom 


VI S. L ^ N. 

5/.V "Connie" au'iird wiiiiicvs 

By David Ruben 

Once again Coiitioi<<cii} 
takes stock of the 
state of the tube, try- 
ing to tnid in the wasteland ot 
cliches, banalities, and exploi- 
tation if there is "anything 
on."" Anything ot excellence, 
that is. Herewith, our find- 
ings, the second annual "C xin- 
nie" awards. 


Best Arts Series:"Alive 
FROM Off Center" 

PBS's "Ahve from Off Cen- 
ter" is television's premier 
(and, often, its only) \\ indow 
on the pertornung arts at their 
most innovative. From Laurie 
Anderson and lonathan 
Demme to Meredith Monk. 
Ann Magnuson. and Eric Bo- 
gosian. viewers see cutting- 
edge talent as it breaks. This 
season's otterings included 
Mark Rappaports Postavtis. an 
ironic chronicle of love lost 
told through the text and pic- 
tures of vintage postcards, and 
the dancer Douglas Dunn's 
video collage Myth ofModcni 
Diiihc. Still to come in Sep- 
tember are the highly ac- 
claimed Brothers Quay's Stircf 
oj Crocodiles and a bleak, bril- 
liant video production of |im 
C!!artwright's Roiui. a shatter- 
ing English stage drama of 
working-class despair. This is 
a ditterent breed of television, 
and a vital one. 

Best Spc^rts 
Procramming: ESPN 

ESRN is a victim of its own 
success. In 19<S(). the fledgling 
all-sports network, desperate 
for programming, served up 
round-the-clock helpin<j;s of 
the March NCAA basketball 
tournament's early rounds. 
Using a frenetic, on-the-fly 
mix ot live cut-ins and tape 
delays. ESPN vaulted elec- 
tronicallv from gvmnasuim to 
g\ mnasium, showcasing the 
obscure teams as they strove — 
sc^metimes successfully — to 
upset the national powers. 
ESPN managed to do what 
seems to be bevond network 
television's ken: capture the 
treew heeling spirit, plav- 
grouud rhythms, and sheer 
joy that are the essence of the 
sport. When it came to March 
madness, ESPN was a /<?/; — 
and in sports broadcasting 
there is no higher compli- 
ment. Last year CBS stole the 
shc)w away with an exclusive 
SI billion, seven-year contract 
w ith the NCAA. CBS's gain 
is basketball fans' loss. 

Best Musical Program: 
'Night Music" 

'"Night Music" is a happy ex- 
ception to the rule that televi- 
sion and good music do not 
mix. Produced for national 
syndication on a minimalist 
New York sound stage by the 
■'Saturday Night Live" guru 
Lome Michaels, "Night Mu- 
sic" celebrates the kaleiclo- 
scopic glories of contempo- 
rary music with eclectic line- 
ups — Philip Glass. Johnny 
Clegg. Dizzy Gillespie. Pops 
Staples, the l^ixies. Taj Ma- 
hal — and genre-bending jam 
sessions that surpass anvthing 
else on the tube, or on radio. 
tor that matter. The show has 
a loose, by-musicians-tor-mu- 
sicians feel. Artists often sit in 
and jam with one another. 
(Where else could vou hear 

Uric C^liiproii and Rohcrr C.ray idin . 

Sonny Rollins play \\ ith Leon- 
ard Cohen?) It airs during the 
weekend's wee hours, so you 
may want to set your VCR. 

Best Talk Show: 

Thousands of New Yorkers 
who tune in "Apostrophes" 
via cable each week call this 
French talk show the best 
arounci — in any language. An 
electronic-age literary salon 
presided over by the erudite 
yet entirely unpretentious Ber- 
nard Pivot. "Apostrophes"" is 
a livelv mnetv-minute give- 
and-take among authors great 
and small — guests have in- 
cluded the likes of Michel 
Tournier, Carlos Fuentes. Mi- 
lan Kunc^era. Nc)rman Mailer, 
and Susan Sontag. During its 
fifteen-year run, the show be- 
came a certifiable (it unlikelv) 
phenomenon in France, prov- 
ing that, in at least one coun- 
trv, thoughtful discourse and 
high ratings do not have to be 
mutually exclusive. Next 
vear. Pivot is moving on to 
another television show. 
Luckily, Apostrophiles can 
look forward to a season of re- 

I'lrol: inoic lluiii .) liili^-iiisl liciid. 

runs beginning this tall on the 
City University of New 
York"s cable-TV network. 

Best Loc:al News: 
KRON, San Francisco 

Is it really true that the once 
proud news-documentary tra- 
dition is as dead as Ed Mur- 
row himself? Not at KRON. 
The Bay Area station's news 
department produces a steady 
diet of prime-time documen- 
taries and news-hour special 
reports on subjects ranging 
from infant mortality to El 
Salvador's civil war. In an ex- 
plosive eight-part series, the 
station's investigative unit re- 
vealed that tons of toxic chem- 
icals are legally released into 
the Bay Area's water, soil, and 
air every day. Nor did the sta- 
tion shy away from naming 
the culprits: KRON produced 
a tree poster-size map of toxic 
sites, ranking the corporations 
and government facilities re- 
sponsible. Such devotion to, 
hard-nosed, issue-oriented 
journalism deserves recogni- 
tion — and emulation. 

Xong Ago & Far Away" 

Transplanting the timeless val- 
ues of good literature to the 
small screen and whetting 
kids' appetites for tales in their 
original written formats is the 
idea behinci "Long Ago &' Far 
Away. " Among the works 
that have appeared so far are a 
puppet-animated version of 
The Wind ill the Willows from 
England, a set of surreal clay- 
mation circus stories from 
France, and animated folktales 
from Czechoslovakia and 
Hungary. Hosted by James 
Earl Jones, "Long Ago" is 
aimed at five- to nine-year- 
olds, but adults are likely to be 
entranced as well. D 

I^iivid Riihcii is iJ Boston-hiiscd 



No^v you can visit, browse and shop 

Britain's fabled antique stores and auction rooms 

through the pages of a unique magazine. 




invites you to take twelve monthly visits to Britain, 
homeland of antiques. ..without ever stepping out of doors! 

Best of all, this trip w^ill not put a dent in your budget. 
The cost? A little more than 80 a day: 

One year (12 issues) of 



Riiir W'diclics 
I 'ictoriaiijcirchy 
Antique Kitchciiu'dic 
Diiiiii'^ Tables 
Frciuii Cdividi^c (blocks 
Irish Sili'cv 
Oriviildl Rii\i.'i 

(Chinese Porccldiii 

I-CdtllCV FdllS 

Sldi)iv(i CUdss 
Roydl W'oitcslcr 
Islamic All 
Silver C^.diiillcslii'ks 

And much, much more- a typical issue gives you 
unique information on furniture, porcelain, paintings 
silver and a host of collectahle antiques 


Experts share their knowledge, showing 
you the secrets of the fine collections and 
helping you to recognise quality and value 
for yourself We even tell you the current 
prices t:)f selected antiques, explain the 
special characteristics that give them • 
interest and value, and tell you the name, 
address and telephone number ot the 
dealer, in case you wish to make further 
enquiries or purchase directly. No t)ther 
antique magazine published today otters 
you such service. 

Act now and save SI 8.05 tVoni the 
newsstand cost. Just fill in the order torm 
M\d mail it today. 

Your first copy will be on its way to you in 
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Mail to: 

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Room 1117, 2.S() West .S.Sth Street, 

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QJ I'le.ise debit my M.istercii d 
Visa 1 )iners Club (delete, is 

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K I D s' Books 
(Continued from pa<^c 83) 

by Dr. Seuss. Exaggeration unbound: 
the first masterpiece fi-om the most 
popular of all children's authors. See 
also The Cat in the Hat, Horton Hears a 
Who! , If I Ran the Circus, and Green H^jj-f 
ami Ham. 

Goodnight Moon, by Margaret Wise 
Brown. The closest a book has ever 
come to being a lullaby. To keep the 
kids up while tenting in the old back- 
yard, try these cozy chillers: A Dark, 
Dark Tale, by Ruth Brown; Do Not 
Open, by Brinton Turkic; That Terrible 
Halloween Night, by James Stevenson. 

Where the Wild Thitigs Are and In the 
Night Kitchen, by Maurice Sendak. 
Monsters and night fears — two of child- 
hood's perennial anxieties — trans- 
formed into the stuff of dreams. 

Brave Irene, by William Stcig. It is 
almost impossible to choose 
among the many excellent Steig 
titles, which also include The Amazing 
Bone, Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, and 
Doctor De Soto. In this one an intrepid 
heroine braves a snowstorm to deliver a 
dress and finds herself lost in a world of 
wind and white. 

The Story of Jumping Mouse, by John 
Steptoe. An Indian legend, lovingly re- 
told and illustrated, about self-sacrifice 
and transcendence. When he has given 
up everything for others' sake. Jumping 
Mouse is transformed into Eagle. 

The Polar Express, by Chris Van Alls- 
burg. The best-known book of the most 
highly regarded illustrator now at 
work. A Christmas classic. Perhaps a 
tad sentimental? But the wolves will pad 
softly through your dreams. See also his 
Kafkaesque Mysteries of Harris Burdick, 
the mysterious Garden of Abdul Gasazi, 
and the spooky J unianji. 

Noah 's Ark, by Peter Spier. An almost 
wordless version of the Bible story, 
vibrant with myriad telling, funny de- 
tails. Two of Spier's other picture books 
are comic masterpieces: Oh, Were They 
Happy! , about three kids who decide to 
paint their house; and Bored — Nothing to 
Do!, about two brothers who build a 
working airplane out of bits and pieces 
from around the house. 

Miss Rmnphius, by Barbara Cooney. 
The beautifully controlled story of a 
young girl who fulfills all her dreams 
only in old age. Exquisite and moving. 


The Animal Family , by Randall Jarrell. A 

hunter yearns for a family and, unex- 
pectedly, finds one with a mermaid, a 
lynx, a bear, and a boy. Mozartian 

Hoxv Tom Beat Captain Najork and His 
Hired Sportsmen, by Russell Hoban; il- 
lustrated by Quentin Blake. Aunt Fid- 
geta Wonkham Strong, at whose ap- 
proach the flowers droop, tries to teach 
Tom to stop fooling around by sending 
for the terrible Captain Najork. But 
when the captain challenges Tom to 
play womble, muck, and sneedball, he 
is in for a surprise. A perfect marriage of 
words and pictures. Hoban's other clas- 
sics include the Frances the Badger se- 
ries for toddlers and the superb young- 
adult novel The Mouse and His Child, a 
parable about life's vicissitudes filled 
with melancholy wit, horror, and an 
unexpected, hard-won happiness. 

Five Children and It, by E. Nesbit. 
Nesbit — through her wry, colloquial 
narrative voice — created the modern 
children's story. The "It" here is a 
Psammead, a sand fairy who grants 
wishes that last only a day. At least a half 
dozen other Nesbit works are worth 
searching for, especially The Story of the 
Treasure Seekers. 

Tuck Everlasting, by Natalie Bab- 
bitt. In this beautifully told story 
a little girl encounters a family 
that has been blessed — or cursed — with 
immortality. See also The Search for 
Delicious. Try too the fantasy fiction of 
Edward Eager, Susan Cooper, Lloyd 
Alexander, Diana Wynne Jones, Jane 
Langton, and Peter Dickinson. 

Citizen of the Galaxy, by Robert A. 
Heinlein. Get ready for the jump to 
light-speed in this fast-moving adven- 
ture. Heinlein wrote the best juvenile 
science fiction; this novel chronicles the 
coming of age of an orphan who tries 
out various life-styles — beggar, soldier, 
businessman — before discovering who 
and what he really is. 

Tom's Midnight Garden, by Philippa 
Pearce. The most admired British chil- 
dren's book of the past fifty years. A 
lonely boy discovers that he can go back 
in time when he enters a special garden 
as an old clock strikes thirteen. Haunt- 
ing; immensely moving. 

liarthfasts, by William Mayne. Au- 
thor of dozens of books, of all sorts, 
Mayne is regarded with awe for his 
style, fluency, and complex artistic vi- 
sion. In this one a leak in time transports 

a drummer boy from the past into the 
modern world, with untoward conse- 
quences. See the chilling exploration of 
myth and madness A Game of Dark. 

A Wizard of Earthsea, by Ursula K. Le 
Guin. An adolescent, in training to 
become a wizard, must confront the 
shadow within himself. Superb prose, 
thrilling adventures, and important les- 
sons about the self: a masterpiece. 

Charlotte's Web, by E. B. White. The 
best-known modern American chil- 
dren's book. Daring for its time in that 
Charlotte the spider dies at the end after 
saving Wilbur the pig. 

This is but a selection. Readers look- 
ing for further guidance to children's lit- 
erature should consult such books as 
Michele Landsberg's Reading for the Love 
of It, Jim Trelease's New Read-Aloud 
Handbook, and The Horn Book Guide, 
edited by Ann A. Flowers. D 

Top Ten All-time Children's 
Hardcover Best-sellers* 

1 . The Tale of Peter Rabbit, by Bea- 
trix Potter (Frederick Warne, 1902); 
number of copies sold in the United 
States: 9,000,000. 

X^. Pat the Bunny, by Dorothy Kun- 
'hardt (Golden Books, 1940); 

3^ The Littlest Angel, by Charles 
iTazewell (Children's Press, 1946); 

4. The Cat in the Hat, by Dr. Seuss 
(RdAdom House, 1957); 3,693,197. 
s/Green Eggs and Ham, by Dr. Seuss 
(Random House, 1960); 3,683,097. 
6/ The Children's Bible (Golden 
Books, 1965); 3,654,743. 
7. The Real Mother Goose, illus- 
trated ^ Blanche F. Wright (Rand 
McNally, 1916); 3,600,000. 
8.^Richard Scarry's Best Word 
BjOoK Ever, by Richard Scarry (Golden 
Books, 1963); 3,303,583. 
9/One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue 
FfSH, by Dr. Seuss (Random House, 
l'96()); 2,970,833. 

10. Hop on Pop, by Dr. Seuss (Random 
Hoitise, 1963); 2,953,324. 

^Source: Publishers Weekly, 8/27/89. 
Does not include titles in the public 

Michael Dirda is the children' s-books editor 
of the Washington Post Book World. 



Rare Cats 
(Continued from page 90) 

Curl. As Grace Ruga, the first woman 
to breed American Curls, told me, "If 
you're looking for a cat that can be 
dragged down the hall by a child, this is 
the one. They're friendly almost to the 
point of being obnoxious. " So eager for 
human attention are Ruga's American 
Curls that birthmg females will follow 
her around in order to be compliment- 
ed on the arrival of their kittens. 

Admittedly, there is no shortage of 
friendly cats. What distinguishes Amer- 
ican Curls is their ears, which curl back 
from their heads like little flower petals. 
Once again, this distinction is the result 
of a genetic mutation; it first appeared in 
a stray female named Shulamith, who 
attached herself to Ruga's husband, Joe, 
in 1981. Rare cats, it seems, are strange- 
ly attractive to predators, and Shula- 
mith met her fate in the form of a mur- 
derous owl. However, the line was 
securely enough established by then that 
there are now about four hundred 
American Curls worldwide. Pet-quali- 
ty American Curls fetch at least two 
hundred dollars apiece; if a breeder can 
be persuaded to sell, show-quality cats 
cost no less than nine hundred dollars. 

Owls, weasels, cars, and coat- 
tearing bushes make the out- 
doors a dangerous place for 
most rare cats — and for their owners, 
who are generally eager to protect their 
investment as well as their pets. But it is 
the weather that keeps the Sphynx 
inside. After all, a hairless cat tends not 
to enjoy a nice, brisk winter day as much 
as his coated counterparts do. 

The Sphynx was without a doubt the 
most eagerly sought-after cat at the 
Madison Square Garden cat show. Here 
its rarity (there arc about a hundred fifty 
Sphynxes in the United States) was less 
interesting to spectators than its appear- 
ance. When you first see a Sphynx, you 
cannot believe you are seeing a cat at all. 
"It's hairless] " people passing the cage 
of Safram Pierrette kept exclaiming, as 
though that were not the main point of a 
Sphynx. Even more disconcerting than 
the Sphynxes' nakedness, at least to my 
way of looking, is that they have wrin- 
kles — deep, eerie, Yoda-like furrows in 
their foreheads and along their sides. 
("Would all cats have those wrinkles if 
you shaved them?" I asked Sandra Ad- 
ler, Safram's breeder. She did not 
know.) The cats are huge-cared, usually 
very faintly dusted with fuzz, and "tat- 


tooed" in the places where ordinary cats 
would have coat patterns. 

Seeing a cat without its fur is a bit like 
seeing one of those clear plastic models 
of the human body — you feel a tad 
queasy at how much is made visible. As 
I hovered in front of the Sphynxes, 1 was 
not sure I wanted to think in such detail 
about the little slots cats have in their 
toes to let their claws out. The Sphynxes 
seemed more fascinating than appealing. 

I could not get them out of my head, 
though, and a few weeks after the show 
I visited Sandra Adler at her house m 
suburban Westchester County, New 
York, to see her Sphynxes up close. 
Now, for the first time, I understand 
what it is like to be born again. 

Although Adler's two adult 
Sphynxes gave me a gracious 
welcome, picking up her pair of 
five-wcek-old Sphynx kittens really did 
the trick. Holding a Sphynx kitten is 
like holding a hot peach, or — as Adler 
put it — a tiny suede hot-water bottle. As 
long as the kitten is within reach, you 
will pat it; you will be powerless to 
resist, because there is no other texture 
so hypnotic. As I sat in Sandra Adler's 
living room, I marveled at my fortune 
in being a grown-up whose job requires 
her to pat kittens. 

Moreover, Sphynxes seem to come 
equipped with a gene for snuggling as 
well as one for hairlessness. The male 
kitten curled next to my leg; the pale 
pink female — whose eyes looked exact- 
ly like a newborn baby's — dozed, on her 
back, in my lap; and I wondered what 
would happen if 1 called home and 
announced that I was bringing back a 
little thousand-dollar surprise. 

Okay, I'm in. I have found my breed. 
Cats with fur suddenly seem frilly aiul 
overdone to me. For the first time 1 
understand what cat breeding is really 
about, and I look forward to picking up 
a few blue ribbons for my own prize- 
winners in a few years. 

Unfortunately, my husband will 
probably be just as allergic to my 
Sphynxes as he is to Whisky; a cat's dan- 
der, not its fur, is said to trigger most 
allergies. But I cannot do anything 
about that. I guess my husband will just 
have to stay outside and keep Whisky 
company. D 

Ann Hodgman is a contributing editor of 
Spy magazine and writer on food. 






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250 W. 55'" ST., NY, NY 10019 

Wynn Kramarsky 
(Continued Jrom page 98) 

vivial argument after a day's work; Kra- 
marsky was one of the fascinated young 
men who hung around eavesdropping. 
A few years later, as he settled down to 
marriage and fatherhood and serious 
collecting, he decided to focus on draw- 
ings with some emphasis on the newly 
emerging minimalist artists. In the mid- 
seventies came a new set of priorities: he 
would give special attention to young, 
unrecognized people working in the 
minimalist mode. 

Not everyone in the art world 
shares Kramarsky's enthu- 
siasm. Early this year, the Har- 
vard art historian Anna C. Chave un- 
leashed a fierce attack on the movement 
as "a kind of cultural terrorism, forcing 
viewers into the role of victim." It 
would be hard to apply the accusation to 
the fragile, even tender paper art on 
Kramarsky's wall. He listens carefully 
to the recitation of a friendlier assess- 
ment by another scholar. In Minimalism: 
Art of Circumstance, the California art 
critic Kenneth Baker proposes that for a 
culture battered by purposeless mes- 
sages, "the enduring value of Minimal- 
ist art . . . may be its voicelessness, its 
patent silence. ..." 

Is Baker suggesting that minimalism 
matters because it says nothing to us at 
all? Kramarsky pauses for a long mo- 
ment of thought. He would not dis- 
agree, but he observes, "In deliberately 
not saying something you make a fur- 
ther statement. The work itself is a 
statement, which you must draw out of 
it by looking carefully." 

Most visitors to Kramarsky's office 
do not even glance. "They don't look; 
they hardly see anything at all. Maybe 
they're embarrassed to look seriously; 
maybe they figure you're not supposed 
to, or they're afraid they will be asked 
whether they like something and why. " 
During his years in government, Kra- 
marsky goes on, thousands of people 
came through his offices; he can recall 
fewer than a dozen in all that time com- 
menting on the art. His state civil-rights 
quarters were in the World Trade Cen- 
ter, a venue that suffered a burglary 
every other month. Between rue and 
joy, Kramarsky recounts that equipment 
vanished, typewriters disappeared, but 
the art was never touched. D 

Helen Dudar writes on the arts for Smith- 
sonian and many other periodicals. 



(Continued from pa^e 102) 

There, at a small resort named Posada 
del Sol, I tried them out on what must be 
the best series of permit flats in the Ca- 
ribbean. In five days of fishing. Chuck 
Rizuto, a guide from New Mexico's San 
Juan River, and I saw one hundred and 
sixteen permit, most within casting dis- 
tance of our boat. I lost three permit to 
sharp coral outcroppings on the flats, 
but on the second day, fishing with the 
local guide Mandy Moore, I caught an 
eighteen-pounder that took the fly a sec- 
ond time after I failed to hook it on the 
first strike. That big permit was hooked 
on the edge of a sandy bank and, fortu- 
nately for me, sped for a deep drop-off 
where there were no rocks or other 
obstructions. Even so, it took nearly an 
hour to subdue the permit on a nine-foot, 
nine-weight graphite fly rod. 

As if that were not enough, fishing 
the following day with another 
local guide, Robert Jones, I cast 
Anderson's fly at three permit cruising 
by us in about five feet of water. All 
three permit tipped up and followed the 
McCrab down to the bottom, anc when 
I twitched it, one took the fly an \ sp d 
off. It was a small permit of abou^ eight 
pounds, but as all of us permit anglers 
know, any permit on a fly is a trophy. 

Two permit on a fly in three days — 
my cup ranneth over! Still, in twenty 
years of trying, I had caught a grand 
total of only four permit on a fly. 

Difficult as the sport may be, it seems 
to be attracting more devotees. Young 
fly fishermen are discovering that the 
solitude of the bonefish and permit flats 
is a refreshing alternative to the crowds 
of anglers in freshwater streams and 
lakes. New "space age" materials are 
allowing manufacturers to make lighter 
and stronger rods, and reels that are 
treated against saltwater corrosion and 
capable of holding far more fly line and 
backing than previous models. Lines 
and leader materials are better made. 

More fly fishermen are finding that 
saltwater game fish are larger, faster, 
and stronger than their freshwater cous- 
ins — and, what is more, will readily 
take a fly. All except the unpredictable 
permit, that is. But then, what saltwater 
fly fishermen would want anything less 
than this marvelous challenge? D 

Jack Samson, the author of sixteen hooks on 
fishinq^, for fifteen years was the editor in 
chiej of Field & Stream magazine. 




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Wonder Woman 
(Coiiliinii'd from pai^c 106) 

Opera IS gloriously represented 
with exotica and favorite master- 
pieces, luxuriously cast: 

• Berio, La Vera Storia, led by 
the composer (October 4) 

• Henze, The Bassarids, a bril- 
liant modern gloss on The Bac- 
chac, mounted by the Cleveland 
Orchestra, under Christoph von 
Dohnanyi (October 27) 

• Strauss, Elektra, with Eva 
Marton and the Vienna Philhar- 
monic, led by Claudio Abbado 
(March 3) 

• Puccini, Tosca, with Carol Va- 
ness and the Philadelphia Or- 
chestra, led by Riccardo Muti 
(April 2) 

• Verdi, Otello, Luciano Pava- 
rotti's first, with the Chicago 
Symphony, under Sir Georg Sol- 
ti (April 16 and 19) 

True to torm, Carnegie Hall has 
elite recitalists and orchestras: 

• Piano recitals, as always, are 
legion. Best bets: Evgeny Kissin 
(the young Russian master in his 
Carnegie Hall debut, September 
30), Murray Perahia (November 
9), Richard Goode (December 
]()). Radu Lupu January 24). 
Emanuel Ax (February 20), 
Maurizio Pollini (March 9), Ivo 
Pogorelich (March 13), Peter 
Serkin (March 27). Alfred Bren- 
del (April 8), and Alicia de Larro- 
cha (April 10). 

• The art of soti^^ is served with 
distinction by Jessye Norman 
(October 22), Leontyne Price 
January 26), Alan Titus (Weill 
Recital Hall, March 8), the caba- 
ret artists Helen Schneider 
(Weill, April 10) and Andrea 
Marcovicci (Weill. April 19), 
and, in her Carnegie recital de- 
but, Kathleen Battle (April 27). 

• Stritii^ virtuosity is promised in 
the recitals of the violinist Mido- 
ri, eighteen (Carnegie Hall recital 
ueDut, October 21);. two superb 
quartets — the Takacs (Weill, 
October 5) and the Emerson 
(January 23); and the cello titans 
Mstisiav Rostropovich (October 

Is'ij.u' Stern fiddles on his 
birthday with the Curtis 
orchestra (October 16). 

On the one hand, there 
i.s the violinist Isaac 
Stern, Carnegie Hall's 
longtime president, 
who smgle-niindedly 
spearheaded the drive 
to save Carnegie Hall. 
On the other is the 
c hair ni an. f a ni e s 
Wolfensohn, head of 
his own investment 
bank and new chair- 
man of the Kennedy Center. These arc men 
w'ho know what they want. Neither is known 
for playing Softball. 

Arron, as one staffer tactfully puts it. can 
"deal with the pressures." She has been 
known to stamp her foot or pound her fist in 
frustration, but her typical response in tense 
moments, says Stern, is more likely to be, 
"Hold on, guys. Let's just settle down, have a 
cup of coffee, and talk this over." Only in her 
champagne-colored BMW does Arron let go. 
"The radar detector," she confides, "has 
saved me a lot ot tickets." 

But before the dazzling, 150-event centen- 
nial season was announced, it would have tak- 
en a sharp eye to cletect much artistic drive — 
t:)r Arron's Wonder Woman alter ego. Grant- 
ed, she had moved quickly to refocus the 
hodgepodge of house-sponsored events in the 
newly refurbished, 268-scat Weill Recital 
Hall. A cabaret series proposed by Weill's 
new ciirector, Kristin Kuhr, flourished, but 
there were casualties, too: new music and 
jazz. And m the 2,8()4-seat Mam Hall, Carne- 
gie's presentations quickly settled into a pre- 
dictable menu of internationally renowned 
musicians anci superstars. 

Arron's initial conservatism ma\- have had 
as much to cio with political savvy as with art- 
istic predilection. Rosen, who resigned in 
1985, reportedly ran afoul of the board 
because he spent toc^ much money pursuing 
worthy but hard-to-sell artistic goals at a time 
when the board's priority was renovation. 
Only alter the hall's refurbishing and reop>en- 
ing were behind her ciid Arron present her 
most ambitious ideas for the centennial to the 
eight-member executive 
committee and the forty- 
six-member board of trus- 
tees: the commissions; the 
workshops; and the return 
of a pricier Rosen project, 
operas in concert. 

No one expects Wonder 
Woman to keep up this 
pace forever, but the cen- 
tennial precedent matters. 
Ihanks to a grant from the 

I (■»)'(■ \'ornian, solo 
i^'i.Jio /;i> fewer than 
nim^s, inciudinsi the \;r 

National Endowment for the Arts, Arron 
says, the hall will continue to commission at 
least one new work each season, "and there 
may be occasions when we'll do two or 
three. " Already, the world premiere of a piece 
by Andre Previn with Kathleen Battle as 
soloist has been scheduled tor 1991-92. The 
professional-training workshops will also re- 
turn in future seasons. 

Thirty years ago, when Carnegie had nar- 
rowly escaped the wrecker's ball, the empha- 
sis was on survival. In 1960, the hall began 
sponsoring concerts rather than just renting 
its facilities. Quickly it became a major force 
in the presentation of big-name attractions. 
Its success is evident in subscription sales of 
$3.5 million last season, up 25 percent since 
fiscal 1988; attendance currently averages 90 
percent of capacity. In addition, the S60 mil- 
lion tace-litt signaled a new phase for this ven- 
erable landmark, capturing media attention 
and significantly increased support. 

If Arron^ tenure has coincided with a 
period of renewed confidence, however, it 
has also been marked by spiraling costs. 
Although the hall has trimmed its presenta- 
tions from 235 in the 1984—85 season to 137 
last season, the operating budget has kept ris- 
ing, from SI 1.6 million in 1984—85 to about 
S20 million in 1989-90. Invigorated fund- 
raisine efforts — nowadays averaging S5.9 
million annually — have enabled Carnegie to 
move into the black for the 1989-90 season. 

A goal now is to buttress the hall's paltry S3 
million endowment — one more task for Ar- 
ron to contend with. In January 1989 the trus- 
tees appointed her to succeed the retiring 
executive director Norton Belknap, adding 
development and finance to her artistic re- 
sponsibilities. "When we hired her as general 
manager." says Wolfensohn, "we made her 
no promises. She got the promotion on the 
basis of her pertormance." 

It is one-thirty on a Sunday afternoon in 
March, and all the entrances to Carnegie Hall 
are buzzing. Arron stands by the stage door 
greeting an endless procession of classic pow- 
er brokers on hand to hear Leonard Bernstein 
conduct the Vienna Phil- 
harmonic: Gerard Mor- 
tier, the artistic director- 
designate of the Salzburg 
Festival; Alison Ames, 
vice-president of artists 
and repertory tor Deutsche 
Ctrammophon in the Unit- 
ed States and Bernstein's 
and with or^he.^ira. executive producer; the 
tire centennial eve- agent David Foster, ofCo- 
and fniale (May 5). lumbia Artists Manage- 



nicnt. Inc., who represents ^^^^^■^^V' ^Bfil '^ort of ct)niplaint. 

the Vienna Philharmonic ^^^H^^^f "^IeI Arron entered the classi- 

ontour. . . ^B^^J^^^^B A cal-niusic business 

Beneath Arron's gra- ^T^ll^^H^ ^ ^ c college by way of a posi- 

cious demeanor is an un- HBy ' ^^^^^ *'*. i^ tion^with the American 

dercurrcnt of tension; It IS ^Hf ^^^^^p' %11W^ | S y m p h o n y Orchestra 

now ten minutes to curtain ^^ ^ ^^^^BHL^V^^ I League, nonprofit service 

time, and the maestro has ^^^ ^^H^HJJ&T % JB 5 organization. Five years 

not yet arrived. "He gets a r^,,,., v,/, i j i ■ n • later her husband Ron- 

■^ '11 vJ(i"\' CiOlll ICiUlS Luciano I\U'ciyOltl S "»>■»-'' ""-' nuauaiiu, ivuii 

httle later each year, she p-st OtcUo, pcrfoniiai in ammt with the ^^^^^ •» violist, landed a job 
sighs. Finally Bernstein Chiuis^o Syinpliony (April 16 ami 19). with the Cincinnati Sym- 

shows up with his entou- phony. Symphony offi- 

rage, seven minutes later. She hugs him cials who remembered her studv on vouth 

warmly, accompanies him to his dressing concerts for ASOL soon tapped her to devel- 

room, and then c]uickly threads her way op a community-outreach program. In 1976, 

through labyrinthine hallwaysjust in time to she was named the Cincinnati's orchestra 

dash to her seat in the house box, where she manager — a position she held until she beat 

plays hostess to important arts patrons. out a half dozen better-known candidates for 

Arron has a degree in cello and piano from the Carnegie Hall post, reportedly with 

the University ot Puget Sound, in Tacoma; strong backing from Stern, 

this heightens her sensitivity to preperfor- From the beginning of her tenure, she says, 

mance anxiety. "Some people want you to her husband and two sons have been "incred- 

hold their hand," she says. "Others want you ibly supportive." Ronald Arron, a frequent 

out of the dressing room as fast as possible." substitute with the Metropolitan Opera Or- 

Still others value her musical input. "IfYo- chestra and the New York l^hilharmonic, 

Yo Ma and I are giving a duo recital," says the does the cooking at their home in Chappaqua, 

pianist Emanuel Ax, "she'll stop by at rehear- New York, and takes his turn in the local car 

sals and tell us if the balances are correct." pools. On Saturdays, Arron ferries thirteen- 

Of course, last-minute cancellations are a year-old Eddie to the Manhattan School of 

concert presenter's nightmare, and Arron has Music, where he studies cello. Then she hies 

had her share. The day after the hall's gala re- herself to a conference room provided by the 

opening — followed by late-night partying at 
Petrossian, the caviar oasis a block away — 
Arron straggled into the ottice, only to re- 
ceive a call from a flu-ridcien Daniel Baren- 
boim, unable to give his schecluled piano reci- 

conservatory, where she works uninter- 
rupted until his chamber-music class, which 
she likes to observe. But holidays and other 
tamily times often play second fiddle to her 
hectic schedule. "Mv kids have known since 

tal that afternoon. Not to worry. She picked they were very little," she says, "that there 

up the phone and called Itzhak Perlman. The will always be a celebration for their birtiiday 

audience was more than consoled. and 1 will always bake the cake ot their choice. 

Most programming takes place on a less It just may not happen on the actual day." 
frenzied basis. In 1988, Arron brought in With C^arnegie positioned for a spectacular 
Catherine Gevers, a former vice-president launch into a new century, does Arron e\'er 
with Columbia Artists, to help oversee every- yearn to return to the world ot orchestra man- 
thing that takes place on the Carnegie Hall a gem cut? She 
stage. Seasons are generally planned two says, "I've been 
years in advance, and these days Gevers has asked it 1 would 
more responsibility for the selection of reper- consider talking 
toire than previously. But Arron and Stern about positions in 
insist that it is Arron who decides which art- o t h e r pi a c e s . 
ists to engage. "Judy will discuss general ar- There seems to be 
tistic policy with me," says Stern, "as she a perception that 
does with the executive committee, but under once you plan a 
no circumstances can it be said that anyone on centennial you 
the board has ever demanded a place for a per- pack up and go. 
tormer or stoppeci a pertbrmer." But I'd really like 

Apart from programming, the subject of to be here to see some ot the 

Y()-V() Mil pliiyslhcitllo inih 
soiitiii ,iiul >iay ipiality that till 
the hall Ijaimaiy /.<). 


luiis we ve 

fees is controversial. "Nc^t only does Carne- 
gie pay less than many other halls," tumes one 
manager, "but they will tell you they have a 
moral right to do so." "We work in a glass 
building here," is Arron's riposte to this 

established get off the ground." D 

Barbara Jepsoti writes on the art and Inisiinss of 
music fortius niaj^azinc, the Wall Street Journal, 
and other publications. 

I) and Yo-Yo Ma (Jjiuiary 13). 
• Star orchcsiitis are coniiiig tor 
extended visits. Chief attractions 
are the Royal Conccrtijcbouw 
Orchestra of Amsterdam. Uic- 
cardo Chailly. conductor (Octo- 
ber 5 to 7 — program highlights: 
the New York premiere of Rai- 
iivrim<, whereui lierio "com- 
pletes" Schubert's unfmished 
Symphony no. 10. October 5; 
and Mahler's Da> Liid ron dcr 
I'.idc, October ()): the Leningrad 
Pliilharmonic, Yuri Temirkanov 
and Mariss Jansons, conductors 
(October 2') to November 1 ): the 
Vienna I'hilharmonic, C'laudio 
Abbado, conductor (February 26 
to March 2) 

Ihc opening-night gala, under- 
written by American Express, 
features the Los Angeles Philhar- 
monic under Andre Previn, with 
It/hak Perlman. Festivities are 
planned, too, tor the birthdays of 
Isaac Stern (his seventieth, Octo- 
ber 16) and ("ole Porter (his one- 
luindredth, June '■)). 
music ot the Americas — cowhov 
si)ngs, Caribbean. African, and 
Hispanic styles, the blues, and 
more — dominates at Weill Recit- 
al Mail tor twelve tascinatinii 
evenings (Ni>\ ember .> to I >i- 
cemher IS). And to cap the se.i- 
son. tiure is the ten-concert 
" Festiwil lop 
piiks: .111 exemng ot |.i//, n>ordi- 
iiated b\ W\ iiti>ii Mars.ilis (April 
2S); .111 e\emiii; ol lolk. coonh- 
n.iteil In Pete Seeger (April M)); 
the Opera Orelies- 
tr.i, led b\ |. lines I e\ iiie, \sitli 
|ess\e Norm. Ill singing lUetho- 
\eii .iiui Wagner (Mav .M; and the 
gi.iiul lin.ile (M,i\ S). imobing 
tile New York Phiih.innonic. 
/iiiim Meiit.i, I eiMi.ird liern- 
steiii. Pi.ii uio I )oiningo. tiie Em- 
pire Hr.iss ()miitet, RiuU^lt Ser- 
kin. Piiuiias /ukerman, .iiid more — among tiiem. m 
iier tilth Carnegie I tall centennial 
appearance, Jessye Norman, the 
season's uncrowned queen. 

For turther intormation or to 
book, call CarnegieCharge, (212) 
247-7800. — Matthew Curewitsch 

SEl'TEMBKR l'>')(i 


This fall, come see 

the fashions of 

chanel, worth and 

through the eyes of 



The year was 1934. The place was Paris. 
At a magazine called Harper's WkhR, 
a new photographer had just been hired. 
His name was Man Ray. Though he was 
to photograph fashions, what he captured 
on film was far more. It was the beginning 
of an exciting new look that would forever 
transform fashion photography. Starting 
September 7th, you'll be able to see his 
innovative photographs at New York City's 
International Center of Photography Midtown. 

A Fashion Retrospective 

International Center of Photogrophy Midtown, 

Avenue of the Americas at 43r(J Street 

September 7-November 25 

This exhibition is sponsored by The Chase Manhattan Banl< 
and Hearst Magazines, o Division of The Hearst Corporation. 

Roger Prigent 
(Co}itiuued from pai^e 1 12) 

"I played here on weekends. " 

o{ France's leading craftsmen — -Jacob, 
Benneman, Molitor, Thomire, Weis- 
weiler — changed style, virtually over- 
night. In furniture design, the emphasis 
fell on geometrical simplicity and unity 
of materials (usually mahogany with a 
modicum of bronze gilt). After Napo- 
leon's Egyptian campaign, ancient 
Egyptian models were adapted, too. 
For other objects, the designers worked 
out Napoleonic motifs, using the letter 
N in laurel wreaths, or the emperor's 
favorite symbols, the bee and the eagle. 
Draperies and wallpaper in rich jewel 
tones became the rage. The new style 
caught on and soon spread to Holland, 
Scandinavia, Russia, the United States, 
even England, before being smothered 
by heavy Victorian tastes. 

Empire is so likable that it is now 
back — Andy Warhol once called 
it the "art deco of the nineteenth 
century" — and everybody knows 
where to get the best objects. Even the 
dealer Hervc: Aaron, a specialist in 
French eighteenth-century furniture, 
admits that he loves to browse in Mal- 
maison. "Frigent has a great eye. There 
is always something fabulous in his 
place and often real museum pieces, 
too." Roger Prigent has a more modest 
view of his accomplishment. "I am the 
Bloomingdale's of Empire," he says. 
He does not take himself very seriously 
but does watch the market with a Napo- 
leonic eagle eye. "One of the next things 
to take otT in decoration will be faux 
Empire," he predicts. That is one trend 
he will not profit from, of course — not 
that he minds. After all, he can always 
make a fine living as a photographer. D 

/.-C. Snares, creatine consul tcuit to this 
indiidziiic, wrote about Zuher wallpaper for 
the July 1990 issue. 

If You Can't Keep a 

Read No Further 

Sorry to introduce ourselves in this way, but 
it has become necessary. We publish Passport, 
the confidential and privately circulated 
monthly newsletter on world travel. It's read by 
discerning travelers all over the world. Our 
information comes from carefully selected spies. 

Each month in this tersely-written 12 page 
letter, we share new travel discoveries with our 
members — charming inns, attractive 
restaurants, undiscovered resorts, places even 
the guidebooks haven't found yet. We also warn 
them about places that are becoming spoiled and 

But neither we nor our members want this 
information to become widely circulated. That's 
how nice places become spoiled. And that's why 
we ask our members to use discretion when 
sharing information — even with good friends. 

Passport has been quietly published for 24 
years. We rarely advertise. And when we do, it's 
only in quality publications like this one. If you'd 
like to join us, a trial membership is only $65 a 
year. Passport is an absolute gold mine of 
information. Full refund if it's not exactly what 
you expected. 

Yes, please enroll me as a Passport member 

D My check for $65 is enclosed 
D Outside the USA (airmail) $85. 





Produced by Passport, the Monthly Letter for Dis- 
criminating Travelers. For sample copies: 350 W. 
Hubbard St., Chicago, IL 60610. (800) .542-6670. 

PS 563-320) is published monthly by The 
Hearst Corporation, 959 Eighth Avenue, 
New York, New York 10019, U.S.A. Frank 
A. Bennack, Jr., President; Gilbert C. 
Maurer, Executive Vice-President; Harvey 
L. Lipton, Vice-President and Secretary. 
Hearst Magazines Division: D. Claeys Bah- 
renburg, President; K. Robert Brink, Exec- 
utive Vice-President; George J. Green, Ex- 
ecutive Vice-President; Mark F. Miller, Ex- 
ecutive Vice-President, General Manager; 
Raymond]. Petersen, Executive Vice-Pres- 
ident; Thomas J. Hughes, Vice-President 
and Resident Controller. Connoisseur 
Trademark registered in U.S. Patent Office 
® 1990 by The Hearst Corporation. All 
rights reserved. Editorial and advertis- 
ing offices: Hearst Magazines, 1 790 
Broadway, New York, NY 10019, and Na- 
tional Magazine Company Limited, Na- 
tional Magazine House, 72 Broadwick 
Street, London WIV 2BP. Second-class 
postage paid at New York, New York, and at 
additional mailing offices. Subscription 
prices: U.S.A. and Possessions, $19.95 tor 
one year. Canada, $41.95 for one year. 
Great Britain, £2 3 tor one year. Address all 
subscription inquiries to Joan Harris, Cus- 
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SEUR, P.O. Box 7154, Red Oak, lA 
5 1 59 1 ; or call toll free 1 -800-888-7676. Not 
responsible for return of un.solicited manu- 
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U.S.A. 1990 by The Hearst Corporation. 
All rights reserved. Postmaster, please send 
change of address to CONNOISSEUR, 
P.O. Box 7154, Red Oak, lA 51591. 
PICTURE SOURCES on page 62. 








Ati open letter to the trustees of the Whitney Museum 

By Thomas H o v i n c, 

The Whitney, six 
months after the ouster 
ot Its sixteen-year 
director Tom Armstrong 
(whose basic mistake was tor- 
getting that the acceptable ten- 
ure of a New York art-mu- 
seum chief is eleven years), is 
painfully charting its course 
for the future. It is doing well, 
I am told, although the word 
is that the board ot trustees has 
not yet heard from a "toad at 
the garden party" — an outsid- 
er who knows and likes the in- 
stitution and could give them 
an unvarnished look at the sit- 
uation there. Having made 
something oi a reputation as a 
"tc:)ad," 1 would come up with 
this six-point program: 

1 . Have the trustees form a 
legal committee to rewrite the 
existing bylaws and constitu- 
tion of the institution — now. 
The point is to reorganize 
goals and the board, giving at- 
tention to how incoming trust- 
ees are instructed and how 
long their terms should be. 

2. Two outside consultants 
should be hired — one trom the 
museum profession and an- 
other from the real world — to 
study the current career and 
salary plans for all employees. 
This would help to diminish 
any lingering internal inec]uali- 
ties, incluciing disparities that 
may still exist between men 
and women in pay anci 

3. The finances of the mu- 
seum should be analyzed, as a 
sort of shock treatment. What 
is the real "bang for the buck" 
in the case of special exhibi- 
tions? Is now the time to re- 
think the financial arrange- 
ments between the museum 
and Its cluster of satellite exhi- 
bition halls? 

4. Ciive the coldest possible 
scrutiny to the proposed 
building addition, designed by 
the architect Michael Ciraves 
(actually, it has been redesign- 

eci by him so many times it 
looks like something that has 
just emerged from a House- 
Senate conference committee). 
In spiritual terms, Ciraves's 
muddled architecture is anti- 
humanistic and looks more 
and more like an outdated 
symbol ot the "crazy eight- 
ies." And, boy, will it be ex- 
pensive! It I have ever seen a 
museum acldition that will 
break the bank, this is it. I fig- 
ure it will come in 25 percent 
i over budget and cost fifty dol- 
o lars a sc]uare foot more to 
~ maintain than anybody on the 
board has been told. 

5. The most important 
thing the trustees and its new 
director can do is to root out 
the intellectual dishonesty at 
the Whitnev. Ask the question 
"Why has the Whitney delib- 
erately ignored — tor more 
than twenty years — the reality 
of what has been happening 

Step 4: Cast a cold eye on tin 

huildiii{i project. The latest 

version (at rii^ht) dates from 

19HH. It was preceded hy 

desi{>iis ill VJH5 (top) and 

19H7 (above), all hy the 

architect Michael (-rave: 

on the art scene in this coun- 
try?" The "experts" at the 
museum have for years 
scanted the fact that in Ameri- 
ca there is an almost bewilder- 
ing complexity of artistic 
styles — from the trendy stutV 
the Whitney has favored, to 
realism, to mystical art, to de- 
voutly religious and steadfast- 
ly regional art. From a glance 
at what the Whitney has 
dished up in the past two de- 
cades one would think that 
only one artistic style existed 
in America. 

The intellectual dishonesty 
that saturates the Whitney has 
nothing to do \\ ith lack ot 
scholarship, an accusation 
bandied around these days 
with increasing traudulence. 
Museum scholarship is not 
about politeness or good man- 
ners, or the absence ot contro- 
versy, or catalogs \\ ith more 
footnotes than text. Museum 
scholarship concerns, purely 
and simply, the endless prepa- 
ration of a catalogue raisonne 
of a museum's holdings 

6. The Whitney must show 
the piiblu (/// the diverse stylis- 
tic currents seething through- 
luit this country. And the mu- 
seum siiould address itselt to 
the exciting — and contusing — 
plieiioimnon ot the blendnig, 
merging, and i)\erlapping ot 
the fine arts and crafts. Alter 
all. It IS the Whitnev's role to 
in.ike .111 assessment ol the en- 
tire .u t sieiie. .ind peih.ips the 
most artistic styles 
III Ameni.i tiui.iN have little 
similarity to those the Whit- 
nev espoused in its lash- 
mn.ible. with-it wav. 

No one doubts the 
Whitnev board has the guts to 
turn the place around .md 
Im ing intellectual honesty back 
to the institutii)!!. lo do so, 
how ever, the trustees must 
also listen to terrible ques- 
tions. Onlv then can the\ dig 
tor the answers. U 



The elegant, highly aerodynamic 
shape of this new Buick Park Avenue 
makes a beautiful first impression. 

But its true beauty also lies in Park 
Avenue's highly refined engineering. 

The 1991 Buick 
Park Avenue. 

Motor Trend says: "Buick engineers 
have come up with one of the quietest, 
tightest and smoothest operating 
luxury sedans we've ever driven." 

They've developed a cabin so 
comfortable, "just sitting in the Park 
Avenue's roomy interior is pleasing." 
(Car and Driver) 

The Park Avenue offers a new 



electronically controlled transmission 
that "works like a dream." (AutoWeek) 

And for 1991 , there's a powerful i 
tuned-port fuel-injected V6 engine. 

As you'd expect, all Park Aven 
accomplishments are underscore 
Buick quality. 

As one example of what Buick qu 
means, the 1990 J.D. Power and As: 
ates survey ranks the Buick branc 
highest domestic in initial qualit> 


10 October 


e.n». t|K«Mf 

3 9042 02348969 

The mother lode of illegally excavated antiq- 
uities smuggled to the West is Turkey. Tens 
of thousands of ancient Greek and Roman 
masterworks, exceeding a billion dollars m 
value, have flov/ed through the smugglers' 

FromTurkeMGreeksmue pipelinCS iu tllC paSt tWO dcCadcS. Up tO UOW tllC Top heutenani .n tSe smoj- 

of a Muse, now at the Gett)^ 


and a Roman sarcophagus. smu2;2:lers, cvcry bit as rutliless as the Mafia, 

at the Brooklyn Museum. *^ *^ ^ 

have been incognito, unknown to all but 
their clients — certain dealers, curators. 

gling ring. Fuat Uzulmez. 

and distinguished private collectors. 

Nov/, Connoisseur has penetrated the net- 
work. Who runs the ring and how it works are 
revealed for the first time in the article starting 

The kingpin hinuelf. the 

on page 130. Certain museums, dealers, and col- much feared Ed.p Ten... oh., 

- - .J swank Gryphoj Galleryt in 

lectors will doubdess be very surprised. downtown Mumch 



;EP ^4 .o:U 













Because art is never an extravagance. 




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Of the Kangxi (K'ang Hsi) Period, A.D. 1662-1722 

Height: W/i inches 

Ex: Stuebel Collection, Germany 

Ex: W. C. Matthes Collection, Holland 


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I ^> y 

HERE COMES MEXICO .4f the Metropolitan Museum, thirty centuries of art that is awesome ami sublime, by Pete Hamtll 93 

LOTUSLAND The magnificent horticultural le'^acy ofajlamhoyant diva manqucc. by Maj^j^ie Keswick 9H 

CRITIC'S CHOICE Gary Oldman's explosive, c^'}' presence li(^hts up the screen, by Matthew Curewiisch 104 

THE RIGHT CHOWDER New Eni^land or Manhattan? A broad-minded appraisal, with recipes, by Ann Hodi>man H)8 

NATIONAL PASTIME'S NATIONAL TREASURE Barry Halper's HI Dorado ofbaseballiana, by Robert H. Boyle 1 1" 

MUSCLE CARS Those fias-<^u::::lini^ beauties from the sixties are ridin<^ a hi\ih tide ofnostals^ia, by Phil Patton 1 14 

BREAK EVERY RULE Fasten your seat belts! The cars of the nineties are '^oiii'^ to be wild! , by Mark Christensen 122 

NOTHING BUT THE BEST The Bietmale des Antiquaires, in Paris, upholds its elite standards, by Leon Harris 126 

THE TURKISH CONNECTION The truth about looted antiquities, by 6z<ien Acar and Melik Kaylan 130 

ITALY'S FINEST RENAISSANCE CHURCH .4 celestial synthesis of classical principles, by Dan Hofstadter 13H 

QUALITY ABOVE ALL What to expect in the new home furnishiu'^s of the nineties 142 

LETTERS Newport and its visitors; silence the sportiw^ clays! ; why praise thieves? ; beautiful wolves 24 

COVER Photographs: (top left) O^sjch Acar archive, (bottom left and rii^hll 0::'^vn Acar, (bottoin) Terry O'Neill/Syiima 

CONNOISSEUR'S CHOICE Some of the best thin^^is to do and watch for this month M) 

CONNOISSEUR'S WORLD Crayola sacrile^^ie!; MOM A hii^h and low; a celluloid irime wave 3'^ 

AUCTIONS The season warms up with interestin,^^ sales ofjewehy. Asialna—and Sotheby's ,^oes Siandwavian W) 

DESIGN What ever happened to plain white baseballs? 72 

PEOPLE The Aven^^er returns; a Mexican chef happy birthday to Berio; and more 74 

DISCOVERY From Amherst Colle^^e, a uuhe ofprueless, unpublished da^^uerreotypes. by Martha A. Sandweiss US 

COLLECTING Vinta^^e photo^^raphs of Carbo command hiyh prues, hut arelhcy vinia^^e' . by Peler C.Jones ISO 

TR AVELIN E Great yacht charters; oenophilc's deli^ahts; where to eat in Moscow 1 54 

MY EYE The tale of the Getty kouros ^^^rows kourosier and kourosier. by Thomas Hovin,^ 1 70. 

PICTURE SOURCES on page 165 

if,?fr?i, I'jr 

I "*a-fi^'- 

© 1990 Lexiu, A Division Of Toyota Motor Salei, U.S.A., Inc. Lexus reminds you to wear seal belli and obey all speed laws. *For more warranty information, set your Lexus dealer or call 800-872-5398 (800-USA-LEXUS). 

/ . 


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Founded m 190], CONNOISSEUR was ac- 
quired by William Randolph Hearst in 1927. 
It is published monthly in the U.S.A. and 
Great Britain by Hearst Magazines Division 
and National Magazine Company Limited. 

Thomas Hoving 

Philip Herrera 

J.-C. Suares 

Sarah Scrymser 

Eve Auchincloss 
Matthew Gurewitsch 
Ruth Sulhvan 

Patricia Corbett 

Diane Rafferty 


Pamela Hassell 


Lou DiLorenzo 

Amy Koblenzer 


Helene Maumy-Florescu 

Gina Diao 
Pamela Heller 

Victor Gonzalez 



Judith Sonntag 

Alarik Skarstrom (assistant) 


Patricia J. Singer 

Anne Phalon 


Lindsay Mory 


Tracy Allen 

Kirsten K. Chancellor 

Mary A. Kelly 

Amanda Walmac 



Nancy Hoving 

Melik Kaylan 

Mary McDougall (U.K.) 

Walter McQuade 

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I R A V E L M A R K E T 1 N t; M A N A c; E R 
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Carol Fnm Meyer. I'h.l). 

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A question of whose rights 

Elitist Attitudes? 

Elizabeth Meyer's remarks in 
the article on Newport [June 
1990] do a disservice to Fall 
River and Pawtucket, and I 
am sad that, though Ms. 
Meyer possesses financial 
wealth, she apparently suffers 
from poverty of character. 

She quotes negative descrip- 
tions of tourists from Fall Riv- 
er and Pawtucket that arc not 
only inaccurate but indicate an 
elitist attitude that does not re- 
flect the American tradition of 
respect for the dignity of each 
and every person. Those of us 
not blesseci with an abundance 
of possessions have the same 
rights as the wealthiest. New- 
port is not reserved for the 
rich but, like all communities, 
is open to everyone. 

Newport has problems, but 
there are problems in every 
community, and I can't think 
ot one that can be resolved 
through divisive language. 

Carltcti M. Viveiros, Mayor 
Fall River, Massadntsctts 

Liz Meyer's insightful com- 
ments voice thoughts a great 
many Newporters have been 
muttering for years. 

The intrepid tourist (always 
in the market for a new T- 
shirt) and all the concomitant 
problems of tourism have 
greatly diminished, if not ex- 
tinguished, the charm of our 
town. Saturation by autos and 
the resulting complicated 
traffic patterns have disturbed 
the fragile balance ot environ- 
ment and commerce needed to 
maintain a decent quality of 
life. All of us who live on 
Aquidneck Island have had to 
stomach higher prices, higher 
taxes, longer lines, and an 
incredibly varied list of ques- 
tionably viable business 
practices — all in the name 
of the mighty tourist 

Luise Strauss 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Noisy Pastime 

The pleasures and challenges 
of "a new shooting game from 
England," sporting clays, 
were extolled in your April is- 
sue. It seems that it has much 
in common with golf — both 
are played on large courses — 
and it might become just as 
popular because it will appeal 
to 20 million hunters. 

Unlike golf and many other 
personal sports, it must seem a 
noisy, irritating pastime to 
anyone in the vicinity trying 
to enjoy a little peace and 

Edith H. Cook 
Atlanta, Geori^ia 

Glorious Theft 

If Judith Hennessee's aim was 
to glorify the theft of art trea- 
sures, she certainly did it in 
her article "Why Great Art 
Will Always lie Stolen," in 
the July (Connoisseur. 

All the way through, she 
emphasizes the cleverness, the 
taste, the imagination of the 
thieves: "it was a gorgeous 

sweep"; "magnificently sim- 
ple theft"; "the director of the 
museum . . . said that the 
thieves had displayed a very 
refined taste"; "the following 
. . . burglaries, considered to 
be among the most interesting 
and imaginative, have . . . 
even a quixotic approach." I 
could quote on and on. How 
about another article, from the 
other side, excoriating the 
thieves and recipients? 

Marian S. Putney 
Kalamazoo, Michigan 

Wolf Haven 

It was with surprise and plea- 
sure that I found that beautiful 
wolf face and accompanying 
article on page LS of my Au- 
gust Connoisseur. 

I am a supporter of Wolf 
Haven and was happy to see 
that you saw fit to feature the 
good work done there. Your 
readers may want the address: 
31 1 1 OfTut Lake Road, I eni- 
no, WA 9S5H9. Telephone: 
(206) 264-HC)WL. 

Cladys June Slater 
l.aSallv, Illinois 

No Neck? 

I want to tell you how much I 
enjoy reading Connoisseur, but 
I was offended by the little 
article about the Bolshoi 
["Grand-Scale Ballet, "July 
1990]. For example, regarding 
Irek Mukhamedov, Joan 
Acocella wrote: "and now that 
he has gotten a Western hair- 
cut, he even appears to have a 
neck." What a vulgar com- 
ment! Does everyone have to 
look like a movie star? "In the 
women, Bolshoi theatrics of- 
» ten read as hardness rather 
than excitement" — false. And 
"our brains numbed by their 
choreography" — so untrue! 
And how could the author call 
Grigorovich "one of the least- 
gifted choreographers on the 
international scene"? The 
whole thing seemed to me a 
subtle put-down of one of the 
best ballet companies m the 
world. If I were to take this ar- 
ticle at face value, I would 
never attend a Bolshoi per- 
formance. Fortunately, I 
know better and would not 
miss one tor the world. 

Rebecca Strabo 
Rye, New York 

Joan Acocella replies: 
My piece was not a subtle 
put-dowfi of the Bolshoi. It was 
an unequivocal condenuiation 
of certain fliiii'^s about the com- 
pany, toi^ether with unequivocal 
praise of other thiinis. As to 
Mukhamedov, a ballet dancer 
need not look like a movie star, 
but he does have to have a visible 
neck of some leiii^tli, because the 
neck is one of the foremost instru- 
ments of expression in classical 
ballet. " 

"i^ Letters to the luiitor, with 
the writer's name ami address, 
should he setit to Letters Lditor, 
C'oiinoisseur, /7W 
Broadway, New York, NY 
too 19. Letters may be edited in 
the interest of space and clarity. 



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only one concern of 
the Faitvist painters 
Derain, Matisse, et al. 
Another was landscape, 
which is the theme of 
a glorious show at the 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, from 
October 4. 



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often "Gothic" dining 
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. lid what is 
the White Oah Dance 
Project? Baryshnikov 
plus seven costars from 
modern dance. On the 
bill: new pieces from 
the dazzler Mark Mor- 
ris. A Boston preview 
(October 24} precedes 
a three-week tour. 

emember Man 
Ray? The pioneering 
American surrealist 
photographer also shot 
for Harper's Bazaar, 
and a show of his bril- 
liant work is at New 
\'ork's International 
Center of Photography , 
midtown branch, 
through Sovember 25. 

■fyou think the 
Japanese buy only had 
paituitij^s by i^ood 
painters, j^o to the Ten- 
nessee State Museum, 
in Nashville, to see 
what the Ishibashi 
foundation, in Tokyo, 
picked up: sixty splen- 
did canvases hy the 
likes of Picasso, van 
Gof^h, Matisse, and 
Cezanne. Through 
January 20. 

or the San Vran- 
cisco Opera, Kiri Te 
Kanawa sillies her first 
(Countess in Clapricxio, 
the luminous last of 
Richard Strauss's i^real 
soprano roles. She is 
dressed for the occasion 
by Gianni Versace. 
(First performance, 
October 21 ;lwal perfor- 
mance. Noi'emher U.) 

nothcr must- 
see show: Japan is 
lendin<i Boston's Mu- 
seum of Vine Arts some 
of its most prized trea- 
sures — this one is a 
statue ofKichijolen, 
dated 1078. None are 
likely lo be seen abroad 
ai^ain. Throu,{>h 
November 25. 

ununy hoards, 
those beaulifuUy hand- 
painted fii^ures that 
were used in the c/(j//- 
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screens or for decora- 
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thanks to the (^hicai^o 
firm of Branca. T.ach 
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verylhnig you 
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culture, nomenclature , 
uses, and meanings — 
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photographs (Steivart , 
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c o ]s^^^o i s^s^e ur's world 

MOMA answers dumb questions ^^ Filmmakers "artsmart" themselves 
Your nightmare boss is on TV &^ Postmodern rock and roll ^^ Gossip from the new liurope 


Crayola nixes subtlety 
Will art suriHfe? 

Hue and Cry 

Did they rouge the 
Mona Lisa's cheeks 
when they renovated 
the Louvre? Non! Would they 
ever colorize Jw/e^ etjim to 
boost video renta.\s? Jamais! 
The French may not know 
what to like, but they do 
know about art, specifically, 
that masterpieces and cultural 
icons — however vague, am- 
biguous, grayish, pale, or 
wan — should not be bright- 
ened up to dazzle the unlet- 
tered rabble. 

The French would never 
have banished eight classic 
Crayola crayon colors from 
the deluxe sixty-four-color 
box, only to replace them 
with eight new, brighter 
colors concocted on the advice 
of mere children. Of course 
youth prefers wild strawberry 
and vivid tangerine to the less 
edible-sounding maize and 
raw umber; it also chooses 
beef-tallow-soaked fries over 
all other vegetables. On mat- 
ters of taste, young opinions 
should never rule. 

French artists used artisanal- 
ly produced sticks of wax and 
chalk in the midnineteenth 
century. But these craies, 
wielded so playfully by Gau- 
guin and Matisse, were hardly 
toys. Expensive, fragile, and 
dusty, many also contained 
toxic colors. 

hi 1903, the Binney & 
Smith Company, makers of 
slate pencils in Easton, Penn- 
sylvania, imitated European 
crayons, fusing wax-bound, 
nontoxic pigments by means 
of a faster, cheaper manufac- 
turing process. The company 
called its product Crayolas 
{craie, plus ola, meaning oleag- 
inous), saw them sell rapidly, 
and then fueled interest by 
adding more colors to the 
original collection of eight, hi 
1949 it offered forty-eight; by 
1958, a grand total of sixty- 
four. Over the next three de- 
cades, the colors stayed the 
same while the names 
changed: the racist "flesh" be- 
came "peach"; "Prussian 
blue" (from the substance fer- 
ric fcrr. ;v vanide) became 
"nv .. iilue" after teachers 


deemed Prussia irrelevant. 
Now we are faced with 
color expulsions. Have we 
been blinded to optical refine- 
ments enjoyed by Europeans? 
Did not the subtle hues of 
Crayolas help enlarge our vi- 
sion? For some of us, the fra- 
grant crayons, lovingly sniffed 
or eaten by hundreds of mil- 
lions ot children for nearly a 
hundred years, are the equiva- 
lent ot Proust's evocative tea- 
dipped madeleines. Indeed, 
the sole transcontinentally 
identical aesthetic experience 
we share as AmeriiMiis is the 
childhood manipulation ot 
sixty-four sticks of Clrayolas 
in their original colors. Why 
retire part of that memory? 

— Barbara l'laiun;aii 

Author's Note: The (olors named 
Violet Blue, Oram^e We*/, Raw 
Umber, Maize, BlueCiray, 
l.enuiii Yelloit', C,reen Blur, and 
Orain^e )'ellou' are now replaeed 
by Dandelion, li' ild Strawberry, 
Vii'id 'I'an{;erine, l-uelisia, Teal 
Blue, Royal Ihnple , juufi^le 
Green, and Cerulean. 

Farce and Tragedy 
at the Modern 

High .iiul 1 o\v: Mod- 
ern Art .iiid 
Culture," the big 
show at New York's Museum 
ot Modern Art (through laiui- 
ary 1.5), is also a bra\e slu)\\ , 
setting out to explore the in- 
sertion into art ot elements 
from the streets ami the me- 
dia. MOMA's inipeiiable 
Kirk Varnedoe M\i\ the ultra- 
casual art writer Adam (Jop- 
nik began the project because 
they were dissatistied with the 
literature <>n the sub)ect. "We 
ran the risk ot .iskiiig the 
dumb or sinipleminded ques- 
tions," explains (iopnik "I 
think It will be upsetting to 
uleoU>gues. hi that discomtort 
lies our margin of hope " 

"Where did Duchamp's uri- 
nal come from? What were the 
newspapers like Puasso 
and Bracjue dipped' Why did 
they choose that?" muses Var- 
nedoe, citing past MOMA 
theme exhibitions (the ma- 
chine show; "Primitivism") as 
precedents in their search for 



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Robust long life seems to be 
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Of course, the levelheaded 
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ing patents. And by manufactur- 
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than the width of a human hair. 

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the worldly contexts of mod- 
ern art. "High and Low" 
compiles a narrative organized 
along the principle "First 
time, farce; second time, trag- 
edy." "Very often things that 
begin in modern culture as 
throwaway amusements be- 
come the means to a lyrical, 
elegiac, or even tragic expres- 
sion," Gopnik says. So cubist 
collages are shown along with 
the newspapers they were 
snipped from. An Edwardian 
humor book is revealed as a 
forerunner of Max Ernst's sur- 
realist collages. Miro's bio- 
morphic abstractions are 
traced back to their origins, in 
a mail-order catalog, and Led- 
ger's inspiration is shown to 
have often been shopwin- 
dows. Jctt Koons's superkitsch 
sculpture. Elizabeth Murray's 
cartoon-abstract paintings, 
and Jenny Holzcr's electronic- 
sign art are among the works 
representing those of a newer 
generation. There is a whole 
chapel of Gustons transcen- 
dent with comic-book debris. 

We get to see how urinals 
were displayed in Duchamp's 
day. "When Duchamp took 
that urinal it was at a wa- 
tershed moment — forgive the 
bad pun — in the history of 
plumbing," says Gopnik. 
"The Mott Company had a 
showroom on Fifth Avenue 
that displayed these urinals as 
art. So it wasn't an argument 
between the lavatory and the 
museum. It was about the 
shopwindow and the com- 
modity, about modes of dis- 
play." Adds Varnedoe, "We 
tound a whole body of rheto- 
ric and thought about how to 
display urinals and plumbing 
fixtures in general. Radiating 
out from Duchamp's gesture, 
you begin to sec an unsus- 
pected web of relationships 
between the world of art and 
the world of display." 

In 1990, it makes perfect 
sense that modern art is being 
reinterpreted in terms of com- 
modity fetishism, consumer 
desire, and streetwise graffiti. 
What Varnedoe calls an "over- 
lord" media culture filtering 
down from above and an "un- 
derbelly" graffiti culture well- 


Dyeing Beautifully 

This decant tapestry is by Billy 
Ward, a weaver about whom 
you will surely hear more. Born 
forty-one years ago in New 
\'ork, he studied in Montreal 
and finally settled in Oaxaca, 
Mexico, where the master Anto- 
nio Diaz taught him secret, age- 
old dyeing techniques. For inspi- 
ration. Ward simply looks to 
nature in the stunning Oaxaca 
I 'alley. — Michael Chen 

ing up from underneath have 
both provided fodder for 
twentieth-century art. The 
museum and the shopwindow 
are now on terms as intimate 
as the Surrealists' proverbial 
umbrella and sewing ma- 
chine — with the disaffected 
providing calligraphic flour- 
ishes and crude commentary. 
As for Braque and Picasso, 
"they took the funkiest, most 
out-of-date portions of papers 
that prided themselves on seiz- 
ing the pulse of modern life," 
Varnedoe found. "It gave us a 
clue to early Warhol: the 
Campbell's soup can hadn't 
changed for ninety years. 
These choices were deeply sat- 
urated with nostalgia, and I 
don't think anyone expected 
that." — Kim Levin 

New Wave 

of Crime Movies 

The movie musical and 
the Western may be 
moribund, but the 
gangster tilm appears to be on 
the rise: to wit, Coppola's 
Godfather III, Scorsese's Good- 
fellas, Medak's The Krays, and 
Joanou's State of Grace, all out 
this fall. Whether the gangster 
film is a shoot-'em-up, a 
spoof, or a metaphor for the 
corruption of the American 
dream, the genre survives 
with an invincibility denied to 
many of the gang lords in its 

Miller's Crossing, the new 
film by Joel and Ethan Coen 
(director and writers o( Blood 
Simple and Raisifig Arizona), 
attempts to twist the gangster- 
film format into a peculiar 
amalgam: both panoramic and 
personal. Set in 1929, in a 
nameless city, it is about Tom 
(Gabriel Byrne), the trusted 
lieutenant of the Irish political 
boss Leo (Albert Finney), with 
whom he falls out of favor. 
Expelled from the gang, Tom 
joins forces with a rival Italian 
mobster (|on Folito). 

In contrast to Albert Fin- 
ney's expansive slyness and 
blocklike bulk, Ciabriel Byrne 
has a sharp-shadowed, vague- 
ly consumptive look; he re- 
sembles Katica (see page 82). 


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Tom believes you can never 
"know anybody that well," 
and his lyrical gloominess 
reinforces the fatalism. Living 
a double life in order to set 
things right, he is both best 
friend and saboteur to whom- 
ever he comes in contact with. 

Miller's Crossiti(> is consis- 
tently gripping, but it is too 
consciously worked-over, too 
"mythic," to be fully satisfy- 
ing. Tom's quest for retribu- 
tion has an insinuating force, 
but the movie itself seems to 
be taking place in a play-act 
never-never land. A crime 
movie set in a nameless city al- 
ready has one strike against it, 
since the genre derives much 
of its power from the specifici- 
ty of its location. Miller's 
Crossing has the spiffy, dark- 
toned sheen of a "classic," but 
it actually belongs to a new 
species — the crime film that is 
all attitude. — Peter Rainer 

Dance Goes Straight 

The choreographer Mark 
Morris is widely 
known as Mr. Outra- 
geous, the man who staged a 
vampire seduction to Furcell's 
sacred hymns, the man who 
danced to a set of Victorian 
parlor songs — "When You 
Come to the End of a Perfect 
Day" and the like — wearing 
only his Jockeys and, over his 
head, a brown paper bag. Nor 
were these merely the wanton 
revels of his youth. Now thir- 
ty-four and director of dance 
at the Theatre Royal de la 
Monnaie, in Brussels, he is 
about to premiere his own, 
new Nutcracker (January 12- 
26), with a decor by Charles 
Burns, the underground-com- 
ic-strip artist who specializes 
in horrid, fetal-looking little 
children battling one-eyed 
monsters with arms for ears. 


"Strive mightily, but cat and drink as friends." Shakespeare always 
handed out good advice, and audiences at the Globe Theatre, where 
these words were first spoken, apparently took them to heart. Excava- 
tions at the original theater site, in London, have unearthed glass and 
other fragments. They will be exhibited, along with a prodigious 
number of beer mugs and ale steins, when, in their honor and to ben- 
efit the rebuilding of the Bard's playhouse, the crystal company Steu- 
ben displays "A Toast to Shakespeare's Cllobe" in its New York City 
store, October 3 through 27. On view: late-sixteenth-century drink- 
ing vessels from all over the globe, including a prized covered Vene- 
tian latticino goblet. And includeil for sale: three one-of-a-kind ohjcis 
created specially for the exhibition. — Katlilccu licckcll-)'oiiii[> 



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The actor Dai'id 
Clcunon's mind 
i^ames i^ii'e TV's 
" thirty somethii\^" 

a )iccdcd twist. 

The adventures of Marie and 
her nutcracker are presumably 
in for a reconccptuahzation. 

Morris has also created 
quintessentially "normal" 
works — world-loving, har- 
mony-seeking — and the 
greatest of these, L'AlU\<^ro, II 
Penscrcso cd II Moderate (1988), 
will appear at the Brooklyn 
Academy of Music's Next 
Wave Festival in October. Set 
to Handel's oratorio of the 
same name, which in turn was 
based on Milton's companion 
poems "L'Allegro" and "11 
Penseroso," Morris's piece is a 
celebration of the rich, sweet, 
timeless world conceived of 
by the Renaissance mind: a 
world of city and country, 
cloister and hearth, philoso- 
phers and goatherds, birds, 
bees, and flowers. It is also a 
compendium of the shapes 
and tones that constitute the 
Western idea of beauty. Two 
hours long, it contains every 
kind of dance imaginable — cir- 
cle dances, line dances, dances 
grave and ecstatic, dances 
clumpy and wild, with the 
men punching each other out 
between steps. L'AUcfiro is 
Morris's masterpiece and one 
of the crowning artistic 
achievements ot the decade. 

(After Brooklyn, it is repeated 
in Pans, at the Theatre des 
Champs-Elysecs, May 21-25.) 

Also part of Morris's 
Brooklyn season will be a 
mixed bill including his Won- 
derhmd, a dark, glamorous, 
slightly crazy work, to 
Schoenberg. It has a beautiful 
blonde and a big boss and a 
worried mother and a little 
punk in a spike hairdo, who 
keeps trying to pocket a piece 
of evidence. There is a mur- 
der, too, except that the mur- 
dered man keeps getting up; 
then someone else falls dead. 
When Wonderlatid was first 
performed, in Brussels last 
year, the punk was played by 
Mikhail Baryshnikov, pasty- 
faced and poignant in this 
grim, quiet, nonstar role. He 
_' may reappear in Brooklyn. 
z (After Brooklyn, the company 
5 performs two mixed bills at 

the Kennedy Center, Wash- 

1 ington, October 23-28.) 

— -Joan Acocella 

Boss on TV 

David Clennon has a 
high forehead, narrow 
cheeks, and round, 
slightly extruding, bright blue 
eyes. He looks like what cen- 
tral casting would send up if 
you called for a crazy psychia- 
trist. And his manner — re- 
served, w'atchful, a little sly — 
is not reassuring, either: tell 
this guy your problems and 
you are likely tt^ end up in the 
loony bin. As an actor, Clen- 
non seems designed not to 
express anything directly, to 
project elusiveness with an 
unsettling undercurrent of 
amusement, to inspire unease. 
Certainly he gets under the 
skin of that urbane yuppie 
Michael (Ken Olin), whose 
boss. Miles Drentell, he plays 
on the television series "thir- 
tysomething." Pinned m 
Miles's blue gaze, Michael 
practically shifts from foot to 
foot; sweat threatens to wilt 
his perfect collar. For those 
who hate "thirtysomething," 
Miles is a revenge figure, and 
maybe he is a revenge figure 
for the show's creators, too — 
offering a welcome escape 






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from all that sensitive nice- 
ness, an opportunity to in- 
dulge the old id. 

Or something even more 
dangerous. "Nobody here but 
us demons," he murmurs at 
one point, when Michael has 
to interrupt a meeting in his 
office. There are no accidents 
in the carefully worked-out 
dialogue of "thirtysome- 
thing": the fact is, nicey-nice 
Michael is in danger of losing 
his soul. Clennon plays the 
corrupting Mcphistopheles to 
Olin's advertising-man Faust, 
and the drama — and, occa- 
sionally, bitter comedy — of 
the show lies in watching Mi- 
chael start to indulge his tastes 
for corporate power and office 
politics while persuading him- 
self he is still a decent guy. 

"thirtysomething" 's great 
strength is in the quality of 
observation that goes into the 
writing. In this regard. Miles 
(who seems to have been 
chiefly developed, if not creat- 
ed, by Joseph Dougherty) is 
really a triumph: anyone who 
has worked in an office has 
run into the manipulative, 
mind-tripping boss of which 
he is the awful paradigm, but I 
do not think the type has ever 
been dramatized before. Both 
Clennon and the writers han- 
dle Miles beautifully. He re- 
mains recognizable and believ- 
able while managing to give 
the show a welcome jolt of 
melodrama. Last season he 
outmaneuvercd Michael and 
Eliot's takeover attempt with 
liquid ease. This season, the 
fun continues. Viewers can 
only hope he will keep playing 
his mind games forever. 

— Lloyd Rose 

New Silver 

Silver is gaining wider 
currency, thanks to For- 
tunoff's, which sponsors 
an annual design competition 
to encourage crafts people. 
The results of the second an- 
nual competition can be seen 
in the Fortunoff's New York 
store, October 1-21. The 
works of eighteen silversmiths 
out of 1 25 designs were cho- 
sen by a distinguished jury. 


Updating the sixties: 
the singer-composer 
Karl Wallinger, 
above, alludes to 
rock and roll 
creatively. Right: 
Hong Kong's best 
Chinese restaurant 
goes minimal 
(page 54). 


The hot new 
designer in Paris is 
an Irishman, and he 
is resurrecting the 
glamorous house of 
Rochas (page 54). 

Long's teapot is 
causing a stir in 
design circles. 


First place went to "Tuscany 
Teapot," seen here, by Randy 
Long, because, says the jury, 
"it is evocative, poetic. If one 
were never to see it again, it 
would be remembered." The 
creations of nineteen estab- 
lished artists will also be ex- 
hibited. The show will travel 
to Skidmore College, Novem- 
ber 15-December 22; the Na- 
tional Ornamental Metal Mu- 
seum, in Memphis, January 
13-February 26; and the At- 
lanta Museum of Art & De- 
sign, March 10-May 1. 

— Nancy Moving 

User-Friendly Rocker 

arl Wallinger, the tal- 
ented British singer, 
songwriter, and multi- 
% instrumentalist who records 
5 under the name World Party. 
S may be in the vanguard of a 
o new traditionalist movement 
^ in rock and roll, similar to 
i those that have recently re-en- 
g ergized country and folk mu- 

sic. hi an era when nouveau 
rap, metal, and dance music 
have separated modern pop 
from its earlier, kinder roots, 
the songs on Wallinger's new 
album. Goodbye Jumbo (Chrys- 
alis Records), are peppered 
with deliberate musical and 
lyrical references to such six- 
ties icons as the Beatles, the 
Rolling Stones, and Bob Dyl- 
an. And while most of those 
same rap, metal, and dance 
performers sing about little 
else than instant gratification, 
Wallinger pleads for world 
peace, environmental con- 
sciousness, and universal love 
without sounding like a tie- 
dyed refugee from Woodstock. 

Wallinger sounds more as if 
he had sprung from some Uto- 
pian, highly computerized 
rock-and-roll future. There is 
certainly no moss on the Roll- 
ing Stone maneuvers that 
Wallinger sets into motion on 
"Way I^own Now" (the 
8 song's arrangement is based 
s on the Rolling Stones' "Syin- 

1 pathy for the Devil"). And the 
S. same goes for "Take It Up," 

^ underscoring its Dylanolo- 
^ gist's lyrics with Blonde on 
i. Blonde organ passages that are 



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as infectious as they are mem- 
ory-bank friendly. Wallinger's 
previous album, 1986's Private 
Revolution, yielded the surprise 
radio and video hit "Ship of 
Fools," and one can easily en- 
vision the same thing happen- 
ing with any number of songs 
from his new collection. 

— Billy Altman 

Chopsticks Heaven 

Lai Ching Heen is the 
best Chniese restaurant 
ni Hong Kong, the 
teeming territory thought to 
have the best Chinese restau- 
rants in the world. The ele- 
gant, understated dining 
room, with its mesmerizing 
harbor view, was a late addi- 
tion to the celebrated Regent 
Hotel, but it was by no means 
an afterthought. It was con- 
structed specially tor its chef, 
Cheung Kam Chuen, whose 
cuisine is at the cleaver's edge 
of Cantonese cookery. 
Cheung was trained in the 

classics, and his renderings of 
centuries-old dishes, such as 
Beggar's Chicken (wrapped in 
lotus leaves and mud from the 
mainland), Bird's-Nest Soup 
(good for the complexion; 
certainly good-tasting), and 
Braised Most Superior Shark's 
Fin (a taste for which is ac- 
quired — at great expense), are 
lessons in why these dishes 
became legends. 

But it is for his "new" Chi- 
nese cooking that Cheung has 
earned his own, legendary 
reputation. With each change 
of the lunar calendar, Cheung 
changes the twenty specials on 
his menu. No matter if the 
dish is a meaty sweet scallop 
perched on a slice of crunchy 
Asian pear, a piece of garoupa 
(Hong Kong's most glorious 
fish) twisted around an aspara- 
gus spear and looking almost 
as French as it does Chinese, 
or brilliantly colored vegeta- 
bles in a crisp taro basket — in 
each case the sauces are light, 
the ingredients superbly fresh 

HaIM'Y BlRTMlMY, F.4.V7H.S7,4 

Believe it or not, l-aulasia is fifty years old. To mark the occasion, 
Walt Disney's marriage of classical music and animated film, never 
released on video, is being revived in theaters around the country 
with revamped sound. Igor Stravinsky — shown reviewing story- 
boards with Disney (left) in 1939 — would surely cheer: his Rite of 
Sprini^ is tlie film's most advanced musical number. 

(today's catch is swimming in 
the kitchen's fish tanks), and 
the presentation graceful. 
(Lai Chifi<^ Heen, The Rej^ent, 
Salisbury Road, Tsimshatsui, 
Kou'loon; phone: 721-1211. 
Open daily, 11:00 a.m. to 2:30 
P.M. and 6:00 P.M. to 11:30 p.m. 
Expensive.) — Dorie Greenspan 

French View 

of New York Show 

It's great fun, but very in- 
tense — like being in a cir- 
cus," says the renegade 
Parisian art dealer Ariane Dan- 
dois about the International 
Antique Dealers Show, in 
New York, October 5 to 10. 
Dandois, who specializes in 
Oriental art and was recently 
banned from the Paris Bien- » 
nale for her objections to the 
vetting procedures (see page 
126), will be one of eighty top 
dealers from the United States 
and Europe to participate in 
the show, held for the second 
year in a row at the Seventh 
Regiment Armory, at Sixty- 
seventh Street and Park Ave- 
nue. Her espousal of Ameri- 
can collectors is particularly 
warm, with perhaps a slightly 
personal edge: "I love U.S. 
collectors. They have a fresh- 
ness of vision in which noth- 
ing is banned." 

— Patricia Corbett 


New kid on the fashion 
block: the thirty- 
eight-year-old Irish 
sensation Peter O'Brien (ex- 
Givenchy, -Dior, and -Chloc), 
whose first collection (since 
1955!) for the house of Ro- 
CHAS is the toast of Paris. His 
luxe and pret-a-porter collec- 
tions are truly lovely, as well 
as wearable, with imaginative 
mixes of tweeds and flannels 
with taffetas and silk mousse- 
lines. O'Brien's spirit is Pari- 
sian — the clothes are beautiful- 
ly cut, without looking ana- 
tomical — but with a hint ot 
Irishness in his choice ot color: 
a misty heather frequently 
contrasts with more-piquant 
colors. The Rochas woman is 
not unlike the (Jivenchy 

( ifc> 

The armory antiques show promises 
^^ems like this oririolu clock. 

woman (that is, Audrey Hep- 
burn): svelte, girlish, su- 
premely elegant. 

As Romania returns to what 
passes as normalcy in Tran- 
sylvania, Ceausescu's own 
train has been requisitioned by 
the Ministry of Tourism as the 
country's answer to the Orient 
Express. Western visitors may 
travel through East-bloc capi- 
tals and detrain for a cruise 
along the Danube. An Ameri- 
can entrepreneur is revamping 
the casino in the Black Sea 
port Tomis, which is a replica 
of the one in Monte Carlo. 
Place your bets. 

New way to "do" Europe if 
you are in a rush and before 
Europe gets swallowed up in 
"Euroformity": visit what the 
Economist calls Euuosphcks, 
bits of one country inside an- 
other. Baarle-Hertog is a 
speck of Belgium in Holland 
(yes, Belgium). Campione 
d'ltalia is a little Italy in Swit- 
zerland, which also has a West 
German (or is it now Eas I 
GtUMAN?) enclave, Biisingen. 
Llivia is a Si'ANISH town in 
France, with its own music 
festival. Then there are the 
Ponza, a I'RIMI livi: fishing port 
easily accessible from Rome, 



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Revolving desk seal. England. C.1820. 
From the Collection of James Robinson, Inc. 




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Cl#== = =L . We go out of our way' 


William Doyle 



Wednesday, October 24 

at 10 a.m. 


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Sale may be previewed 
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ALLAN RAMSAY (British 1713-1784) 
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Signed and dated 1749, in a painted oval. 
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Civitavecchia, and Naples; the 
more chic Pantelleria, closer 
to Tunis than to Sicily; and the 
Yugoslavian islets Brioni (in 
the Istrian archipelago) and 
Mljet, opposite Dubrovnik. 

The most popular car in Eu- 
rope is still the FiAT CiNQUE- 
CENTO (below), born in 1957 
and now, alas, no longer pro- 
duced. It was to the VW bug 
what a flea is to a fly. Every 
year in Italy alone, 28,000 are 

stolen (far more than other, 
more luxurious makes). De- 
mand for these agile vehicles is 
so great that they are stolen on 
commission throughout Eu- 
rope and shipped to Genoa, 
where they are recycled. 

Have you heard that the ART 
FAKER David Stein painted Ad- 
nan Khashoggi's collection? 

In ENGLAND, the Dulwich Pic- 
ture Gallery has concocted an 
ingenious scheme to finance 
the conservation of its old 
masters: foster paintings! Indi- 
viduals or companies footing 
the restoration costs of the 
work of their choice acquire in 
return the right to reproduce it 
on their letterheads and cards. 
Lorrain's Gathering Grapes is 
taken already, but there are 
still Canaletto, Watteau, Pous- 
sin to pick from. 

The finest autograph album of 
the century: Lady Diana 
Cooper gave Churchill's 
young secretary Edward 
Marsh a notebook, which he 
filled (over the course of thir- 
ty-five years) with the auto- 
graph works of almost every 
famous English poet of the 
early twentieth century — Kip- 
ling, Yeats, Housman, Sas- 
soon, et al. lidward Marsh's Lit- 
tle Book, acquired by Eton 





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The Lalique Society of 
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the Greek goddess of 
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only to members. 

Join this exclusive 
association and Hestia 
can grace your home 
along with the quarterly 
LALIQUE magazine, 
exclusive gifts, and 
invitations to special 
Society events. 

Hestia paperweight. S295 
Height S'/i" 


membership is $30. 
Check the appropriate 
box and mail the 
coupon, Ol call 
1 -800-CRISTAL. 

□ Charge my MC, Visa, Am Ex. 

Card # 


□ Accept my check. 

u. Send me more information. 



State Zip 



II East 26th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10010 


College, has just appeared in a 
limited facsimile edition ot 
600, available at tl20, as well 
as twenty-six signed deluxe 
copies, at Il500 each. 

— Patricia Corbett 

Michigan Blues! 

Facing a SI .8 million operat- 
ing deficit during the 1990-91 
fiscal year, the Detroit Insti- 
tute of Arts, which houses a 
superb fine-arts collection and 
offers a first-rate performing- 
arts program, has cut back the 
number of days it is open to 
the public from six to five. 
The museum is now open 
Wednesday through Sunday. 
Shorter hours and other econ- 
omies are being contemplated. 
In the past five years, tunds 
from the private sector and 
program revenues have in- 
creased, but not enough to 
offset inflation and flat state 
and city support. 

How's That Again? 

Some of this fall's hook titles 
(and publisher's blurbs) just go 
to shoiv that you still can't judge 
a book by its cover. 

A History of Knowledge: 
R\ST, Present and Future 
(Birch Lane Press; S22.95; 336 
pages) — A "'one-volume history 
of the human race that inter- 
weaves all knowledge and all 
human achievement." 

Pheasants of the Mind 

(Prentice Hall: S18.45)— "A 
finely written, philosophical 
reflection on the art of pheasant 

The Blue Strawberry 

Cookbook (Harvard, Com- 
mon Press: S8.95) — "Cooking 
(brilliantly) without recipes." 

Children c^f Paradise (St. 

Martin's Press; S18.95)— "A 
unique guide to the special 
problems of child-rearing in 
well-to-do families." 

Blast Furnaces (MIT Press; 

$60) — "Typological, repetitive, 
at times oddly humorous, 
Bernd and Hilla Hecher's pho- 
tographs of industrial structures 
are. in their cumulative effect, 
profoundly moving." 

^^Ediled by Diane RaJJerty 



Impressionist and Modern 
Paintings, Drawings and 

Auction to be held Tuesday, October 2, 1990 at 2 p.m. 
in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, New York, NY 
10022. Viewing begins September 27. For further 
information contact Kitty Berner, John Steinert or 
Cyanne Chutkow at 212/546-1171. For catalogues 
telephone 718/784-1480. 

Georges D'Espagnat, Eufants dans le pare, signed with initials bottom 
right GdE., oil on canvas, 3VA x 39% in. (8i.6 .x 100 cm.) 
Estimate: $140,000-180,000. 


AT 212-980-0015. 













1 II- 


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1 llH 


L^_ L ..>... 

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^HI^Ht ^^Hv ^H^H 






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IV Pi" 

In I 


Property formerly in 

The Collection of 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Warner, 

Sold by David Geffen 

Including Important English Furniture, 
Porcelain, Silver and Oriental Works of Art 

Auction to be held Friday, October 12, 1990 at 
10 a.m. and 2 p.m. in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, 
New York, NY 10022. Viewing is October 6 through 
October 11. For further information contact 
William J. Iselin or Melissa Gagen at 212/546-1151. 
For catalogues telephone 718/"/ 84-1 480. 

View of the entry hall of the Warner h(>n^ m Beverly Hills, California. 





„^^tA. JttHf 


You appreciate personal service and impeccable style reminiscent of a grand era. 
You truly embrace all that is classic. So does Inter-Continental Hotels. 

Number One Nob Hill • San Francisco, California 94108 

Minutes by trolley to the business district, 

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financial district of the ''Magnificent Mile". 
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business and shopping districts. 

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^ For reservations call toll-free 800"327-0200. 

Other locations in North America: Cancun • Manzanillo • Maui • Miami • Monterrey • Montreal • New Orleans • Toronto 

and over 100 hotels throughout the world. 


Important British Pictures 

Auction to be held Friday, November 16, 1990 in 
our galleries at 8 King Street, St. James's, London 
SWIY 6QT, England. The painting illustrated 
will be on view in New York, Toronto and London. 
For further information and viewing times, please 
contact Simon Dickinson or Margie Christian 
at Christie's London (011/4471/389-2544), Ian 
Kennedy or Rachel Kaminsky at C'hristic's New 
York (212/546-1178) or Suzanne Davis at Christie's 
Toronto (416/960-2063). For catalogues telephone 

Benjamin West, RR.A., Portrait of General The Hon. Robert Moncklon. 
full length, wearing the uniform of a General Officer, holdim; d plan rj 
Martinique in his right hand, a cannon and tent'lu'^u^e him, a line of soldiers 
and a battle scene beyond, 94'/2 x ^SYs in. i2A\) \ 175 cm.). 



A/ U 

Spanish treasure, Chinese stamps, musical clocks 

Jewelry sales largely rode 
out the recent storms in the 
auction market. A similar 
good fortune eluded the Span- 
ish treasure fleet that went 
down off Bermuda in 1656, 
but now twenty-two lots of 
spectacular seventeenth-cen- 
tury gold jewelry salvaged 
from the wreck will be of- 
fered at the Christie's sale 
of jen'elry in London on 
October 3. It includes a 
gold brooch containing a 
piece of cloth dipped in 
the blood of the decapi- 
tated Louis XVI. More 
appealing arc the finger 
rings from Roman times 
through the eighteenth 
century, including such 
novelties as a rare 
mourning ring for 
George Ill's Queen Car- 
oline and a French revolu- 
tionary ring with a cream- 
colored intaglio made from 
the debris of the Bastille. They 
are a steal at estimates mostly 
below e 1,000. 

Later this month in New 
York, Christie's and Sotheby's 
will present a splendid assort- 
ment of jewelry. The Christie's 
sale on the 23rd features a 
number of important unset 
gems. On the 24th-25th, 
Sotheby's will dispose of a 
wealth of diamond and 
colored-stone pieces by all the 
right makers (Cartier, Mau- 
boussin, Winston, Van Cleef), 
once worn by such Holly- 
wood types as Paulette God- 
dard. The Sotheby's fine jewel- 
ry sale in London on the 4th 
features a number of elegant 
late-nineteenth-ccntury dia- 
mond and colored-stone 
pieces, most for less than 
£50,000, which are now popu- 
lar in a camp sort of way. 

Christie's and Sotheby's 
also go head-to-head in New 
York this month in Indian, Hi- 
malayan, and Sot4theast Asian 
art. The C^hristie's session on 
the 3rd features impor- 


Nineteenth-century silver 

chandelier by Robert Garrard; 
Christie's. Estimate: 

$300, 000 -$500, 000. 


tant Hindu materials from 
notable private collections, 
dating from the twelfth cen- 
tury, and a stunning group of 
thirty-five Tibetan Buddhist 

On the 5th, Sotheby's will 
offer some 150 lots from the 
widely exhibited and copious- 
ly published Pan Asian sculp- 
ture collection, featuring materi- 
al of the second century to 
the thirteenth. Anything that 
old and well-preserved depict- 

ing Judeo-Christian subjects 
would be virtually priceless, 
yet the hnest ot these seduc- 
tive pieces will probably sell in 
the low six-figure range. On 
the 10th and 11th in London, 
Sotheby's holds back-to-back 
sessions of richly exotic Islamic 
works of art and Indian, Hi)na- 
layan, and Southeast Asian art. 
A four-day sale ofChitiesc 
material will be held at Chris- 
tie's Swire, in Hong Kong, the 
7th to the 10th: nineteenth- 
and twentieth-century Chi- 
nese paintings, fine ceramics 
and works of art, jade carvings 
and jewelry, China Trade 
paintings and watercolors, 
stamps of Hong Kong and 
China, and important Chinese 
banknotes. There are great ex- 
pectations for the C^hina Trade 

Yont^zhenj^ vase; 

(Christie's Hom^i Kon(^. lislimate: 


pictures and for the ceramics, 
which include rare Yongzheng 
blue-and-white vases. 

On the 15th in Tokyo, the 
Sotheby's sale of nineteenth- 
and tu'entieth-century and con- 
temporary prints and modern 
Western-style Japanese paintings 
hopes to repeat last season's 
successes. But vague unease 
has cast its shadow over this 
market, particularly as Japa- 
nese dealers seem to be closing 
ranks against "outsiders." 

In London on the 4th and 
5th, Sotheby's presents a stel- 
lar selection of important clocks, 
watches, wristwatches, barome- 
ters, and scientific instruments. 
Notable arc two musical 
clocks dating from the six- 
teenth and eighteenth centu- 
ries. The earlier is an elaborate 
silver and gilt affair in which 
the music on the original train 
was replaced around 1800 by 
"God Save the King." The 
second features brilliantly 
gilded and enameled allegori- 
cal figures that seem to cele- 
brate the American colonies' 

Anglophiles will fnid rich 


As I See It # 12 in a series 

Dan Weaks 

'Two For The Tub' 

Hand-Tinted Black & White Photography 



Now who con deny the power of a perfect relationship? Which is why, piece for piece, the sculptured 
petal design of our Fleur Suite seems so absolutely right.Jt's clean. MIows. It all relates. Perfectly. (For 
Kohler by its sister connpany, Jacob Delafon, rar;s 
Showroonn. For complete product porffc'' . 
Wl 53044 or call 1-800-4-KOHLER, ex1. 902 

© 1990 by Kohler Co. 

See Yellow Pages for a Kohler® Registered 
send $8 to Kohler Co., Dept. B90, Kohler, 

The saddle tack. Suede jodhpurs with Hermes 
"Sellier" saddle tacks. $ 2,700. 







AruilnhU- rjriusirtl y al Ihrnus Stores: Bcvrrly Hills. BoMon. Chicafjo. DjiIIuh. II<m<»iiilii. Hon 
CoHlu Mrwi . Ca. , BarncvH New Y<»rk. lVlanhaHH«'l . llornW'H u< (heAnu'ricana. New York . BameyH New York, i^»lo 

\ I'sif Ihf HiTini-K lioiiliifiii' «l'»< t 


I' he^addlf lin k. •Scllior" wiilrli 

in .-to'l and IB k. 

"olil pluti'tl willi i»lri( li liand. $ '^SO. 


PA R 1 S 

-. «i 


,.,.'*. Ballimore. Nan DiiHkin. 

rt York. Palm Beach. San Francisco, vvasniii... :;:, i^.v.. i^iiti^v v' •; '•" , — ,— h ~?v Tv..-l r..»»w<t Il>i7<>l(<in I ani^H 

lagnin. Philadel phia. Nan Duskin. Seattle. I. Magnin. ShortHilb,jVL, Barnej.^ N. w York, lomnto. Ihm Iton Lanes. 

w York. Palm Beach. San Francisco. Washiti.r. lu UA.. ikniii(i ui-s liu ^ d' 

N-BLOOM & SON \^sV,V.^n"' 


N. BLOOM & SOX (ANTIQUES) LTD. Established 1912 



TEL. 01 l-+4~l-629 5060 FAX. Oil -44^1 -43^ 5026 

And at 




A pair of unusual Deco period iapis-lazuli. baguette 

diamond and platinum bracelets, which can be 

combined to form a choker necklace of 12%inches. 

Kirkpatrick worked in Hollywood in the '20s and 

■30s and his clientele included many famous movie 


529,500 the pair, delivered to your door by our 

courier .service. Credit card payment accepted. 

Please ask for our new catalogue of fine estate 

jewellery, approximately 200 pieces shown actual 

size, in colour, with prices. S5 airmail. 

The Unmade Bed, 
at Buttcrfidd & 
Butterfield. Estimate: 


pickings at two New York 
sales. On the 13th, Sotheby's 
presents some 180 lots of ab- 
solutely first-rate Em^lish Jiiwi- 
ture and decorative arts from the 
Treleaveti collection. The Tre- 
leavens formerly owned New 
York's Needham Antiques 
and had an eye for high-style 
late Georgian pieces. 

On the^24th, William Doyle 
Galleries will hold a sale of iV»- 
portant seventeenth- and eii^h- 
teenth-century Em^lish and Conti- 
nental furniture and decoration. 
Since Doyle cleverly combines 
everything from turniture to 
silver, rugs, and pictures in 
one sale, you could furnish a 
house in an afternoon. 

On the 27th, Sotheby's 
New York offers maf^nificent 
seventeenth- and eighteenth-cen- 
tury French furniture and decora- 
tion from the collection of the 
Pans decorator Jacques Garcia, 
much of it with royal or noble 
provenances. Since material of 
this quality is uncommon, it 
might be toolish not to buy 
now, before 1992. 

Several midmonth sales in 
London deal in the best mod- 
ern craftsmanship. On the 
16th, Phillips presents British, 
Continental, and A)nericati deco- 
rative arts fiom 1800 to the pres- 
ent, particularly strong in 
turn-of-the-century art glass 
and pottery. In a sale of applied 
arts fivm 1880 at Sotheby's on 
the 19th, the entire gamut of 
art nouveau, art deco, and the 
Arts and Crafts movement is 
superbly represented. On the 
18th, Sotheby's will hold its 
annual sale of ceramics and {^lass 
hy twentieth-century artists and 



studio potters, revealing the 
whimsical side of Arp, Coc- 
teau, Picasso, et al. The prices 
are not whimsical, having 
soared ot late. A second ses- 
sion that day is devoted to 
such eminent potters as Ber- 
nard Leach, Lucie Rie, and 
Hans Coper. This may be the 
best selection of Coper's work 
seen at auction in years. 

At Bonhams on the 17th, 
Picasso and Coctcau share hon- 
ors in a sale devoted to their 
ceramics. On the 19th at 
Christie's. Picasso is the star in 
the Editions Picasso sale. It has 
examples of virtually every- 
thing he did in editions or 
multiples, including ceramics, 
silver, jewelry, and tapestries. 

Now for a nod to outstand- 
ing offerings in the visual arts. 
' On the 9th, San Francisco's 
Butterfield & Butterfield pre- 
sents nineteenth- and twentieth- 
century photography, with 
unique portfolios by Walker 
Evans and Eudora Welty. In 
New York on the 18th, Chris- 
tie's offers important nineteenth- 
and twentieth-century photo- 
graphs, featuring Stieglitz and 
Weston, with tive-figurc esti- 
mates. At Sotheby's London 
on the 18th, works of the CO- 
BRA school (including one on 
paper by Lucien Freud), now 
being rediscovered by the 
market, will be sold. 

On the 23rd, Sotheby's in 
New York presents its first 
U.S. sale devoted to Scandi- 
navian paintin<;is. The top 
crowd-pleasers are well repre- 
sented — Larsson, Munch, 
Strindberg, and Zorn — but, 
since a major Scandinavian 
show bombed in London six 
months ago, should this work 
not have been included instead 
in the Sotheby's general nine- 
teenth-century European paint- 
iiii^s sale, the same day? 

Butterficld's two-day sale 
the 23rd-24th of some 500 lots 
of pjiropeafi, Ai}U'rican, and con- 
temporary prittts atui paintiti(,^s is 
being billed as the most im- 
portant in its history. Last sea- 
son within a month the world 
record for an individual print 
went to S990,00(), then to 
SI. 73 million. It will be inter- 
esting to see if the market is 
still buoyant. — James R. Lyons 


Faeroc Islands • France • Andorra 

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Call us for a savings evahiation of the Reach OtitWuildPlan and basic internatiixial long distaixe rates to Canada and Mexico. +Thineen iKxirs to Gliana (xily. 

©1990 AT&T 


The right choice. 






How to promote fiue calfskin 

dding a little color to the game was not exactly what 
the Spmneybeck leather suppliers had in mind 
when they made up a batch of calfskin base- 
balls to give to their most important 
customers. But they were a hit in 
the design community, and now anyone can buy 
them, in over 100 different colors and color 
combinations. You can collect a 
batch and build baseball pyra- 
mids on special triangular 
bases — or even play base- 
ball with them. Call 
Spinnevbeck, at (800) 

By Kirstai ChmiccUor 
Photo^<^r(iph by 
Gary Buss 

4 < 

>r J» 

' ' r- ,, 

^ > > » 


WHEN you first handle a Patek Philippe, you become 
aware that this is a watch of rare perfection. 
We know the feeling well. We experience a sense of 
pride every time a Patek Philippe leaves the hands of 
our craftsmen. For us it lasts a moment — for you, 
a lifetime. 

We made this watch for 
you — to be part of your 
life — because this is the 
way we've always made 

And if we may draw a con- 
clusion from five genera- 
tions of experience, it will 
be this: a Patek Philippe 
doesn't just tell you the 
time, it tells you something 
about yourself. 



For current informative brochures please write to 
Patek Philippe, 10 Rockefeller Plaza. Suite 629 (CO). New York. NY 10020 






A beauty who kills and a beauty who cooks; 
a scholar who paints and a writer who acts; a composer on his birthday 


When Diana Rigg was 
playing Emma Peel 
to Patrick Macnee's 
John Steed in that spy-vaude- 
ville television series "The 
Avengers," viewers fell madly 
in love with her. Ask them 
why, and most will cite her 
wit, her regal cool, the casual 
way she reached up to 
straighten her hair after 
trouncing some helpless vil- 
lain, as if to say, "All in a 
day's work." She was the 
Englishwoman American men 
dreamed of: witheringly beau- 
tiful, woundingly articulate, 
with a raucous sense of fun 
peeking through all that vel- 
vety poise. 

That was back in the sixties. 
Now fitty-two, Rigg has a 
repertoire that includes Shake- 
speare, Ibsen, Moliere, Shaw, 
and Stephen Sondheim, most- 
ly for the London stage and 
British TV. Rigg in her fifties 
is like Paul Newman in his: 
the erotic fireworks have 
passed into a mature sexuality, 
the striking beauty is bur- 
nished, and their work has 
never been more assured or 

Rigg's own balance of ele- 
gance and quirkiness is still 
happily in evidence when you 
meet her. In Boston to tape 
her emcee stints for this sea- 
son's "Mystery!," she is sleek- 
ly at ease amid the overdressed 
formality of the Ritz-Carlton 
dining room. But she refuses 
to be solemn about herself (on 
the demands of a nine-month 
run of the musical Follies, she 
remarks wryly, "I was not a 
well woman when 1 left"). 
Her wit, rendered in that su- 
perbly orchestrated voice, is 
nimble and buoyant. When 
offered a delicate nouvelle des- 
sert, she expresses her prefer- 
ence for homemade English 
puddings: "I believe that when 
you invite people to dinner, 
dessert should sink them." 
She deftly deflects compli- 
ments on her own work, 


while confiding that Olivier — 
whose Lear she supported 
with a frighteningly convinc- 
ing performance as Regan — 
was still se.xy in his eighties or 
that watching the level of John 
Gielgud's commitment to an 
idiotic West End production 
moved her to tears. 

Rigg is chilling as Helena, 
the homicidal heroine of 
"Mother Love" (the "Myste- 
ry!" miniserics she stars in this 
month); her full-scale per- 
formance provides her a rare 
television showcase. Inge- 
niously, Rigg plays Helena as 
an actress in search of the per- 
fect role, shifting without 
warning from the dry The Im- 
portance of lieitii^ lianiest to the 
Victorian melodrama Hast 
Lymie, embracing the part of 
devoted mother so fiercely 
that she ends up as a nutty 
madonna devouring her 

young. The miniseries might 
have been gothic camp with- 
out Rigg's high-comedy 
style — as in the Noel Coward 
swing she gives drenched lines 
like "Twenty years of betrayal 
and suttering have taken their 
toll." She admits that her 
strategy is to get at Helena in- 
directly, that this extravagant 
theatricality is an ironic coun- 
terpoint. When she appears to 
drop that theatrical mask — as 
when she mimics the voice ot 
one of her victims — the effect 
can make you shudder. 

Few performers could find 
so much humor in Helena, but 
Rigg always surprises. Her 
cooled-out Tracy in On Her 
Majesty 's Secret Seri'ice re- 
mained unflappable through a 
near-lethal car chase, but 
when James Bond proposed, 
her jet-setter's dispassion van- 
ished. And her Lady Dedlock 

in the BBC's "Bleak House" 
was double-tiered throughout, 
her disdainful, majestic tone 
belied by the agony and the 
occasional bright flashes of 
reminiscence in her eyes. 
"You saw her grandeur but 
you never saw her gaiety," 
Rigg says of the character as 
written. "You never saw this 
woman trying to forget her 
past. It seemed essential to 
get the counterpoint." 
("Mother Love" airs Oc- 
tober 25, November 1, and 
November 8 on PBS.) 

— 5fei^e Vineberg 

I ^^ Steve Vineberg wrote about 
I Nicolas Cage for the August 
I Connoisseur. 


Mexico has a whole 
culture of food," 
says the chef Patri- 
cia Quintana. "Tacos, enchi- 
ladas, and burritos are just a 
grain of sand." In the little 
Mexican village of Teotitlan 
del Valle, she shows students 
how the rich, regional sauce 
mole is made, the old-fash- 
ioned way. She points to a na- 
tive woman who kneels on the 
ground and grinds together 
thirty-some spices on her an- 
cient stone metate. We taste the 
result of her labor and find it 
sublime, but what hope have 
we of ever duplicating it? 
Quintana has the answer: 
"Use a food processor." 

Quintana, forty-three, has 
spent most of her life research- 
ing and recording her coun- 
try's culinary heritage and 
then updating it for a modern 
world. Her modern mole, for 
instance, uses only a dozen 
spices, substitutes oil for the 
traditional lard, and can be 
prepared in advance and fro- 
zen. In addition to streamlin- 
ing Mexico's recipes, Quinta- 
na is bringing them a new so- 
phistication. "You don't just 
throw chilies and onions to- 
gether," she says. Instead, she 
teams vanilla with tresh 





More than a perfume, € jewel. 







shrimp, stuffs tiny potatoes 
with ceviche, and tops an 
almond cake with a crown of 
leaves made from white 

Ever since she was a child 
growing up on a ranch, Quin- 
tana has wanted to cook. "I 
was fascinated by the women 
working in adobe huts, mak- 
ing tortillas and salsas," she 
says. "I wanted to be like 
them." She later honed her in- 
terest with lessons from the 
culinary giants Gaston Lenotre 
and Michel Guerard. Now the 
tables are turned as a new gen- 
eration of noted chefs — Dean 
Fearing, of the Mansion on 
Turtle Creek, and Stephan 
Pyles, of the Routh Street 
Cafe, in Dallas; Robert Del 
Grande, of Houston's Cafe 
Annie; Mark Miller, of Santa 
Fe's Coyote Cafe — are looking 

to Quintana for advice. 

If your taste buds are ex- 
cited as you read this, and you 
yearn to try Quintana's cook- 
ing, book a table at New York 
City's Plaza Hotel October 2 
through 14, when Quintana 
will be the guest chef. She is 
also working this month with 
the restaurant at the Metropol- 
itan Museum of Art, where 
the sweeping exhibition 
"Mexico: Splendors of Thirty 
Centuries" opens. In honor of 
her efforts, her government 
has named her "Culinary Am- 
bassador of Mexico." Quinta- 
na is the author of The Taste of 
Mexico and Mexico 's Feasts of 
Life. — Kathleen Beckett-Young 

1)^ Kathleen Beckett-Young 
studied cooking with Quintana in 
Mexico. She is a frequent contri- 
butor to Connoisseur. 



Luciano Berio, the Italian 
composer, was once 
asked by a pianist who 
was rehearsing one of his 
works how a composer or 
performer of twentieth-cen- 
tury music could become rich 
and famous. Berio — who at 
the time was teaching at the 
Juilliard School, having made 
ends meet in the 1950s by 
writing sound tracks for Ital- 
ian television — gently 
shrugged off the question. His 
answer: "Fame is easy." 

A current of that sly humor 
runs through much of Berio's 
music, although it is not al- 
ways an obvious element. 
More immediately striking is " 
Berio's musical language — or, 
rather, the swirl of styles he 
has melded into a coherent 
compositional voice over the 
last four decades. 

Two very different recent 
examples of Berio's work can 
be heard at Carnegie Hall this 
month. On October 4, the 
composer will lead the Or- 
chestra and Chorus of Rome's 
Accademia Santa Cecilia, with 
vocal soloists, in the United 
States premiere of his opera La 
Vera Storia (1981). The next 
evening, Riccardo Chailly will 
conduct the Royal Concertge- 
bouw Orchestra of Amster- 
dam in the New York pre- 
miere o{ Renderitig (1990), 
Berio's idiosyncratic realiza- 
tion of Franz Schubert's frag- 
mentary sketches for a Tenth 

Berio, who turns sixty-five 
on October 24, resists defining 
or describing his music. His 
style is essentially a compen- 
dium of his musical explora- 
tions, usually with an ideolog- 
ical overlay. He came under 
the spell of twelve-tone serial- 
ism in the early 195()s, when 
he studied with Luigi Dalla- 
piccola at Tanglewood and 
met Pierre Boulez and other 
fervent avant-gardists at 
Darmstadt. Within a few 
years, he had decided to retain 
some of serialism's teciiniciues 
but to reject its most dogmatic 
principles. He also began tin- 

kering with electronic sound. 

Into that mix, he has 
brought a love of folk music 
and even some cautious pop 
inclinations: his Coro (1977) 
includes his altered versions of 
Polynesian, Yugoslav, Afri- 
can, and Navaho folk songs; 
and in the mid-1960s he ar- 
ranged some Beatles tunes for 
the trailblazing singer Cathy 
Berberian, his first wife and, 
until her death, in 1983, his 
most enthusiastic and virtuosic 

often, the styles within 
Berio's work clash, and some- 
times violently. A welter of 
densely packed harmonic clus- 
ters might give way to a 
stretch of sweet Renaissance 
polyphony, and then to poin- 
tillistic flecks of vocal or or- 
chestral color. Chunks of 
nineteenth-century works 
emerge, float past, and mys- 
teriously disappear. 

In his vocal writing, when 
he wants his texts taken to 
heart, he presents them 
straightforwardly. But true to 
his omnivorous, polyglot 
style, he also offers them, be- 
fore the work is over, in mul- 
tiple translations and broken 
down into strings of tactile but 
meaningless phonemes. 

No matter how thoroughly 
the texts are shredded and re- 
combined, though, Berio's 
vocal and dramatic works 
usually embody clear, urgent 
proclamations of social con- 
sciousness. In Passaggio (1962), 
a portrait of society's oppres- 
sion of the individual, he has a 
chorus, distributed through 
the audience, heckle a lone 
singer onstage. At the end, the 
singer makes a stand: she tells 
the audience to go home. His 
Opera (1970) used the sinking 
of the Titanic 2LS a metaphor 
for the end of Western civiliza- 
tion. And Coro ends with 
these words of Pablo Neruda: 
"You will ask why this poem 
says nothing of dreaming, or 
of leaves. . . .Come and see 
the blood in the streets." 

La Vera Storia, a collabora- 
tion with the novelist Italo 
C'alvino, was dedicated to Po- 
land's Solidarity movement, 
which was being suppressed at 

'iic)I()(;kai'h om'AIRIcia c^uini ana i5y max a(;uii i.i<A-iii:i.i,wbc; 

lakmg bix Monms To BiiiiH One 
^eems ijiiif e iKeasoMalole OonsiJermg Jnlo^v^Loiij 
AiiOwmeriMLay J^eep Onco 

It takes as long to build a Rolls- 
Royce motor car today as it did 
nearly a century ago. 

But then handcraftsmanship is 
a caring, patient process that cannot 
be hurried. 

And today, still, this nearly lost 
art form is the pivotal difference 
between Rolls-Royce motor cars 
and all others -creating automobiles 
so superbly engineered, so exqui- 
sitely finished, they live up to the 
expectations of the most demanding 
owners in the world. 

Bonding In A 
New Perspective. 

Over lialf of all Rolls-Royce motor 
cars built since 1904 are still gliding 
along the road. 

Others are in prized collections 
and museums. 

Some are in collections of 
owners who simply haven't been 
able to part with their first Rolls- 
Royce motor car. Or their second. 
Or third. 

And some owners have become 
so attached to their Rolls-Royce 
motor cars that, much like family 
heirlooms, they have been passed 
on from generation to generation. 

legends Are Made Of This. 

( )ne of tile first Rolls-Royce motor 
ears ever l)uilt, the 1907 Rolls- 
Royce Silver Ghost, is still going 

strong after three-quarters of a 
century and more than half a mil- 
lion miles. 

Even now you can test the 
extraordinary smoothness of the 
Silver Ghost s engine by balancing 
a coin on the radiator. Just as Sir 
Frederick Henry Royce first did all 
those years ago. 

Today, Rolls-Royce motor car 
engines, while being technologically 
current and computer precise, 
continue to be painstakingly assem- 
bled by hand. As they were then. 

And their renown for power, 
smoothness and silence continues 
to grow. 

Simplv The Best Motor Car 
In The World. 

The Rolls-Royce motor car has, you 
might say, been in development 
for 85 years. A gradual, systematic 
evolution with every improN'cmcnt 
thoroughly researched, tested and 
perfected before acceptance. 

A process that has led to the 
fabled Rolls-Royce ride, now further 
enhanced through a remarkable 
new electronic suspension system* 
that, automatically and instanta- 
neously, adjusts to meet changing 
road surfaces and dri\'ing conditions. 

A load-leveling system so finely 
tuned that it e\'en compensates for 
the gradual emptying of the fuel 

A radiator grille so intricately 
handcrafted that only ten men in 
the world are qualified to build one. 

Aesthetic refinements such as 
rare woods from around the world, 
hand -cut and perfectly matched 
to create veneers no two motor cars 
will ever share. 

And in 1990, a culmination of 
refinements long in development 
and of sufficient importance to jus- 
tify a visit to an authorized dealer. 
To arrange for an appointment, 
or to recei\'e Rolls-Rovce literature, 
simply call 1-800-851-8576. 

Owning One Will Not .Make 

You A Different Person. Yet ^ou 

Won't Be Tlie Same, Kitlier. 

Every motor car in the world can 
be compared to others in its class. 
Except one. The Rolls-Royce motor 
car. It defines its own class. 

Which gives an owner the sin- 
gular distinction of attaining a goal 
all but abandoned in today's, ,,] 
homogenized society. 


And how can one ever 
be the same after that? 



He are rsgi^tefod tradcmwks *A»iailcibl(" on s*rlao nnodcls. 


the time of the work's pre- 
miere, at La Scala in 1982. 
Like Cow, it draws on folk- 
song texts and dance rhythms 
yet presents a picture that Ber- 
io has described as "the strug- 
gle of the masses against con- 
stituted authority." 

Rendering is lighter in spirit. 
It harks back to his pivotal 
Sinfonia (1968), in which Berio 
used the third movement of 
the Mahler Second Symphony 
as a blackboard, on which he 
inscribed his own, idiosyn- 
cratic layer of commentary. In 
Rendering, he has orchestrated 
Schubert's Tenth Symphony 
sketches in a Schubertian style 
(occasionally veering toward 
the styles of Mendelssohn or 
Mahler when he thought the 
music was heading that way), 
presenting these materials as 
he found them. Berio's own 
contributions occur where 
there is nothing in the existing 
sketches to go by. 

"I have never been attracted 
to those operations of philo- 
logical bureaucracy which 













u 1 



sometimes lead musicologists 
to pretend they are Schubert 
(if not Beethoven) and 'com- 
plete' the Symphony as Schu- 
bert himself might have 
done," Berio writes of his ef- 
fort. "In the empty spaces be- 
tween one sketch and the next 
I have composed a kind of 
connective tissue constantly 
different and changing, always 
'pianissimo' and 'distant' in- 
termingled with reminiscences 

of the late Schubert (the B flat 
Piano Sonata, the Trio in B 
flat, etc.) and crossed by poly- 
phonic textures based on frag- 
ments of the same sketches." 

Rather than playing at being 
Schubert, in other words, he is 
being Berio, with Schubert in 
mind. — Allan Kozinn 

•a^ Allan Kozinn is a music crit- 
ic for the New York Times and 
other publications. 


In days gone by, a dealer in 
Chinese art would have 
been a gentleman who was 
also a scholar, painter, and 
collector, who enjoyed the 
quiet pleasures of unrolling 
and gazing at his scrolls or 
contemplating the paper or 
silk to which he was about to 
put his brush. Although Ar- 
nold Chang's cluttered office 
at Sotheby's in New York has 
none of the lacquered cabinets 
or serene atmosphere one 
would associate with that sce- 
nario, its occupant does repre- 
sent that historic tradition. 

Chang, thirty-six, a vice- 
president at Sotheby's, has 
been its worldwide expert on 
Chinese painting for ten years. 
He is also an accomplished art- 
ist in the traditional style. 
"Both vocations," he says, 
"contribute to my apprecia- 
tion of a longer tradition than 
any other fine-art tradition in 
the world." 


Diamonds in the Wind Ring 




Eden Watch 

Avniliil'ii'iil Miniiliirin C,cin<, I lend Office: llunliih^loiiBeiich. CA 

Wings of Desire 
Pendant and Earrings 

Body Language. 

The Eden Collection lets you expre 
your feelings witltout words. 

These lifelike designs in 

18 karat gold are true masterpiece 

of craftsmanship which must 

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call(305) 441-0556. 

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/>^ laaa i^.,^!.,.. ^L^ 

.he design is Victorian from an old Royal Worcester pattern book. 
But the look of Holly Ribbons is very much today. Fresh, formal, versatile, 
elegant, it speaks of quality in Fine Bone China edged in 22 carat gold. 
Isn't this everything you want your holiday table to say about you? 
Mayhew Copley, New York; Potter & Mellen, Cleveland; Suzanne Roberts, 
Dallas; Schwartzchild's, Richmond; George Watts, Milwaukee; Lucy Zahran, 
Los Angeles. Royal Worcester, Forty One Madison, New York 10010. 


Celebrating tbe200th Anniversary of the Royal Warram 



At Sotheby's, he evaluates 
all Chinese paintings — the best 
of the old masters come from 
collections in the West, he 
says — and decides which 
should go to the four annual 
auctions (two in New York 
and two in Hong Kong). He 
notes with pride the burgeon- 
ing interest in the field. When 
he began, Chinese paintings 
were considered "too confus- 
ing," Chang says, and had 
been relegated to the auction 
house's decorative-arts depart- 
ment. Since then, the average 
lot value for Chinese paintings 
at Sotheby's auctions has in- 
creased from $800 to well over 
$10,000. One work, a fifty- 
foot-long hand scroll by the 
seventeenth-century artist Wu 
Bin entitled Ten Views of a 
Rock, recently sold for $1.21 

Although Chang sees Chi- 
nese painting as "a neat little 
entry into a whole world of 
aesthetics," he warns, "It is 
also one of those things you 
can't do halfway." Naturally, 


Gold, Gold, Gold 

An Exhibition and Sale 
of Antique Gold Jewelry 1750-1950 

October 10-27, 1990 

Hours: 10:00 a.m.-5:30 p.m. 


Signed Robert Phillips 


Catalogue available S2. 


J. Mavec & Company, Ltd. 

^ftss^^ssB^ iiy/'n/ia*u . ^ew^/iy r///</ ('//'/fee 

62S Madison Avenue Second Floor New York, NY 10022 Tel. (111) 888-8100 Fax (212) 888-0418 

lere was a time when gods ruled tke eartk 

Wnen women were worsnipped. 


o^vers w^ere a 

gift of 


Tne time nas come a 



-' <^. 

1. Ma^iiin • Neiman Inartus • SaU* Fiflli Avenue 







he has taken his own advice. 
Born and raised in New York 
City — his father now owns a 
restaurant in Houston — he be- 
gan wondering as a sixth- 
grader why all the artists he 
read about in school were 
American or European. That 
curiosity led to an M.A. in 
Asian studies at the University 
of California at Berkeley, and 
eventuallv to Sothebys. 

His second vocation he pur- 
sues in a studio near the home 
he shares with his wife and 
their eleven-vear-old son. 

There, working at his highly 
stylized technique, he pro- 
duces lovely ink and color 
paintings that look quite like 
the ones he sells. So proficient 
is he that Hanart Gallery (in 
Hong Kong. Taipei, and New 
York) has shown him in sev- 
eral group shows. "Western 
taste and Chinese taste are 
compatible and resonate," he 
says, neatly summing up his 
double life. — Wvicic S. Martin 

'd^ Wincic Miivtiti is a writer 
hiiscil in \cu' "^'ork City. 


The rumpled intelligence 
that the actor Gabriel 
Byrne brought to the 
British thriller Defense of the 
Realm and Costa-Gavrass 
Hanna K. has always been un- 
assailable. His impressive dig- 
nity has even withstood the 
test of arty whoopee cushions 
like Julia and Julia and Ken 
Russell's Gothic. (Should we 
count the relentlessly preten- 
tious Siesta} After all. that's 
how he met Ellen Barkin, his 
wife and the mother ot their 
baby son. Jack.) 

But the wry touch of the 
brothers Ethan and Joel Coen 
(writers ot the eccentric Rais- 
inii Ariz:ona), who wrote and 
directed his newest film, A//7- » 
Icr's Crossini;;, seems actually to 
enhance Byrne's easy style. As 
Tom, the smarts behind a dim 
political boss (Albert Finney), 
Byrne proves himselt to be a 
spectacular Silent Type. He 
knows how to look when he is 
wordlessly scheming: his 
square shoulders droop; his 
dark eyes seem to recede even 
deeper beneath those furry 
eyebrows. He knows how to 
look, period. The cinema- 
tographer ot Miller's Crossing, 
Barry Sonnenfeld. marvels 
that Byrnes craggy beauty 
even plays tricks with the 
camera lens. "Some actors 
have soft, roundish faces, and 
they always look out of fo- 
cus." Sonnenteld says. "Ga- 
briel's features are so angular 
and strong that he looked in 
focus even when he wasn't." 

Bvrne's articulateness is un- 
usual among Hollywood's le- 
gion of waxy young stars. 
And, unlike most of his col- 
leagues, he actually can write. 
In fact, Byrne's "The Quiet 
Man" (with a nod to John 
Ford's movie of 1952) was in- 
cluded in a collection of Ire- 
land's best contemporary 
short stories. But mention the 
elegance of his pared-down 
prose style and he starts clear- 
ing his throat nervously. "I 
don't, um, spend enough time 
as a writer," he says. "It's ex- 
hausting. And by that I don't 
mean, you know, exhausting 

because my muse is so de- 
manding. I just hate the 
drudgery of it." 

He preters to get going on 
topics such as his working- 
class Dublin upbringing. He 
put in tour years at an English 
seminary, studying to be a 
priest, betore he dropped out 
at sixteen. "[The seminary] 
destroyed my faith, instead of 
tortitying it," he says (though 
perhaps it inspired his dress 
code of today: black shirt, 
black pants, black shoes). Af- 
ter graduating from Universi- 
ty College, he did a stint he 
prefers to forget as a Gaelic 
and Spanish teacher at an Irish 
girls' school. "I think all sev- 
enteen-year-old girls are pos- 
sessed by poltergeists," he 
says. "They were unmanage- 
able, uncontrollable, and 
could home in on any weak- 

He was thirty years old be- 
fore he turned to acting. His 
first part: a no-line walk-on 
credited in the playbill as The 
Man from Chicago. It gave 
him quite a charge. "After a 
week as The Man from Chica- 
go," he recalls, "I would walk 
down the street like they say 
you do when you've had sex 
for the first time. You think 
everybody knows." 

At any rate, Byrne's career 
switch led him from Ireland's 
prestigious Abbey Theatre 
Company to his starring in 
"Bracken." a top-rated Irish 
television show, to an invita- 
tion to work at the National 
Theatre, in London. As he 
speaks, a low-flying helicopter 
starts buzzing the woodsy 
deck of his rented hilltop 
home in Los Angeles, and he 
is up. out of his chair, pre- 
tending it IS an assault by air- 
borne paparazzi. He dashes to- 
ward an open sliding-glass 
door in a low crouch, with his 
arms shielding his head Hke a 
fleshy pup tent. 

"Now, write this down," 
he instructs me upon return- 
ing. "Ran inside just like Warren 
Beatty would're . . ." 

— Mamy Rochlin 

^^ .\far{iy Rochlin is a writer in 
Los An^ieles. 

I'l k)T()(;raph of (.abriel hyrne by huger foote 



Exclusively at 


Chanse one moment and 
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choose among these fine sampks to complete a wardrobe offiagrances 

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1. Amazom Coffret Echantilion . 

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in a delicious blend ofrosej jasmine, ^ejoch and black currant. 

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5. Cassini 

by International Fashion Designer 

Oleg Cassini . 

A romantically feminine floral chypre that is 

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bouquet cf naturals feature: Jasmine, Bulgarian 

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A prime location only thirty minutes from Philadelphia and recognized as the finest equestrian facility on the Eastern Seaboard. Championship 
training facility in a magnificent eighty acre park-like setting. Outstanding improvements include luxurious owner's residence, deluxe staff and 
guest quarters, indoor riding hall whose dimensions (216 'x 96') exceed AHSA standards for indoor dressage competition. This property adjoins 
the ten-thousand acre Brandywine Conservancy, and the Unionville Hunt Country, offering unlimited riding trails and one of the most scenic 
settings in the country. Ten minutes to the finest shops and country clubs. Only forty minutes to the PhiladelRhia Airport, and two hours to New 
York City and Washington D.C. A rare opportunity to purchase a landmark facility in prestigious Chester County. 


A rare op{ (If lunity to purchase a landmark country estate in a prime location in the heart of the Catskill Mountains. This 2,000 acre estate has 
one of the finest equestrian facilities in the country, combined with a complete Sporting Preserve. Only two and a half hours from New York 
City. The main home, a magnificent Georgian Colonial with 20,000 square feet of incredible construction, ten master suites, nine servants' 
bedrooms, several rooms for entertaining, including three dining rooms, a Hunter's room, commercial high volume kitchen, elevator, dumb- 
waiter, gymnasium, full attic, and basement. Other improvements include 9 homes, a luxurious stable with 76 stalls and indoor riding ring. 
Offered at 5.6 million. 


Dallas. TX 214-698-1736 

Houston, TX 713-643-7907 

San Antonio, TX 512-824-5500 

Austin, TX 512-474-2660 

Santa Ynez, CA 805-688-1478 

Washington, DC 202-638-2033 

213-855-0384 Beverly Hills, CA 
817-654-7202 Ft Worth, TX 
212-796-5799 New York, NY 
504-343-0919 Baton Rouge, LA 
214-823-2350 FAX-Dailas, TX 
215-592-8040 Philadelphia, PA 

The Taste of Excellence 

The most 






A pate-de-cristal figurine by Argy Rousseau and designed by Bouraine 

Purchased at auction in Geneva earlier this year by owner Larry Flynt 

F ^ V x\ t ' 8 A ii t i q u e s & Gifts 

8360 Melrose Avenue, Los Angeles, California 900 6 9 (213)655«020I 

Sotheby's is pleased to announce three exceptional 

Important Louis XIV Porphyry and Sarrancolin 
Marble Bust of a Roman Emperor, 17th century. 
Height, 33 'A in. (85 cm.). From the collections of 
Cardinal Mazarin and the French Royal collections 
at Versailles. Jacques Garcia Collection sale. 
Auction estimate on request. 


% s 

Fine Louis XVI Ormolu-Mounted Boulle Marquetry Mcuble 
a Hauteur d'Appui, last quarter IHih (cnlury. Ja((|ues Garcia 
Collection sale. Auction estimate: SIOO.OOO- 150,000. 

The Jacques Garcia Collection 

A magnificent collection of French Furniture and 

Decorations from the Louis XFV and 

Louis XVI periods. 

Auction in New York: Saturday, October 27 at 2:30 pm 

Exhibition: Opens Saturday, October 20 

Illustrated catalogue sale code: #6085 

Important Loiiis XIV Porphyry Large Covered Vase, circa 1700. 
Height, 23 V^ in. (59 cm.). Jacques Garcia Collection sale. 
Auction estimate on request. 

A Louis XVI Marble Pedestal, late I8lh century. Height, 77 in. 
(195.6 cm.). Auction estimate: $40,000-60,000. 

'.Sotheby's, Inc. 1000 Jdliii 1,. Marion, piiiiripal aiirlioncci, #.52'172H 


\ucTiONS OF Important French and Continental. Furniture 

Property from Various Ow'ners 

Including furniture from the Collection of 

Baron de Gunzburg 

Auction: Saturday, October 27 at 10:30 am 

Exhibition: Opens Saturday, October 20 

lUustiated catalogue sale code: #6079 


Auction: Frida\, October 26 at 

10:13 am and 2 pm 

Exhibition: Opens Saturday, October 20 

Illustrated catalogue sale code: #6078 

*• s 



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Fine Louis XV Ormolu-Mounted Bois Saline Kingwood and Bois de Bout 
Bureau en Pente, inid-lSth century. Height, 37 1/4 in. (94.6 cm.); width, 
41 'A in. (105.4 cm.); depth, 23 /. in. (59 cm.). Various Owners sale. 
Auction estimate: $250,000-350,000. 

Fine Biedermeier Ormolu-Mounted Ebonized and Parcel-Gilt Mahogany Fall- 
Front Secretary, second quarter 19th century. Height, 6 ft. 8 in. (203.2 cm.); 
width, 44 'A in. (113 cm.); depth, 23 in. (58.4 cm.). European Foundation sale. 
Auction estimate: $40,000-60,000. 

To order illustrated catalogues with a credit card, call (800) 4 17-6843. Please include sale code nunii,e. uiib nou. oxlcr. 
Inquiries: Thierry Millerand, Phillips I lalhaway or CiJiian Ai tluir at (212) 6()(>- /2l:'. 

Sotheby's, 1 334 York Avenue, New York. NY 1 002 1 

The World's Leading Auction House 



^My friends all 

tell me it is my 

best. Be that as it 

may I have done 

my best. 

It is a good 

subject and an 


» instance of the 

picturesque. ' 


The Lock 

John Constable R.A., The Lock, oil on canvas, 56 by 47 V-i in. (142.2 by 120.7 cm.). Exhibited Royal 

Academy 1824, no. 180. 

To be sold by the order of The Trustees of the Walter Morrison Picture Settlement. 

British Paintings 1500-1850 

Auction in London: November 14, 1990 
Exhibition: Tokyo: September 27 -October 2 New York: October 12-19 London: November 8-13 

For further information, please contact: 

London: Da\id Moore-Gw)'n 071-408-5406 or James Miller 071-408-5405 

34-35 Bond Street, London WL\ 2AA 

New For/f.- Nancy Harrison (212) 606-7140 

1334 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 

The World's Leadinc; Alktion House 



) Sotheby's. In< 19W John I.. Marion. |>rin<i|>al aiiriionccr, #521728 









Li a disposable world, is 
there a place for a vase m 
designed to last centuries.'^ 

SomeWaterford patterns availably 
today were designed over 200 years ago. 

To many, this ability to transcend 
time may seem remarkable. 

To us, it's simply the criterion that 
determines whether or not a design is 
wonhy of the designation "Watertord." 

WAlliRFORD m in 

. J f 2 00 to; T> I9HV Walir/i.rU (. I < 
,W York. NY 1001 1 


In the village of Coatlinchan, they still talk about what 
happened to Tlaloc, the rain god. For more than four 
centuries, a colossal 167-ton statue of this Aztec deity 
lay beside a river outside this small puehlito in the state of 
Mexico. All knew the tale of how it got there: the old 
believers fleeing the Spanish barbarians carried it this far, 
were halted by a patrol, left it by the river, and never returned. 
There the stone image lay across the generations, bringing 
sweet rain in summer, feeding the shallow river and the corn- 
fields, its gaze at once benign and fierce. 

Then, in 1964, representatives of the federal government, 
intense young men in suits, arrived with a flatbed truck to take 
Tlaloc out of his parish and into the wide world. At some 
point, harsh words were exchanged, rocks were thrown, the 
truck was beaten back to La Capital, and Tlaloc remained 
on the riverbank. Two 
months later, the men in 
suits returned with more 
than 200 armed soldiers. 
They raised Tlaloc from 
the riverbank and carried 
him away. Promises 
were made to the villag- 
ers, about schools and 
special benefits and privi- 
leges; few were kept. 

But on the day that 
Tlaloc was carried across 
Mexico City, to be placed 
at the front entrance of 
the new National Mu- 
seum of Anthropology, 
the skies opened and the 
rain came pelting down. 
The statue remains there, 
with a plaque saying that 
it was "generously" do- 
nated by the people of 
Coatlinchan. Mean- 
while, back in the village, 

the dust storms blow throughout the year and it almost never 
rains anymore. Men in suits now explain that the cause of this 
devastation was the cutting down of the region's trees and the 
draining of nearby Lake Texcoco to make room for the spread 
of modern Mexico City. Those of more poetic intelligence 
insist that it is all about Tlaloc. If you take away the rain god, 
they will tell you, the rain goes with him. 
I thought about Tlaloc and the village of 
Coatlinchan when the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art announced its huge show 
"Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries" 
(October 10-January 13). The idea for the 
show came from Emilio Azcarraga, chair- 
man of the board of the Mexican television 
network Televisa. With the enthusiastic 
agreement of the Metropolitan, he helped 
raise money for the show and enlisted the 
cooperation of the Mexican government. 
Timing was important, even urgent. The 
multiple celebrations in 1992 of the five- 
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of 
America by Christopher Columbus will 
utilize many of these pieces, in particular 
those from collections in Spain and other 





The mill x'l''/ I'ldloc in Mexico City 

European nations. This show represents the final opportunity 
for years to come to examine a broad range of first-rate Mex- 
ican art in one place. As someone who has lived in Mexico and 
has spent thirty-five years traveling there, I can't wait. Bin the 
show at the Met also fills me with a certain dread. The reason 
is the Tlaloc Syndrome. 

In one manner or another, they arc still coming to get 
Tlaloc. Back in January of this year, a group of strangers 
arrived in the village of Zinacantepec, in the state of Mexico, 
to borrow some items for the show at the Metropolitan. They 
wanted a sixteenth-century baptismal font and a Christ made 
in the same century from sugarcane paste. Both were in the 
village's small Viceregal Museum. According to an account m 
the Mexico City daily Lajonuidii, villagers formed a human 
barrier in front of the museum, refusing to surrender their 

treasures, and the stran- 
gers eventually left emp- 
ty-handed. A communi- 
ty leader was quoted as 
saying, "The pieces from 
here arc not leaving. We 
are tired of the looting (>•<?- 
qtieo] and of the removal 
ot the patrimony of the 

In t h e f o 1 1 o w i n g 
months, similar scenes 
took place in the villages 
of Chiconauhtla and San 
Mateo Oxtotipac. Ac- 
cording to the reporter 
Angelica Abelleyra, of /.<j 
Jornada, officials wanted 
to borrow a life-size six- 
teenth-century sugar- 
paste sculpture of Santia- 
go de Matamoros (the pa- 
tron of converted In- 
dians) from the churcli in 
tiie first town and the 
principal seventeenth-century rctahlo, an elaborate gold- 
encrusted altarpiece, and tour smaller pieces trom a church in 
the second. In each case, human barriers were again formed. 
The works stayed where they were. And though I am sad that 
we shall not see these pieces m the Metropolit.m show, the 
actionsofthoseMexican villagers also make mew .nit to cheer. 
Those searching for objects to displ.iy at 
the Met cannot he com[i,ueii to Kuuers. of 
course, but so much ot the [\uiunon\ oi 
Mexico has been looteil i)\er the centuries 
that the suspicions of ordinary citi/ens can- 
not be dismissed as evidence of mere anti- 
gringti paraiuMa. Ilie very names of the 
villages induate a past reaching back at 
least five centuries, .ind in Mexico, folk 
memory is often the most reliable version 
of history. Mine important, like tiie image 
of Tlaloc, these were religious objects. 
1 lu^se in the churches w ere in use, part of 
tiie dailiness of human lite in those \ illages. 
All were vested with the complex emo- 
tions that come with religious belief. They 
might possess great formal beauty, but that 
beauty was not intended to impress an 




Miinucl lie 
I 'elasco V 
represents th 
religion with 
ii certain Me: 
ican freedcni. 





audience of strangers, par- 
ticularly in so far off a 
place as New York. The 
beauty was a means of 
venerating God. In Mexi- 
co, even in the last, cynical 
decade of the twentieth cen- 
' tury. there remains a hard dif- 
ference between the aesthetic 
and the sacramental. 
The show at the Metropoli- 
tan should make that clear, hi a 
\vay. ijll Mexican art is sacramen- 
1. The monumental art of pre- 
Columbian America was reli- 
gious art before it was anything 
else. And though archaeologists 
have made amazing strides in 
decoding the details of these 
anished civilizations, the objects 
mselves retain a powerful sense of 
tery. We can admire them for 
design, craft, expressiveness; but 
still provoke more questions than 
answer. A similar sense of the un- 
wable is attached to much of the 
ristian art created in Me.xico after 
the conquest. Who ircrc these people, 
taking brushes to ceilings, erecting lavish churches for a Euro- 
pean deity in the hard-baked earth of Mexico? What precisely 
did they have in mind when they confronted the puzzling 
moral and artistic codes of the new religion? How could they 
have so thoroughly transformed the European models, 
refreshed them, given them such gaudy vigor and. yes. humor 
that were not present in the more dour visions of Europe? We 
cannot answer; the anonymous artists left few records. All we 
know for certain is that such work could not have been made 
by atheists. 

Even the art of the twentieth-century Mexican revolution 
has this religious core; it too expresses a system of beliefs, 
made visible through art. Few Mexicans believe anymore in 
the revolution; the real world is too much with them. But in 
spite of decades of disappointment, corruption, disaster, and 
crisis, the promise of the revolution, with its egalitarian vision 
and near-mystical worship of ricmj y lihertad, land and liberty, 
remains a vivid possibility. Somewhere, heaven might be 
real. It is no accident that Jose Clemente Orozco. Diego Riv- 
era, and David Alfaro Siqueiros also filled their frescoed walls 
with martyrs. 

"Art outlives the societies that create it," says the great 
Mexican writer and consultant to the Metropolitan sht^w 
Octavio Paz. "It is the visible tip of that iceberg which is every 
foundered civilization." 

In a way. the show at the Met presents the tips of a number 
of icebergs. There arc more than 400 works in the exhibition, 
about a third of them from the twenty-five centuries before 
the calamitous arrival of Hernan Cx^rtes. in 1519, and more 
than half of them never seen before outside Mexico. (Two ot 
the pieces, a five-foot Olmec head and a feathered serpent. 

have a combined weight of six tons and will be displayed in 
the Great Hall because the gallery floors cannot support 
them.) Even here, wrenched t'rom their cultural context, all 
these pieces are proof, as the German scholar Paul Westheim 
once said, that "the final categories of Mexican art are the 
awesome and the sublime." To gaze at the exquisite Olmec 
jade funerary figure from La \'enta and realize that a human 
being made this six or eight centuries before the birth of jesus 
tampers with the sense of time (and makes one laugh at the 
notion that even at the Met such art is the province of a depart- 
ment ot "primitive"" art). The ceramic hunchback below, 
probably from the same period in La Venta. is at once an ex- 
ample of stylistic mastery and an expression of the individual. 
You are forced to wonder about two human beings whose 
names and lives are forever lost: the artist and his subject. 

These earliest pieces have a certain modesty and 
crudeness when viewed against the great work 
that was to follow: but I am always reminded 
when seeing them in the anthropology museum in 
Mexico CityofPicasso's line that "somebodydoes 
it first, and then somebody does it pretty." From its begin- 
nings among the Olmec (the name means "Dweller in the 
Land of Rubber""), Mesoamerican art flourished: its ultimate 
triumph might be that, over many centuries, it almost never 
descended into the merely pretty. The Olmec, whose prima- 
rv religious symbol was the jaguar, also carved the famous 
giant heads — some as tall as ten feet — that puzzle and chal- 
lenge us. all these centuries later. They are not merely pretty; 
they have no intention to charm us; but they set a high stan- 
dard. The standard was met or equaled by all the cultures that 
followed, including the Zapotec, Mayan. Toltec. and Aztec. 
Certainly, as you gaze upon the wind god from Izapa. or the 
varied works from Teotihuacan and Monte Alban and Palen- 
que. that mixture of the awesome and the sublime becomes 
even more evident. 

Of course, taking these pieces out of their sites depletes the 
awe that was central to the visions 
that inspired them. The monu- 
mental cities from which they 
came are themselves works of 
art. and you can no more eas- 
ily imagine the true scale of 
those cities from these small- 
er pieces than you can experi- 
ence a Jackson Pollock from 
a magazine reproduction. 
And yet even in a museum 
on Fifth Avenue, in a city of 
monuments, thev seem to 
retain their power. 

That power is derived, in 
part, from the complicated 
social and religious agendas 
that the artists served. They 
clearly had little interest in a 
naturalistic rendering of the 
\isible world; they lit'cii in 

that \\ iirld and must have felt Pre-Columbian ceramic vessel; 
little need to reproduce it. In- probably hom La I V)/f.j. 

/// some villages, Mexicans vefiised to sunviider their treasures. 



stead, they abstracted the world, styhzed it, simphficd it; that 
is why so much of the art of Mesoamcrica now seems "mod- 
ern," as that word has been used in the West for the past cen- 
tury. And they tried to make visible the other, unseen worlds 
that their myths told them were as real as the world they could 
see. They were not reporters; they were imaginers. 

For me, the art of the Maya is the most astonishing of all. 
Over a period of 600 years, 
ending about A. I). 900, the 
Maya created a civilization 
of fabulous sophistication 
and originality. Mayan 
knowledge of astronomy 
and mathematics was 
striking; the Maya devised 
a complex written lan- 
guage and created a refined 
and elaborate style of ar- 
chitecture and art that was 
unequaled in the Western 
hemisphere. Not surpris- 
ingly, in the Metropoli- 
tan's show some of the 
most beautiful pieces come 
from Mayan cities: the del- 
icately modeled seventh- 
century stucco head from 
Palenque; the shy, almost 
timid standard-bearer from 
Chichen Itza, made be- 
tween the ninth century 
and the thirteenth, paint 
still clinging to its lime- 
stone form. 

The Aztec nation was to 
the Maya what Rome was 
to Athens. The Aztecs 
were severe, brutal, totali- 
tarian. Their art was in- 
tended to cow the individ- 
ual, to make him or her 
submit to a system of au- 
thority that ruled from the 
summit of the pyramid. As 
a result, in Aztec art we see 
none of the delicacy of the 
Maya; there is no humor, 
no expression of the femin- 
ine, and absolutely no iro- 
ny. Here are their feathered 

serpents, with teeth bared Siiinptuous ivhcs, ohsassii'i'ly dctaHcii 
fiercely; eagles and jaguars Isiiuuia dc la Siim^rc. paiiiti 

(symbols of military or- 
ders); images of fear made more ferocious by the skill of the 
artists. This is an art inspired by spilled blood. 

The freshest part of the show at the Metropolitan is the 
viceregal section, which deals with the art and culture of the 
almost 300 years of colonial Mexico. The province of New 

Spam was not strictly a colony; it was ruled bv a viceroy 
(meaning vice-king), who sat at the top of the new pyramid, 
endowed with enormous power and discretion and' a large 
amount ot independence from the Spanish crown. Surpris- 
ingly, the Spaniards were far more humane in this project 
than the "black legend" insists; certainly they were more 
interested in converting and marrying their hidians than were 

the Anglo-Saxons to the 
north, who. basically, set 
out to exterminate them. 
Still, the Spanish viceroys 
forcefully used their power 
to transform the lives of 
the Indians in the name of 
the ideology of the true 
cross. Art was one of their 
most important weapons. 
Since the era coincided 
with the Clounter-Refor- 
mation in Europe, rigid 
catechisms of art and archi- 
tecture were drawn up by 
priests for the guidance of 
these new Christians. As in 
all nations and all epochs, 
art, as directed by the state, 
was simply another tool of 

The triumph of the 
Mexicans was that tluv 
created Mexican art, not 
simply a pale rcHection o\ 
the art of fuirope. When I 
asked Johanna Hecht, who 
served as curattir for the 
viceregal sectUMi o\ the 
show, preciseK when the 
new art became Mexicin, 
she answered, "I roni the 

I his indigenous m- 
riuence can be seen iii the 
teather mos.iu of Saint 
(iregory (l.S.V)). m which 
the strange new religious 
linage is given intimacy 
and familiarity by the use 
of traditional Indian mate- 
rials. I eatherwork was a 
high .ut umler the A/tecs, 
whose finest craftsmen 
were engageti in the m. ik- 
ing of priestly garnuiits 
Such artists made an easy transitu)!! tt) the chasubles i>l the 
new priests and to the use of art for the exaltation of the new 
god and his saints. Another variation of this process can be 
seen in the beautifully gilded sculpture o\ Saint |ames the 
Moor Killer (another version of the patron saint ()t Indian 
conversit)n). This is an image of a martial religion, at oiue 

lend ii refill feel lo the iiiiii Soi .\l,iii,i 
■d hy Jose dc Ahih.ii ( 1777). 

Mexican art fit i ally consists of the awesome and the suhlune. 

OCTOBER 199(1 


defensive, ferocious, and expansionist. At the same time, it 
celebrates the power of the new masters, as exemphfied by the 
horse (unknown in America until the Spaniards arrived and 
crucial to their triumph). But idea was not all; in execution 
and in the eclectic — even joyous — use of iron, leather, hair, 
and wood, this sculpture looks unquestionably Mexican. 

This section of the Metropolitan survey shows that it is 
impossible to understand modern Mexico without knowing 
the art and culture of the 300 years of New Spain. Everything 
flows from that era: the 
triumph of the mestizo, the 
constant tension between 
the religious impulse and the 
secular, the creation of new 
class differences based on 
race and origin, the impor- 
tance of land. Here are 
fabulously rendered silver 
crosses and images of saints; 
but here also are embroi- 
dered trunks, glazed jars and 
cups, and evidence of the ar- 
rival of individual artists 
from Europe. I love The 
Painter's Cupboard, by Anto- 
nio Perez de Aguilar, 
painted in 1 769 and as evoca- 
tive of a man's private life as 
the catalogs of J. D. Salin- 
ger's medicine chests or the 
boxes ofjoseph Cornell. We 
know nothing about the 
man, and everything; this is 
his card of identity. 

The art that followed the 
Mexican revolution of 1821 
also simultaneously explains 
and celebrates. The Juan 
Cordero portrait of Santa 
Anna's wife tells the viewer 
more than its subject and her 
patron must have suspected; 
the pomposity and megalo- 
mania of the Santa Anna 
years are present in every 
inch of the canvas. At the 
same time, we sense the love 
of the unique Mexican land- 
scape in the works of Euge- 

In conjunction with the exhibi- 
tion at the Metropolitan, there 
will be almost 2U0 other shows 
and events celebrating the artistic 
genius of Mexico, in museums, 
galleries, concert halls, and uni- 
versities throughout New York 
this fall. To make up for the 
absence of contemporary paint- 
ers in the Met show, the IBM 
Gallery of Science and Art will 
present "Mexican Painting 1950- 
1980" (October 2-November 
24); the Americas Society will 
exhibit "Aspects of Mexican 
Cxintemporary Painting" (Sep- 
tember 13-l)ecember 31); and 
"Through the Path of Echoes: 
New Art from Mexico" can be 
seen at the Museo del Barrio (No- 
vember l-December 16). Indi- 
vidual modern painters will be 
given their due, including Fran- 
cisco Toledo (at the Nohra 
Haime Gallery); and there will be 
three exhibitions of the work of 
Rufino Tamayo (at the Dorsky, 
the Mary Anne Martin, and the 
Marlborough galleries). "Paral- 
lel Project," an undertaking 
organized by three major Mexi- 
can art galleries, will represent a 
group of twenty-three outstand- 
ing Mexican artists of the eighties 
and nineties at 112 Greene Street 
(September 2f)-january 20). 
Superb films made in Mexico 
nio Landesio and Jose Maria 

Velasco; feel the enduring capacity for wonder in the Mexican 
character in the anonymous small painting on tin called here 
Mati ReviiH'd after Beinj^ Struck by Li{^litnin(^ (surely an early 
example of tabloid art); are touched by the newly liberated 
insistence on individuality in the portraits by Jose Maria 
Estrada and Hermenegildo Bustos. The codes and forms of 
Mesoamerica are at this point part of a distant, irretrievable 
past; but they have been replaced by Mexico, not Europe. 
The Mexican critic Raquel Tibol, of the weekly Proceso, 

says, referring to the show at the Metropolitan, that "it is 
unfair, in many ways, to place modern painters in the same 
place as the works of the pre-Columbian era. Everything 
looks puny in comparison." 

Certainly the shadow of that distant past is an enormous 
one; and it would be unfair, as Tibol says, to do a show of 
Italian art that placed the moderi> Italian painters against the 
masters of the Renaissance. But that challenge from history 
must have been part of the motivation (conscious or other- 
wise) that drove the twen- 
tieth century's three great 
masters: Orozco, Rivera, 
and Siqueiros. When I was 
young, living in Mexico and 
trying unsuccessfully to be a 
painter, Orozco was my 
personal hero. I thought, in 
my arrogance, that Rivera 
was just a glorified Marxist 
cartoonist and Siqueiros a 
mere illustrator of revolu- 
tionary oratory. Across the 
years, as the political content 
of the work has become 
more obscure and (post- 
Gorbachev) without mean- 
ing , my f e e 1 i n g s have 
changed. I now think all 
three are great painters. 

Unfortunately, the show 
at the Metropolitan might 
not provide sufficient evi- 
dence for that statement. 
The triumphs of the Big 
Three remain the murals, 
and those works simply can- 
not be transported to Fifth 
Avenue and Eighty-first 
Street without the risk of the 
Tlaloc Syndrome. Entire 
buildings would have to be 
moved on flatbed trucks. 
But the easel paintings that 
are there give us some sense 
of the enormous skill and 
private visions of these men. 
Orozco's Paticho Villa is not 
some empty commission for 
a political party; it attempts 

between the 1930s and the 1980s 
and a series of documentaries will 
be screened at the Met (October 
2-January 11), and the Museum 
of Modern Art will feature the 
works of the Mexican filmmak- 
ers Ripstein and Hermosillo (De- 
cember 7-31). Over a dozen of 
Mexico's finest photographers 
will be showcased in "Between 
Worlds," at the International 
Center of Photography (Novem- 
ber 16-February 3). There will be 
readings at the YMHA Poetry 
Center by poets and writers such 
as Homero Aridjis and Marco 
Antonio Montcs de Oca (Sep- 
tember 30), Octavio Paz (Octo- 
ber 8), and Elena Poniatowska 
and Jose Emilio Pacheco (Octo- 
ber 15). Among many concerts 
will be an extravaganza, October 
7, at Madison Square Garden, 
featuring the best of the nation's 
mariachi and pop singers. The 
Ballet Folklorico will perform 
October 8 at Carnegie Hall. Else- 
where in the city you will find 
celebrations of Mexican cus- 
toms, Mexican food, and Mexi- 
can folk art, including the exhibi- 
tion "Mexico through Its 
Masks," at the World Financial 
Center (September 25-Novem- 
bcr 15). In ambition, breadth, 
and intelligence, nothing like this 
has ever been attempted before. 

to capture the macho swag- 
ger, the boldness, and even the tragedy of the revolutionary 
leader. Orozco's painting is that of a man in absolute control 
of his tools; the strokes are certain and always personal. He is 
one of those painters who do not need to sign their works. 

But here is Rivera too, painting his lover and wife the tem- 
pestuous Lupe Marin. She is clearly an object of the painter's 
love, but there is something in her face and the tight joining of 
her hands that makes us feel that even Diego knew he could 
not control her. Lupe Marin must have made Diego teel the 

Imagine doin^ a show of thirty centuries of Italian art. 



power of the awesome and the subHme. Here, too, wc wit- 
ness the formal arrangements he learned from seeing Giotto 
and Piero della Francesca during his European sojourn and the 
use of compressed space taught by cubism. These influences 
are joined by Diego's draftsmanship and high-key palette into 
an image that belongs only to him, and to Mexico. 

Siqueiros here bursts from the canvas with almost ba- 
roque power. He seems to be saying, in the self-por- 
trait, "I am a revolutionary warrior! The paintbrush 
is my weapon." He was among the first to use mod- 
ern materials: acrylics, Duco, pyroxylin — part of the 
Marxist artists' attempt to adopt the tools of a proletarian 
science that was supposed to 
liberate mankind. His life 
was, in fact, dedicated to the 
dream of that brave new 
world; he was among the 
first group of true believers 
who attempted to murder 
Trotsky at the command of 
Stalin, and spent too much 
of his life in exile or in 
prison. But these powerful 
pictures also display the 
essential innocence of his 
vision: they are not prose; 
they are opera. 

Rufino Tamayo was a few 
years younger than the mu- 
ralists, and his career went in 
a different direction. Since 
the 193()s, he has served art, 
not ideas or creeds. He 
learned much from the Pi- 
casso of the 1930s (some of 
his horses could enter the 
track with the cahallos of 
Guernica). But in form, tex- 
ture, draftsmanship, and, 
above all, color, Tamayo is 
always Mexican. Like the 
Mesoamerican artists he 
loves (he has a superb pri- 
vate collection of such 
work), Tamayo has no in- 
terest in the naturalistic 
world, histead, he extracts 
the elements of the natural 
world that please him — wa- 
termelons and certain plants 
and dogs and the heavens above — and gives us their essences 

Owzco's Fancho Vi\h( 1931) 

captures the revolutionary ^^ucrriUa leader's swaf^ier and some of his tra{^edy 

Stretched taut; anger at Diego (she married him twice); anger 
at the Streetcar accident in her adolescence that let't her crip- 
pled for life; anger at the endless injustice of the world. With- 
out issuing manifestos, she says with a pitiless and self-lacer- 
ating clarity that in this century all art is autobiography. 

With these artists and some minor works of the late forties, 
the Metropolitan's display abruptly ends. Or fizzles out. This 
cutoff seems arbitrary and unfair, because the postmural gen- 
eration has given the world many superb artists: Jose Luis 
Cuevas, Ricardo Martinez, Pedro and Rafael Coronel, Juan 
O'Gorman, Gunthcr Gerzso, Arnold Belkin, Francisco Tole- 
do, Rodolfo Nieto, andjuan Soriano, to mention only a tew. 

Their superb work was 
made possible by the decay 
of the mural tradition (those 
artists who continued it 
were mechanical govern- 
ment hacks) and by the de- 
termination of the younger 
generation, in the words of 
Cuevas, to "crack the cactus 
curtain" of formalized, gov- 
ernment-sponsored art. 
They wanted to be judged 
by the standards ot the 
world, not those of Mexico 
alone. The Metropolitan 
implies that, after the big 
names, accomplished art 
ceased to be produced in 
Mexico, and that simply is 
untrue. In his introduc- 
tion to the Mct's own cata- 
log for the show, Octavio 
Paz also objects to this sin 
of omission. 

In truth, the selectuui 
tVom all of the eras is inade- 
quate, limited by what Mex- 
icans are willing to surren- 
der from their patrimony 
and by the anunint ot romn 
available to house it. The 
curators could have quadru- 
pled the ninnber of their se- 
lections and still not come 
close to accommodating the 
full range of the Mexican 
genius. That is why so many 
galleries and halls will be 
used to display art, crafts, and food (see box). No other coun- 

Though he has done murals, Tamayo is essentially an easel try in this hemisphere, including our own. has produced so 

o ....._, ,- 1- ._i..„; .^f .,,-^^.-i- t/^ til iii\r /-oMMirii'v; If till" vilniw .It thr 

painter, more capable than the Big Three ot expressing in a 
smaller space the same mysterious and totemic power that we 
see in the earliest work at La Venta. 

The other modern painters in the show have their own, 
unique qualities. (I particularly like the zany surrealism of 
Antonio Ruiz's The Soprano.) But only Frida Kahlo seems 
able to stand up to the four masters. In the past decade, thanks 
to the film starring Ofelia Medina and the biography by 
Hayden Herrera, Kahlo has at last emerged from the Olmec- 
like shadow of her husband, Diego. Her angst, her maso- 
chism, and her jealousies inform virtually every one of her 
paintings. There is raw anger in her work, a sense of nerves 

much glorious art across so many centuries. It the show at the 
Metropolitan makes that clear, thus altering the sickening, 
xenophobic stereotypes that cloud the North American 
vision of our most important neighbor, then it will be a daz- 
zling success. We can all shout, "Que I'iva Mexico!" and go 
hear Lola Beltran at Madison Square Garden, too. 

In the meantime, it would be a good idea to leave TIaloc 
alone. D 

•d^ Pete Haniill, who studied art in Mexico in the fifties, is at work 
on a book reconstructing the year 1955 in New York (to be published 
by Little, Brown). 



When the soprano Ganna Wahka died, at the age of one hundred, in 
California in 1984, the trustees of the foundation to which she had 
entrusted her thirty -seven-acre garden proposed opening it to the public 
without delay. It lies, however, on the lower slopes of Montecito , east of 
Santa Barbara, an area of large estates set among groves of live-oak trees. 
Some residents, wary of tour buses and the like, protested. Their objec- 
tions, added to the problem of obtaining permits, have delay ed matters , and 


i Lotusland has remained a secret garden, virtually unknown, even in 
California, except to garden aficionados and botanists. There are hopes that it will open in 1992. 
The garden Madame left is not the usual, tastefully composed extension of a wealthy woman's 
house into the landscape but a remarkable botanical and horticultural collection of mostly tropical and 
subtropical plants . Among them are aloes, cactus, palms, bromeliads , ferns , and four hundred cy cads, 
including three South American Encephalartos woodii, so rare they no hnger exist in the wild. 


A first view of Americans most exotic garden 


Above: Madame 

Ganna Walska. Right: 

a bed with several 

varieties of cvmbidium 


Opposite: Descending 
stems of a weepinc; 
FORM OF Euphorbia 


soxii (Mexico). 




















'a. ,| 



' \. ' 


'^(^ -^.'^ 












■ ^y. -^ 

Madame Walska poured all her passionate energy into her garden. 

At the same time, Lotusland is 
much more than a botanical garden. 
Madame Walska scorned the ordi- 
nary. "I am an enemy of the aver- 
age," she once wrote. Even as a 
socialite in Paris she had disregarded 
fashion, dressing to please herself in 
turbans she copied from Rembrandt 
paintmgs, tloor-length silver fox, 
and "huge necklaces, bracelets and 
rings . . . the biggest stones I could 
fmd on the market." 

So it is that where most botanical 
collections have a few plants of each 
variety, Madame Walska bought, 
whenever possible, dozens and 
sometimes hundreds. Then, with the 
almost surreal sense of juxtaposition 
and theatricality fitting in a grande 
dame of opera, she assembled them 
in a series of glades on either side of a 
winding driveway that runs like a 
spine through the garden. 

Embowered in a matrix of pitto- 
sporum, live oak, acacia, eucalyptus, 
and palm, Lotusland allows the pass- 
ing motorist only fitful glimpses, 
above pink-washed walls, of its pre- 
historic cycads, bristling on green 
mounds, and, through the wrought- 
iron entrance gates, the huge, fleshy 
spikes of green agaves that curve 
around and away up the drive, 
backed with tree aloes, yuccas, and 
dracaenas, and edged with a yellow- 
flowered sedum. 

hi fact, this stripe of seasonal yel- 
low is unusual at Lotusland. Although occasionally flowers 
may add a passing shock, this is basically a garden of infinitely 
various greens, from near white through yellow to blue and 

on to almost red and almost black. 
The impact of Ganna Walska's de- 
sign depends on her mass plantings 
of the same species, on layering, and 
on unexpected combinations. Some 
arrangements, like the cycads in 
grass, would hardly be considered by 
any sensible horticulturist, but Ma- 
dame, who seldom allowed the de- 
mands of reality to compromise her 
visions, swept aside objections and in 

Lf-FT: The suc:c;ulent caudhn. 


i'()()[. ani)(,iani-c;lam [ounlain 


The fern c.arden, with staghorn fern 

ON the trunk 0¥ A LIVE tMK, AND 

maxdraliscae, blue fescue, and 
Mexican blue palms. 

the garden usually triumphed. 

One such visionary success is the 
planting around the entrance to the 
house, where, in a wide bed of undu- 
lating red and black lava gravel, sit a 
hundred or so brilliant Echinocactus 
(^rusonii, the Mexican golden barrel 
cactus. Fat, like huge pincushions 
with round, prickly babies stuck to 
their sides, they are striped with lines 
of golden spines, which, with the sun 
behind them, form a haze of golden 
fuzz. Between these rise the spiked 
arms of the Argentinian Trichoccreus 
tcrscheckii and, marking the short 
path to some French windows, two 
twelve-foot, ribbed green columns 
o( Neobuxbanmia polylopha. 

But the real stars of this extraordi- 
nary arrangement are two huge, 
multistemmed Euphorbia itigens, 
which^ at either end of the house, rise 
some twenty feet into the air and then 
curl over, double back, twist, curve 
around, and descend again earthward 
in a series of wobbly arches as mad as 
anything designed by Gaudi in Bar- 
celona. Returning to the ground, the 
stems grow along horizontally for a 
little, before starting to rise again. 
And around these arms grow colo- 
nies of pale yellow seed pods, 
squeezed together like bracelets of 
button mushrooms. 

Facing the house is a grove o{ Dra- 
caena draco — dragon trees — from the 
Canary Islands. A path of gray- 
speckled gravel leads through them, edged with rough-cut 
hunks of marble. Their scaly, matte brown trunks divide, just 
above head height, into arching, sausage-shaped candelabra 
spouting bunches of sword-shaped leaves. Some of the hori- 
zontal branches, cantilevered twelve feet over the path, are 
supported on props that cast sharp black shadows on the 
ground. Beyond them, brilliant in the sun, yellow-green tree 
ferns illuminate the darkness. 

The California Spanish house within the garden was built 
for the Gavit family around 1917, with a later, one-story addi- 
tion by the distinguished local architect George Washington 
Smith. Madame Walska moved her collections of religious 
artifacts from Tibet into the main house and occupied the 
Smith addition herself. 

Here, she who had had houses on Park Avenue and the Rue 
de Lubeck, who had owned the Theatre des Champs-Elysees, 
her own symphony orchestra, and a chateau in the He de 
France; she who had sung Madame Butterfly in costumes 
designed by Erte and entertained Ic tout Pans at a soiree where 
the young Horowitz played; she who had served to ambassa- 
dors and grand dukes Russian game birds "stuffed with the 
best caviar brought specially by air from Roumania"; she who 
had orchestras playing during luncheon, gardenias flown 


We have no time for the past. I can think only, only oftiie<^avdeii." 

from London, and Isadora Duncan's "Isadorables" dancing 
on the lawn while her guests, welcomed by hunting horn, 
discovered a different orchestra in each corner of the park — 
here she now lived in increasing obscurity, devoting all her 
energies to plants. "Patricia, " she once said to her secretary of 
nineteen years, "we have no time to speak of the past. I can 
think only, only of the garden." 

Even Madame Walska, however, could hardly have antici- 
pated how totally it would absorb her when, already nearing 
sixty, she bought the property, in 1 941 , under the influence of 
her latest spiritual adviser, the "White Lama," Theos Bar- 
nard, from Northridge, California. He had studied in Tibet 
and written on spiritual subjects. Onjuly 27, 1942, they were 
married in Las Vegas. It was a justification of all her past striv- 
ings and her hope for the future. 

Illuminated by some vibrant inner force, an almost dazzling 
allure, which, more even than her beauty, drew men and 
women to her as long as she lived, Ganna Walska began her 
extravagant life in 1883 as Anna Puacz and grew up in a petit 
bourgeois Catholic family in Warsaw, where, she later wrote, 
one did not play the piano too well, for fear of doing anything 
out of the ordinary. 

Craving an "absolute devotion, limitless . . . without 
compromise," she married at seventeen. Later, apparently 
divorced, she took up singing lessons to attract an aristocratic 
operagoer and thus, casually, stumbled on a career that would 
obsess her for forty years. 

Ganna Walska, as she now began to call herself onstage, 
would marry five times more, each time convinced it was 
"real love, love of the first magnitude . . . [the] love for 
which I prepared myself almost religiously in the purity and 
richness of my exalted nature." It was a purity that seems to 
have made her reluctant to consummate several of her mar- 
riages, and as each failed to reach her rarefied standards, she 
turned increasingly to singing, yearning "to be distinguished 
through something achieved Iby] my own efforts." Despite a 
genuinely sweet-toned voice, prodigious training, and a 
debut with Caruso in New York, success eluded her. Ner- 
vous tension paralyzed her throat, 
and the publicity attendant on her 
divorce from the millionaire A. S. 
Cochran so that she could marry the 
even richer Harold McCormick, an 
International Harvester heir, filled 
seats at her performances with people 
who came not to hear arias but to 
speculate on the worth of her emer- 
alds and on whether or not she wore a 
corset. The critics lacerated her, not 
discreetly on the arts pages but, as 
befitted a tabloid femme fatalc, in 

The lotus and water-lily i>(')NI)s, 
reflectinc; a chilean wine i'al m 


headlines: "Diva Cannot 

Sing; Walska Fails 

She suffered, and per- 
severed, relentlessly col- 
lecting the painful notices 
in scrapbooks, ruefully de- 
scribing herself as "The 
Phantom of the Opera . . . 
the Operatic joke of the 
century," and failing again 
and again. Eliminating 
everything that would 
have "diminished my vital 
force," she now led "a Pu- 
ritan life," still lunching at 
the Ritz, but on vegetables 
and water, and resigning 
herself to the impossibility 
of finding a maid "with the 
quality of rhythmic vibra- 
tions necessary to my sen- 
sitive [nature]." She 
searched, with her usual 
tenacity, for some great 
purpose behind her humil- 
iations. Theosophists, 
metaphysicians, spiritual- 
ists, ladies who diagnosed 

by aura or taught singing by Pythagoras's lost theory of num- 
bers — all were consulted and, like husbands, found wanting. 
She contemplated "a final exit via a magnificent suicide . . . 
choked by the scent of a million tuberoses." 

Ciradually, singing began to take second place to the search 
for a spiritual reality. She now sang simply "to express my 
inner being" and even came to accept that, if she trulv should 
be "unable to express myself through my voice, it would only 

(C\iiiliinnil (>;; /''Ji.'(' I ^f'l 


Sr.ORncnuA ca RousAn, 


Gary Oldman — our vote for the best screen actor of the season 

If the movies he has played in tell the truth 
about him, Gary Oldman is not scared of the 
dark. He courts it; he revels in it; he flies to it 
like the moth to the flame. His face is never 
more radiant than an instant before the 
lights go out. 

Oldman's career is still young. Sid and Nancy, in 
which he made his film debut, came out four years 
ago; Prick Up Your Ears, a year later. In the first, he 
played the punk rocker Sid Vicious; in the second, 
the playwright Joe Orton — a pair of self-extermi- 
nating fallen angels from real life who skyrocketed 
to fame from working-class origins, died young, 
and went to pop heaven. If, as is very possible, you 
never have heard of him, you will. 

After those two performances, the flashy London 
magazine Blitz called Oldman "without doubt 

Britain's most upwardly mobile young actor." 
American critics, too, were quick to catch on, even 
the most main-line of them. Oldman's most recent 
film, Chattahoochee, in which he plays a destitute 
Korean War hero driven to despair (another charac- 
ter drawn from real life), occasioned this extraordi- 
nary compliment from the New York Times: "The 
London-born Mr. Oldman projects a rare strength 
and dignity, transforms himself utterly into a raw- 
boned American Southerner, and suggests that this 
performance may be deeper and more gripping 
than the real man or his real story." 

"Movies don't evaporate," Oldman remarks in 
New York between projects, wearing wire-rim 
glasses and poet's-length Jiair, speaking in a soft 
London accent, and looking worried. Is the case 
especially delicate playing real people? "It's good 



From life: Oldman as 
Joe Orton (far left, with 
Alfred Molina as his 
over Kenneth Halliwell); 
as the Korean War vet 
Emmett Foley (left); 
and as himself in 
Manhattan (opposite). 





• f 4 

and bad. In Sid and Xancy, I had to go 
some way towards looking like Sid 
V^icious — tall, in his leather jackets. In 
a fictional part, everything like that — 
hair, clothes — is up to the imagina- 
tion. With real people you have a cer- 
tam responsibility to living relatives — 
you're playing their souls." 

Despite his success with critics and 
cult audiences for Sid and \ancy and 
Prick Up Your Ears, the general au- 
dience paid scant attention, and the 
string of Oldman pictures that have 
come out since — Track 29, We Think 

the World of You, Criminal Law, Chattahoochee — has fared 
worse. But this month brings Oldman's two latest, and these 
have commercial potential. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern 
Are Dead, directed by Tom Stoppard from his own showily 
literate hit play, he is Rosencrantz ("Stan Laurel." the actor 
calls him, "the dumb one. who gets it wrong"), falling into 
Shakespeare's Hamlet like Alice into a lethal wonderland. In 
State of Grace, Philjoanou's brooding, brutal saga of the Irish 
mafia in that derelict corner of Manhattan formerly known as 
Hell's Kitchen, he costars as the psychotic killerjackie Flanne- 
ry, stealing the film from costars Sean Penn and Ed Harris. 

Sad case: in Chattahooch 

brute of a father.) 

Yes, Oldman often goes over the 
top — ivay over — which is how he 
wrests truth from some screenwriters' 
s most fragile conceits. Thus it was with 
7 his Sid Vicious, co-leader of the infa- 
= mous Sex Pistols, dragged by a shriek- 
i ing harpy deeper and deeper into the 
I heroin addiction that killed him in 
i 1979 at twentv-one. One of 5/^ and 


i Sancy's fantasy sequences comes to 
^ mind. Snarling Frank Sinatra's old hit 
ee with Dennis Hopper. "My Way, " dancing tauntingly down 

a staircase that lights up one step at a 
time, Oldman turns on his blue-haired high-society au- 
dience — plus Nancy, in a wedding dress topped with a tiara of 
barbed wire — and sprays them with machine-gun fire. (An 
hommage to Malcolm McDowell?) But he also found in Sid 
singular notes of grace. "When are you going to make an hon- 
est woman of Nancy?" asks Nancy's grandfather, in a scene 
set around the ultimate lower-middle-class New Jersey din- 
ner table. "Nancy never lied to me," comes the reply, grave, 
glazed, and gallant. Then there is the end, in which, contrary 
to fact, Sid does not die but joins a miraculously softened 
Nancy in a passing taxi and rolls along the desolate New 


When people talk about acting as if it were a mystery/^ Oldman say^ 

Oldman was born thirty-two years ago in New Cross, a 
dead-end pocket of southeast London from whose poverty 
escape is all but unknown. Oldman's prospects when he was a 
boy cannot have seemed much better to him or the neighbors 
than anyone else's. Leaving school "with hardly any qualifi- 
cations" at fifteen, he went to work in a sports shop. But then, 
at the movies, he saw If . . . , Lindsay Anderson's nightmare 
of revolt in a British boarding school. The starring perfor- 
mance by Malcolm McDowell — a twentieth-century satyr, 
bold of step, bright of eye — as the machine-gun-toting leader 
of the student rebels sent Oldman heading off for drama 
school, which he judges now to have been largely a waste of 
time. Regional theater followed, and a half dozen shows at 
London's Royal Court Theatre — a bulwark for Britain's 
angry young men — plus a stint with the Royal Shakespeare 
Company, contemporary division. 

However he came by it. Oldman has possessed, since his 
first screen appearance, a trait so rare as to be just about 
unique. "Vulnerability" enters into it, as does "intensity." "I 
like to know my lines to the point that I'm fighting for the 
words to come." he says by way of a clue. "That gives them a 
forced spontaneity. " But what sets him apart is something else. 
Moods shine through him like light from a lantern. And as 
anyone who sees his films soon discovers, they change in an 
instant. He can summon tempests (and calms) from nowhere. 
In Chattahoochee, the range ran from cringing passivity to 
stony defiance, trom convulsive panic to a hard-won funda- 
mentalist serenity (singing "Jesus Loves Me," he embraced 
both). In Track 29, where he was called upon to enact an 
illegitimate son. possibly imaginary, returning to haunt his 
still-youthful mother, Oldman achieved the right, infantile 
bliss but also threw tantrums with the calculated fury of 
a baby who refuses to grow up. (And in flashbacks to the 
night of his conception, in a virtual rape, he played his own 


Jersey riverbank into the glimmering twilight. 

Who else, one wonders, could pull such things off? With no 
evident effort of technique, Oldman gets at elation, dejection, 
cruelty, amusement, rage, joy in their purest form. Then 
something inexplicable happens. These states, so pure in him, 
are very enigmatic in their effects on others. When you hide 
nothing, what does it mean? 

This transparency of Oldman's can make even distasteful 
material improbably bewitching. True to life, Oldman's Joe 
Orton — who tweaked Victorian pieties to become the toast of 
the London stage and wound up bludgeoned to death by his 
longtime lover Kenneth Halliwell in 1967 at the age of thirty- 
four — roams the streets and lavatories of London and the 
beaches of Morocco for anonymous sex. But what Oldman 
shows as he pulls out a handkerchief, mounts a stranger's 
clasped hands, and unscrews a light bulb to hail down dark- 
ness for an orgy is no grimace ot sordid lust: it is tingling 
anarchy, the face of rapture. 

Oldman would rather not try to explain how these things 
happen. "It's funny when you talk about what you do," he 
says. "What's so wonderful about Horowitz, or Rubenstein, 
or Pogorelich playing the piano? Well, they have technique. 
But there's also a spiritual connection to the music that lifts it 
up. When people talk about acting as if it were a mystery, it 
becomes precious. The real mystery is talent. Why do you 
want to look at John Malkovich? Richard Burton? Marlon 
Brando? James Dean? The indefinable It ..." 

Oldman has technique, too. For one thing, there is his con- 
spicuous facility with accents. As Sid. he spoke in a flat work- 
ing-class twang he may well remember from New Cross. As 
Joe Orton, he scrupulously adjusted his vowels to suit the 
character's rising fortunes. The scene of his audition for the 
Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts was in itself a little tour dc 
force. Where others would intone their Shakespeare, Orton 


threw himself, alone, into a bit of high-Victorian melodrama 
between Captain Hook and Smee. 

Well, maybe other English actors could have managed that, 
too. But how many of them would pass muster as a Boston 
lawyer? Oldman did, in Criminal Law. Or as the dirt-poor 
Emmett Foley from backwoods Florida, in Chattahoochee? 
Now comes State of Grace, for which Oldman mastered 
Manhattan Irish. When all is said and done, playing Ameri- 
cans is all in a day's work. "If I were acting English, " Oldman 
points out, "I'd have to do some kind of accent, too, or I'd 
always have to do people from New Cross." 

He is right. The magic is not in technique. You would not 
watch him just for the accents. 

So where is the indefinable It? Study the face. The brow is 
broad and high; the ridge of the nose, strong. The jawline, 
tapering to an impish chin, is curiously recessive, and his lips 
are thin. Taken together, the features convey intelligence, 
wilfulness, possibilities of casual cruelty. When his wide-set 
greenish eyes cloud over, he seems miles away; when they 
dart and sparkle, one actually sees the quickness of thought. 
And there is something more. No less a boffin than London's 
John Gross, writing in the New York Times, has called Old- 
man's smile — wide, pencil-straight almost to the corners, 
then swerving high — "one of the most seductive smiles in the 
history of the cinema." So what if the actor is not, by Holly- 

projects where one can cam a lot don't appeal to me." 

That is as true for the stage as for the movies. "Long runs," 
Oldman proclaims, "are a nightmare." In 1982. he spent 
six months in the West End opposite Glcnda Jackson in a 
play called Summit Conference ("It nearly killed me"). Doing 
new plays excites him ("You're there when it's fresh- 
minted"), but he remembers live audiences, especially the 
show-me, Saturday-night variety, with horror. "People who 
don't go to the theater much," he once announced, "have no 
decorum." All the same, he thinks about going back. His 
ideal would be four weeks of rehearsal followed by a 
five-week run. That way 
no fortunes lie. 

"I'm itching to do some- 
thing in the theater again," 
he says today. "I keep 
looking at Hamlet. I've 
never been interested in 
Hamlet before. My girl- 
friend says, 'You know 
what you're doing, don't 
you? You're rehearsin^iV 

Does the job get any 

What's this? Oldman is 

it becomes precious. The real mystery is talent — the indefinable It.. !' 

wood conventions, "handsome"? Slick his hair back for gla- 
mour, as in Criminal Law, and he passes as a leading man. 

Not that fame as such tempts him. "Growing up, I thought 
I would be a postman or a truck driver," he says. "I've done 
lots. . . . I've been on assembly lines; I've been a porter in an 
operating theater; I've sold shoes. I've worked in an abattoir, 
cutting off pigs' heads. I used to be a criminal. I have a very 
iffy past." Is that twinkle in the eye to be trusted? Oldman 
grins. "I never got caught." 

"It's a real bonus, doing this work, " he continues. "I travel, 
I meet lots of interesting people. Oh!" — a yelp of delight — "I 
sound like Miss World! 'I travel,' " he pipes in a demure 
soprano; " 'I meet lots of interesting 
people. . . .' " (Peals of merriment.) 

"I get by fairly comfortably," he 
says, coaxed back to the subject of star- 
dom, his voice back to its natural light 
tenor. "I don't really think about 
money. I haven't got any at the mo- 
ment. Michael Caine has said that he 
had to do a low standard of movie to 
maintain a high standard of living. The 

blushing. He smiles a cryptic smile, ponders for a full thirty 

seconds. "I suppose each piece you do sets up its particular 

series of hurdles," he replies, slowly. "I find it quite easy. It's 

sort of what I do." 

And who is it for? "How many people do I need? Tojustify 

my existence as an actor?" Just look 

^ ^1 ^ ^1 ..f^ " r-, darv with .SiMii 

at that artless mug. One. D 

Pciin 111 Siiiic ('/ (ii.hc 

^^ Matthew Curcwitsch, a senior cdi- , , , , , ., , ,v, ■ • 
r , . ri I I (above); witli (..liloc Wohn 

tor of this nunia::ine, propica the actor 

Daniel Day Lewis in the December \u Sid iiiul Wiiuy: .md onlus 

19S9 issue of Connoisseur. .. ,, 

■' ciwii in ( .ittntihil /.,nr. 



•' ^ 

The Ri 

Red or white — use twice as many clams as you thon^qht 


It is the accepted wisdom that New England created clam chowder and Man- 
hattan bastardized it. The noble purity of the milk-based chowder versus the 
cheap novelty of the tomato-adulterated glop; the subtle palettes of the seaside 
versus the city's brazen reds; nectar of the Brahmins versus tomato soup — this 
is pretty much the party line. Even people who live in Manhattan fmd it hard to 
believe that anyone can make a case for Manhattan clam chowder. 

Something more than a mere matter of tomatoes must be at issue. Clearly, 
the clam-chowder debate is about class, Good Taste against 
good taste. New England and New York have always been at 
odds. Chowder is only a manifestation of their enmity. 

Since I refuse to believe that soup is a moral issue, I can swal- 
low either happily, but they speak such different languages, I 
think, that it is pointless to compare them. 

New England clam chowder works best in its own territory. 
It is hard to imagine explaining it to someone from Italy 
(though a Norwegian would probably get the idea). When 
served in the cold, gray weather that New England does so 
well, New England clam chowder is delicious; against a back- 
drop of stone walls, a ragingly uninviting sea, and perhaps a sinner sitting in the are you the sort who 
stocks somewhere, it can be sublime. It is at its best when you need to be com- prefers a purist's New 
forted — when, say, you have only ten days to spend on Nantucket and it has England dam choivder, at 
already rained for five of them. Give yourself a bowlful of New England clam us best on a miserable day, 

chowder, and m a few mmutes you will actually '' ''"' -^'"•?>' ■'^^^"^^f^^" 
start to prefer the rain ("so bracing"). 

Manhattan clam chowder is perhaps more 
convivial — so long as you steer clear of the drea- 
ry textbook version. Most cookbooks simply 
recommend adding some chopped, stewed to- 
matoes to New England clam chowder; the 
venerable Joy of Cooking even suggests adding 

ketchup. I can see why New Englanders get 

(Continued on pa<^c 15H) 

variety , fortified with 
tomatoes (and maybe a 
joh oj Pernod)? 




»' V 





#': . % 


Biiny Hiilpcr 
atrihcs o jamiliar 
pose with Biihc 
Ruth's hilt and 
i}uto<^niphc(i hdlls. 

Bill Buckncr 
Diiidc l9H6's Diost 
fantous error 
wearin(^ these. 



By Robert H. Boyle 

Get this scene, in the lobby of the Hyatt Hotel 
in Chicago, July 1983. It is the day before the 
fiftieth-anniversary All-Star game, and every 
living All-Star or Hall of Fame baseball player 
is staying at the Hyatt. In come Barry Halper 
and his wife, Sharon, struggling with a raft of 
suitcases and boxes stuffed with players' old 
uniforms, caps, gloves, bats, bubble-gum 
cards, old advertising posters — you name it. 
Halper is the world's greatest collector of 
baseballiana, and, after registering, he does 
not waste any time introducing himself to Leo 
Durocher, Hank Cireenberg, Johnny Vander 
Meer, Edd Roush, Carl Hubbell, Phil Cavar- 
retta. Red Schoendienst, Ernie Banks, and 
Bill Dickey and getting them to autograph 
pertinent paraphernalia from his collection. 

Once ensconced in his suite, Halper starts 
working the phone. No answer in the retireci 
pitcher Jim Bunning's room, but Halper zips 
downstairs with a suitcase, where he spots 
Bunning striding through the lobby. Halper 
runs up. "Please sign," he implores. "Later, 
later, later," says Bunning, who is used to 
fins waving scraps of paper at him but not 
some weirdo thrustnig a suitcase in his face. 
But before Bunning can reach the elevator, 
Halper springs open the suitcase, and, presto, 
there is Bunning's old Phillies uniform. Bun- 
ning breaks stride and genuflects in remem- 
brance ot times past. On bended knee, he 
signs the uniform. Just as he finishes, Halper 

shouts, "Robin 
Roberts!" and 
runs across the 
lobby with the 
half-open suit- 
case to this Hall 
o{ Fame pitcher. 
Like an Arab 
peddler display- 
ing wares in a 
souk, Halper 
pulls forth Rob- 
erts's old uni- 
form, and Rob- 
erts signs it. 

Now Halper is 
on a hot streak. 
He goes into the 


hotel coffee shop, and whom does he see but 
Waite Hoyt and Hoyt Wilhelm talking to each 
other. And at the next table is none other than 
LaMarr Hoyt. "Three Hoyts!" Halper ex- 
claims. He immediately introduces LaMarr 
Hoyt to Waite Hoyt and Hoyt Wilhelm and 
gets their autographs. Back up in his suite, 
Halper calls Pee Wee Reese, and Pee Wee 
comes up to sign his old Brooklyn Dodgers 
uniform. Halper in- 
sist s that Reese 
himself put t h e 
quotation marks 
around Pee Wee. 
Halper always has 
players put their 
nick n a m e s in 
quotes. Once, 
when he asked Cat- 
fish Hunter to write 
the quotation 
marks around Cat- 
fish, Hunter said 
to him, "Boy, 
you're really nuts. 
Does it make a dif- 
ference?" To which 
Halper replied, "It 
really doesn't, but 
it really does." 

Late evening of 
the following day. 
The All-Star game 
is over, and the invited old-timers are getting 
ready to depart, perhaps even implode into 
black holes in the game's firmament of stars. 
Halper has signed up everyone except for Earl 
Averill, the Cleveland slugger whose line 
drive broke Dizzy Dean's toe in the 1937 All- 
Star game and ruined the pitcher's career. 
Halper has not been able to find him any- 
where. Will Averill escape back home to Sno- 
homish, Washington, before signing his uni- 
form, his cap, and the bat with only Hall of 

Barry Halpcr's door chimes play 
Take Me Out to the Ball Game'' 

Opposite: The 
Babe's 1914 
uiiifori)}, his shoe, 
and cards. 

I-'oiiiid ill an attic: 
an 1859 baseball, 
which Halper i^ot 

for twenty Yankee 
box-seat tickets. 

P n o T o c; R A p II s by Lizzie Himmel 







^ ^fi^X*^.;.- 


Ml \i 

Ahoi'c: Gchrii^'s 
1927 I elliptic 
MVP award. 
Lou Gchrii^'s 
uniform; some 
rare cards. 

More treasures: 
a doll in Federal 
Lea<^ue uniform, 
buttons, 1880 
photos, a fan. 

Famers' names on it? 

Halper and Sharon stake out the lobby. 
Suddenly Halper spots Averill slowly shuf- 
fling, a leg dragging behind him, through the 
lobby with his wife. Averill does not look 
well. In fact, he looks as though he is about to 
die. "Don't bother him now," Sharon whis- 
pers. "Wait until the morning. " Halper whis- 
pers back, "He may not make it," and with 
that he dashes over to Averill, shouts, "The 
Earl ot Snohomish!" and asks him to sign his 
uniform, his cap, and the Hall of Fame bat. 

Earl Averill, the Earl of Snohomish, stares 
blankly ahead. "How about in the morning?" 
a weary Mrs. Averill asks. 

Halper hbs. "Leaving early," he says, and 
he quickly adds, "I can come up to your room 
right away." With a sigh, Mrs. Averill agrees 
and assists her husband toward the elevator 
while Halper hastens to his suite and grabs still 
another suitcase. Ten minutes later the Earl of 
Snohomish is signing his old Indians uniform 
and cap, plus Halper's Hall of Famers bat. 

The next morning the Halpers go to check 
out. A commotion is going on. 
"What happened?" Halper asks. 
"An ambulance took away one of the 
players," says a man. 
"Who?" Halper asks. 
"Earl somebody," says the man. 
The next month, the Earl of Snohomish 
breathed his last. Looking back on the inci- 
dent now, Halper says, "I'm sorry that Earl 
Averill died, but you have to be dedicated to 
doing this. If I were lazy, I'd never have half 
the things I have in my collection." 

In recent years, 
collecting baseball 
material has b e- 
come a mania for 
many. In the off- 
season, motels, 
shopping malls, ar- 
mories, and con- 
vention centers are 
jammed, as pro- 
moters hold base- 
ball shows in which 
dealers display tiieir 
wares and players 
sign autographs. A 
promoter will pay a 
player, depending 
on his eminence, anywhere from S1,S()() to 
more than S5,0()() an hour to scribble iiis name 
for several hours. One prominent dealer on 
the circuit is Alan Rosen, of Montvale, New 
Jersey, known in collecting circles as "Mr, 
Mint" because he buys only the best old base- 
ball cards, in mint condition, and relatcl 

memorabilia. Last year, as Mr. Mint is happy 
to tell you, he spent S5.4 million buying and 
made more than SI million selling. 

Some people collect for investment, so that 
they can eventually buy a house or send their 
kids to college. Halper has no need to do that. 
He is the president of Halper Bros., Inc., a 
company in Edison, New Jersey, that sells 
paper towels, cake boxes, napkins, cottee 
cups, and toilet paper. 

According to some, I lalper's collection is 
even better than that in the National Baseball 
Hall of Fame and Museum, in C^ooperstown, 
New York, but that assessment lacks 
balance. Without question, C'oo- 
perstown has the largest baseball 
library in the world. However, al- 
though the museum contains many 
gems, such as the first catcher's mask and the 
bat Babe Ruth used to hit his sixtieth homer, it 
is handicapped in that it depends on dona- 
tions, while I lalper can speiul his t)\vn money 
to add to his trove. 

Knowledgeable collectors estimate 
I I.ilper's collection would bring more tii.iii 
$20 million if he put it on the market. "Just in 
Babe Ruth uniforms, I've got a million iKil- 
iars," he says, but no way is he about lo sell. 
Every day he lives, breathes, and absolutely 
revels in his collection, whu h he keeps under 
heavy security in his lu)iise, which is anchored 
like a fortress into the subiuban Jersey land- 
scape and equipped with chimes that play the 
opening bars of "lake Me C^ut to the Ball 
{Contitmed on pa\^c 160) 

(hi June I}, 
1948. Ruth said 
\lood-h)'e to ) iiii- 
k'ee Stadium, lean- 
;/ivj on tin.'' hat 

Halper is seriously talking about opening a museum 
'7 have two interested parties, '' he says. 


Ihc^s juns lor 
l'^2 World Series 
and l'^2'M:„h,. 
a hutlon from 
I 'MM), and one for 
Di.\la\i{>io pus. 





•_>?•"_■_: , ttCV^w^^n{R@>i9t,!Pj|iy!igimBB^HB^i 

By Phil Patton 
day last summer, thousands of car collectors flocked to an ample meadow 

outside the pleasant town of Greenwich, Connecticut. There, lined up under tents by the 
Guernsey's auction house in gleaming rows, were Ferraris, Rolls-Royces, Aston Mar- 
tins — the expectable classics that can sometimes fetch more than a million each. But what 
was this? Rubbing bumpers with the hotshot Europeans were some prosaic American- 
made cars of the 1960s: a 1968 Dodge Hemi Super Bee (ninety-one were made; six are 
known to survive), packing a beautifully blueprinted 426-cubic-inch engine and sporting a 
decal of a bee wearing wheels and a helmet; a 1969 Mercury Cyclone CJ 460, with the huge 
hood scoop; a 1964 Chevrolet Malibu SS convertible, with its lovely tapering rear deck; a 
1965 Pontiac GTO, on which the owner had lavished a four-year, $30,000 frame-off 
restoration. These cars cost under S8,000 when they were new. Most were priced at 
roughly ten times that in Greenwich, ^f^^ As a breed, they are called muscle cars — the 
fastest, most powerful production cars Detroit has ever turned out — and their main appeal 
lies in nostalgia. Through the shimmering, bright summer of the American sixties they 
dash, down the die-straight highway, to the sounds of Motown and the Beach Boys. 
Those were the days when gasoline went for pocket change and what Honda made was 
motorcycles, when the American economy was at its height, when we did not bother 


TR TP^l 

A 1968 Dodi^e Super Bee 

and its 426-Lubic-imh Hemi eni^iue. 

A 1969 Mustani^ Boss 429. 

Fast: a 1970 Plymouth Heini Roadniiuier. 

l-aiiiiliar: a sleek, sinewy I '-^70 Plymouth BiUiiiiuda. 




The engine of 
the famed Pontiac 

Right: The 1965 
GTO, which 
John DeLorean 
co-invented for 
General Motors, 
marked the dawn 
of the muscle-car 
era. Below: 
A 1969 Dodge 
Charger Daytona 
Hemi, designed to 
show its speed — 
no chrome. 

much with reflection or restraint. That moment of 
optimism can be evoked once again by a souped-up 
GTO, Mustang, or Charger in the driveway. 

From our perspective today, the muscle cars 
stand as the high-water mark of a certain American 
ideal of the automobile. Powered by overgrown 
V-8 engines, they were cars, cynics said, that turned 
gasoline into noise in the most direct way technical- 
ly feasible; seldom did an owner get much more 
than seven miles to a gallon. They evolved out of 
the big cars of the late fifties, with their big 
engines — the Ford Galaxies and Chevrolet Impalas. 
When the compacts and intermediates of the sixties 
arrived — Falcons, Corvairs, Valiants — the big en- 
gines were put into the smaller cars, with a power- 
to-weight ratio that was guaranteed to leave rubber 
on asphalt. 

Under that definition, the first muscle car was the 
Dodge Dart of 1962, that is, a Dodge outfitted with 
a Wedgehead V-8 engine. But other people prefer to 
choose 1964 as the start of the muscle era. That was 
when John DeLorean, then chief engineer of Pon- 
tiac, and an adman named Jim Wangers figured out 
a way to circumvent General Motors's rule against 
mismatching engine and body. As an "option," 
they packed a 389-cubic-inch, 348-horsepower 
"Tri Power" V-8 from the larger Bonneville under 
the hood of a Tempest intermediate car. Thus was 
the GTO born. 

Italians knew that GTO stood for Gran Turismo 
Omologato, the name of a breed of race cars that 
Ferrari made for ordinary people with money, and 
they laughed at Pontiac's presumption. Then Car 

Opposite: A 
1965 Shelby G.T. 
350, one of 562 
built. Overleaf: The 
elegant 1970 
Oldsmobile Cutlass 
4-4-2 W-30. 

and Driver magazine ran a test 
that claimed the Pontiac GTO 
actually could outrun the Fer- 
rari, dashing from zero to sixty 
mph in 4.6 seconds. The GTOs 
were an immediate success. 

Why? One reason lay in the 
dragster culture that Bruce 
Springsteen sings about so often: 
"The girls comb their hair in the rearview mirror 
and the boys try to look so hard." These teenage 
racers were moving from "hot rods" — typically, 
souped-up Ford V-8s — to big fifties cars with big 
engines, when they became affordable used cars. 
The youths were ready to move again in the 1960s, 
this time to the muscle cars. 

General Motors got the GTO message, and soon 
the big-engined Oldsmobile 4-4-2 and the Chevro- 
let Malibu SS came out, followed by Plymouth's 
Roadrunner and Mercury's Cyclone. When the 
"pony cars" arrived, in the midsixties — the sports 
coupes such as the Ford Mustang and Chevrolet 
Camaro — they, too, soon got the huge V-8s. 

These cars were made for speed, and most were 
outfitted with brakes and transmissions that, if not 
exactly gran turismc^, were several notches above 
standard American issue. Often the cars also came 
with improved suspensions that made them han- 
dle well. Their lesson was one that not only Detroit 
but also Stuttgart and Osaka were quick to discern. 
A segment of the younger American market — call it 
the future — wanted smaller, agile cars that would 
accelerate fast and typify advanced technology. 

No wonder they are in demand as collectibles 
today. The baseball great Reggie Jackson has a fleet 
of the cars. Otis Chandler, the former publisher of 
the Los Angeles Times, has one of the best muscle- 
car collections anywhere. Of his eighty vehicles, 
fifty-five are muscle cars; all are on display in 
Oxnard, California, in an industrial building 
labeled — appropriately enough, given the Mus- 
tangs and Superbirds, the Barracudas and Cobras — 
the Vintage Museum of Transportation and Wild- 
life. (The museum is open by appointment; the last 
n time we called, the schedule was booked 
S for the next four months.) One of the rar- 
est cars in the Chandler group is a 1970 
Dodge Hemi Coronet Convertible R/T 
with a 426-cubic-inch engine generating 
fully 425 horsepower — the single survi- 
vor of the only pair ever built. 

Would-be buyers today eagerly scan 
the pulpy pages of free Auto Shopper cir- 
culars, picking through the local want ads 
or Hemmings Motor News, looking for 
muscle cars. Some, hoping to do some 
shopping, visit the "concours" shows, 
where owners compete for prizes. Others 
lean out the window at a stoplight to 
make an offer for GTOs with paint 
turned powdery by the years. "You 
wouldn't believe," a middle-aged owner 
^^m says, "how many people stop me like 
jH this." 


O^ ] 





• ■•^i*-' 



Clean and lean, the 1967 Chevrolet Camaro RS SS has a raffish air. 

Then there are the big auctions, such as that of 
Barrett-Jackson, on January 16-20 in Scottsdale, 
Arizona. The dry Southwest is the locale of choice 
for preserving automobiles, far from the snow, salt, 
and acid rain that destroy cars. It is worth knowing 
that bargains can be found. Muscle cars are still 
perched uneasily on the border between never- 
drive classics and drive-every-day collectibles; for 
at least the time being, many fail to make their 
reserve prices. 

muscular shape. The General Motors 
cars produced under the direction of 
the great Bill Mitchell seem especial- 
ly apt. Mitchell aspired, he said, to 
the look of "London tailoring"; his 
1965 Buick Riviera is a good example 
of what he meant, with its retracting 
stacked headlights and upward- 
sweeping sides. Another GM star 
was Bill Porter, who aimed to create 
"power bulges" in his cars. His 1968 
GTO and the 1970 Pontiac Firebird 
had, he said, "fullness that is muscu- 
lar." At the height of the period, the 
best design moved from that inspira- 
tion toward a softer, more Italianate 
look. The result was beau- 
tiful in the Continental manner and pow- 
erful in the American one. 

Gone was the tail-fin era, with all of 
its excesses. Forms were relatively re- 
strained; chrome was minimalized; and 
the bodies of the muscle cars — lean, light, £ 
and long — were designed to seem to float § 
over the tires. The backs of the cars | 
became "fast," by the late sixties, sweep- ^ 
ing downward from door pillar to rear s 



■ . ffn^i.'- 


Now that they are collectible, they have fallen 
prey to the vagaries that accompany volatile mar- 
kets: faked Vehicle Identification Numbers, bogus 
parts, and exaggerated provenances. The best 
means of verification is the car's original bill of sale, 
with complete option list and parts numbers. Many 
muscle cars have been restored, of course, so fac- 
tory-original equipment carries a premium. 

From a pure collecting standpoint, the prime 
items are convertibles (fewer were built) and cars 
boasting unusual equipment packages or special 
engine configurations built in small quantities. 
Among the most valuable are the Mustangs rebuilt 
by Carroll Shelby, a cowboy-hatted mechanical 
genius in California, who contracted with Ford to 
transform several hundred mild-mannered models 
into road-eating beasts — race cars, in ettcct, that 
private citizens could buy. At the Guernsey's auc- 
tion and other sales, Shelby G.T. 35()s and G.T. 
500s are priced at anywhere from $40,000 to over 
$100,000. Similarly, individual "tuners"— the rev- 
ered Baldwin Motion and Yenko firms — made 
their own improvements in 
heads, carburetors, and so forth, 
improvements that boost a car's 
value as well as its perfor- 

Opposite: Two 
views of the only 
extant 1970 Dodge 
Hemi Coronet 
Convertible R/T. 
just two such 
cars were built. 


In terms of design, all the 
automakers attempted to ex- 
press the simple strength under 
the hood with a graceful but 

bumper like fighter-plane 

The muscle cars had the 
most flowing lines we were 
to see for years. The seven- 
ties emphasized angular, 
"hacked" shapes, which 
lasted until the arrival of 
neo-streamlining, in the late 
eighties. The muscle cars 
looked almost marine, with 
affinities either to dolphins 
and sharks or to speedboats. 
There was something athlet- 
ic about them, too; their 
sides swooped and swelled, 
in the graceful prt)portioiis 
of a sprinter's thighs. 

The classic muscle-car era 
ran, by the most generous 
definition, ten years. At 
best, it accounted for no more than 10 percent of the The 1969 Mcrtury 
market. What did the cars in was in part soaring Cyclone (shown 
insurance costs (the cars were so powerh.l that ihey ^^^^^_^^. _^,. ^^ .^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 
got into trouble), in part the federal emissions-con- 
trol standards enacted in 1 970, and n. part the gaso- "W dc.<ixncd 
line shortage of 1973. Gas-guzzlers like the muscle for the upmarket; 
cars were polluting, uneconomical, and. in a sense. -^ handled well 

seeminulv unpatriotic. They were mocked, and , , ■ , 

F- J » j.,>4 fK ,.^ ami had a nuoe 

when Congress enacted economy standards tlieir 

(Continued on page 164) power plant. 



■ "■ 'T'/...p*^^9^'i^, 










By Mark Christensen 

Like poetry and mur- 
der, auto design is a 
skill often mastered 
young. And the place 
that has for decades 
turned out the most 
masters is the Pasade- 
na Art Center. There, in an angular 
glassy building just twenty minutes 
from downtown Los Angeles by the 110 
freeway, twenty-three-year-olds see 
their hallucinations made the style 
cliches of the future; and never have 
their designs been so much in demand. 
In the automobile industry, imagina- 
tion is becoming as important as steel. 
Automakers, sensing that style will be 
to the nineties what money was to the 
eighties, are scouring schools such as the 
Art Center and the Center for Creative 
Studies, in Detroit, hoping to extract world, 
from these young designers the energy 
and ideas that could kick off a fresh gen- 
eration of high-performance cars in the 
original Mustang, GTO, Barracuda 
mold. These machines will be con- 


ceived for the "new old" — that is, the 
graying yuppies automakers bet will 
pay $40,000-plus for cars designed to 
slam a fifth of adrenaline through their 
veins at the touch of an accelerator. 

This is in the wake of the most lack- 
luster period in American auto design in 
memory. According to the General 
Motors design chief, Chuck Jordan, 
"We got hit by bumper regulations, fuel 
regulations, safety rcgs. Everything had 
always been longer, lower, wider. Sud- 
denly it's shorter, higher, narrower." 
The result? "You had a flock of bland, 
boring car designs." 

"People are sick of cars that all look 
alike, " says the school's most promising 
nascent genius, twenty-three-year-old 
Nick Pugh. "The nineties are going to 


be flamboyant. Wild." 
Especially if he has any- 
thing to do with it. 
"Baby-boomers want cars 
that are individual. And if 
America won't provide them, 
Japan will." That is a thought 
often expressed in the industry 
today. As designers see it, a battle 
looms: the United States could once 
again be the car-style capital of the 
world — provided it can fend off the 
new Empire of the Rising Sun. And 
both Detroit and Japan will recruit most 
of their top soldiers from Pasadena. 

Getting the best, most innovative 
new people and harnessing their imagi- 
nations, says Chuck Jordan, is a top 
priority. He knows where to look. Dur- 
ing the 1950s Jordan worked for the 
most powerful of American stylists, Bill 
Mitchell, the man who supervised the 
design of many of the great cars of the 
1960s — the Camaro, the Oldsmobile 
Toronado, and the Corvette Sting Ray. 
Mitchell sent Jordan to the Pasadena Art 
Center to find, in Jordan's words, 
"the top kids. The Art Center had 
a vision." That vision grew, 
so today Pasadena is the 
preeminent automo- 

The school takes in only 45 would-be 
car designers a year (150 apply). It then 
exposes them to eight instructors, in- 
cluding some of the top people in the 
auto industry. They teach, says a recent 
graduate, "that 'it's never enough' — the 
insane attitude that makes you stay up 
forever working on a project." 

The center is successful for several 
reasons beyond its pressure-cooker 
techniques, says Geza Loczi, a stocky, 
blunt-nosed instructor who also hap- 
pens to be chief designer at Volvo North 
America: "Number one, the kids come 
here with what they think are weird 
ideas and discover that those ideas may 
have real use after all. The school pro- 
vides a 'safe house' atmosphere where 
designers can work out their visions 
unpummeled by the real world." 

Then it plays matchmaker with the 
real world. Perhaps no university any- 
where has such a close relationship with 
the industries for which it provides tal- 
ent. Rarely a campus day goes by with- 
out visits from representatives from one 

environmentally sound Manta trike. 

tive-design insti 
tute in the 


design-hungry corporation or another. 
"This," says Loczi, "is simply because 
the students, many of them, anyway, 
are already approaching the top of their 
form and have the new ideas the indus- 
try can't live without." 

Competition is politely cutthroat. 
According to Mark Jordan, the designer 
of the spectacularly successful Mazda 
Miata, "the instructors can tell you 
about light and shade, proportion and 
color, but the real value is being terror- 
ized when other people in the class put 
up their drawings on the wall and you 
see in an instant their work is three times 
better than yours." 

Nick Pugh terrorizes. He is tall, slen- 
der almost to skinny, and in his black 
Mickey Mouse F-shirt he looks more 


-&'-^«a»r 1 

like one of the kids who stand around in 
L.A. parking lots trying to figure out 
the best way to shoplift at 7-Eleven than 
the guy "who will be designing the cars 
we drive in the year 2000, " according to 
GM's Jerry Palmer. Pugh's skills are 
sought — and rather desperately — by 
automotive-design heads eager to ex- 
ploit his breakthrough imagination. 
Pugh was born in Paris and brought up 
in England, Brazil, Berkeley, and Mas- 
sachusetts. His father is Charles Pugh, 
the mathematician who proved it is the- 
oretically possible to turn a sphere inside 
out without breaking its surface. 

Recently Mazda sponsored a project 
involving Pugh and the thirty-two oth- 
er members of his class at the Art Center 
in the designing of a car of the near 
future for "a targeted market segment 
. . . the 'new old' age group, thirty-five 
years and up." 

Two sketches are on the wall, of 
Pugh's machine, fore and aft: soft and 
rounded in back, sharp in front. Its tail 
looks like something very recently 
alive, its knife-edged snout like the 
thing that might have killed it. I ask him 
about the cars that influenced his design, 
and he replies, "It wasn't cars so much as 
natural stuff — organic, beautiful things. 
Bugs and women." 

Pugh's influences are subtle, though 
you can see the plump, rounded ghost 
of an early Porsche speedster in his tail 
and the thrust of a classic, slab-sided 
Avanti up front. The car makes a new 
impression from every angle and pre- 
sents, overall, a weird, exciting kind of 

car that 
was very 

ean . 
There is, 
f o r e X a m- 
ple, nothing 
that could be 
described as 
extra in his 
design: no gee- 
gaws, almost no 

"It had to ha' 
movement wh 
standing still, the 
you get when 
look at an old Ai 
boattail Speeds 
wanted to use a sr 
juxtaposed to 
body to make a c 
looks pregnant wii 
er — a missile effect 
my car to make sense for the 
same reason a cloud makes 
sense . . . design with nonlin- 
ear symmetry, where essentiall 
random forms develop a pa 

Pugh's influence is felt. "^ 
shakes up the tree. This car," 
Loczi says, "gave others at the s 
permission to explore the completely 
untraditional. It's a totally original de- 
sign; none of his judgments are based 
on norrhal perceptions. He's like the 
guy who goes into a museum and turns 
the sculpture upside down and says, 
'Now, what if we look at it this way?' 



voluptuous austerity. It is regal, both 
severely futuristic and elegantly retro, 
as if it were from a past that has not hap- 
pened yet. 

So, what does it all mean? Put simply, 
Pugh packs as much information and 
calories as any other designer in recent 
history at the school: maximal design at 
the end of a minimal era. 

"I wanted to break away from the 
rounded, simple, 'aero' look of cars 
today — a Mercedes looks like a Lexus 
that looks like a Cadillac," says Pugh. 
"In the prevailing, aero style, every- 
thing is developed to blend together in 
one form. You get a sleek honiogeny 
that's attractive, then boring. I wanted 
to design a car that sent lots of different 
signals, that you had to digest, but still a 

What are the most important elements 
of his designs? Simply put, Pugh is will- 
ing to break every rule. "He's disturb- 
ing, but in a good sense," says Loczi; 
"he's very stark, but in a way that's 

Standing before his sketches and model, 
Nick Pugh tells the vice-president ot" 
design at Mazda R^D and the head of 
design at Mazda Japan he has sought to 
use "fracto-mathematics" in a new ap- 
proach to "angular graphics to create a 
car that is subtly spooky." 

The Japanese laugh. 

He moves a hand above the flank ot 
the silver machine — bread-box size, 
taller back than front. "I didn't want to 
violate its shoulder," he says, explain- 

ing why the car lias.i tinned front ciui. "1 
wanted a leaping \ook. hut not like in the 
fifties. I've utilized the w eilge ti out end. 
It's an established concept, but l"\e used 
it in a (.litterent way." 


The vice-president ot M.i/cl,i Ri\l)ot 
North AmerKM, lom Mat.ino, piMiits 
to Nick's sketches. "This could be the 
future," he says. Matano is one ot the 
most respected aiito designers m the 
world. Like \\ lute boys \\ Im have come 
to love the blues. Japanese auto design- 
ers ,ire the latest, greatest^rs ot 
traditional American car design. "This 
is a good example of a guy's convic- 
tion." he says, pointing xo Pugh's early 
renderings and then to his realized mod- 
(Continued oti pa{>c 164) 



Nothins- but the Best 

No matter how far or how expensively 
you travel to get there, Paris's Biennale 
des Antiquaires, which opens Septem- 
ber 21 , is a bargain. If time is money, it is 
difficult to compute the value of all the 
time you save by seeing 150 top dealers 
in one place and not having to travel all 
over France, England, Italy, Switzer- 
land, Germany, Holland, Belgiimi, and 
the United States, where the Biennale's 
exhibitors come from. Add to that the 
great service of editing, and you have 
saved even more money, tor each dealer 
selects only his very best pieces, because 
his are to be compared with the best of 
his competitors'. 

If, as many cognoscenti believe, Par- 
is's Biennale is the greatest antiques 
show in the world, that is because it is a 
highly selective club with rigid rules re- 
lentlessly applied. It is not only difficult 
to get into but easy to be kicked out of if 
you do not accept the rules. The num- 
bers prove just how elitist it is. The 
Biennale is run by the Syndicat National 
des Antiquaires, which has 401 mem- 
bers. Only 1 50 of them are exhibiting at 
this fifteenth Biennale. 

Every single object that this exclusive 
group offers for sale will have been scru- 
tinized by one of the meticulously picky 
vetting committees, made up of sixty- 
five specialized experts. Such vetting 
committees are, like baseball umpires, 
fallible, but when they declare an object 
is "out," it is out even if in fact it is au- 
thentic. Although this autocratic sys- 
tem is unfair to the dealer from time to 
time, it provides near-perfect protec- 
tion for the customer. A dealer who 
objects — and some have protested that 
the rules do not apply to their merchan- 
dise — is dropped from the show. 

This year's Biennale again will not 
include six of Paris's top dealers: Mau- 
rice Segoura, Didier Aaron, Aveline, 
Michel Meyer, Jacques Perrin, and Ber- 
nard Steinitz. They walked out as a 

I'Viuc fiidhiin;: a fiftcaith-ccutury 
Toiirihu tapestry. $400,000. 

Philippe le Bel 
shon'ii on (I CjOtliic 
^'iohlcoiii. $16,000. 

A rare Geniiau 

celestial <ilobe( 1 5H2). 

$5 million. 

group in 1986, feeling that they were the 
superstars of the fair and therefore 
should be treated as such. When the 
Biennale did not accede to their de- 
mands, the six said they would not 
return, assuming that they would then 
be given what they wanted and they 
then would come right back to the fold. 
"But the Biennale called their bluff," 
says a longtime participant in the nego- 
tiations, "and is still waiting for them to 
ask to be readmitted." 

The Biennale's vernissa^e, or opening 
night, at the Grand Palais, is one of the 
mandatory social events of the season 
and will attract famous, even notorious, 
faces, many of whose owners have no 
notion ofthe difference between Boulle 
and Brancusi. These are the very same 
people who must also be in Paris at this 
moment for the Arc de Triomphe horse 
race: although they care nothing about 
thoroughbreds, they do care desperate- 
ly about whether they are photographed 
at the track. 

Most genuine collectors at the Bien- 
nale, by contrast, have no interest in 
publicity. The Europeans are secretive 
to the point of obsession, de- 
termined not to increase their 
ad valorem taxes by having it 
published that they paid $1.7 
million for an object — espe- 
cially if they paid from funds 
kept outside the country. 
Payment from a suitcase full 
of cash brought from Luxembourg, Jer- 
sey, or the Cayman Islands is blessedly 
anonymous for both the buyer and the 
seller and remains unknown to local tax 

For collectors of French antiques, the 
Biennale has no equal. That has always 
been its outstanding strength. One of 
the dealers to see there is Gismondi, 
who specializes in the best ot eigh- 
teenth-century decorative arts. This 
year he offers a woman's Louis XIV 

century still life 
by the Dutch arti 
Rachel Ruysch 
$2.5 million. 


Only top antiques make it to the Paris Biennale 

By Leon Harris 















> ^ 

Boulle desk with the same decorations 
as those on desks in the collections of the 
queen of England and of the Victoria 
and Albert and Getty museums; price: 
$360,000. Another reminder of the 
long-gone days when England — rather 
than the United States or Japan — ruled 
and roamed the world buying up the 
best of everything is Gismondi's glo- 
rious pietre dure table made in Rome in 
the sixteenth century and purchased in 
1 758 by the Whitehead and Thistlewaite 
family, which, with the arrogance of 
wealth and power, knocked out the cen- 
ter and replaced it with its own coat of 
arms. Price: $690,000. 

Exhibiting in Paris for the first time 
this year is New York's Newhouse Gal- 
leries. Its chief splendor, at a price of 
$2.5 million, is an eighteenth-century 
Dutch floral still life by Rachel Ruysch. 
Admittedly, smashing Dutch floral 
paintings seem always to be in plentiful 
supply, but the magic that makes a very 
few, such as this one, palpably more 
smashing cannot be described; like the 
best music and Chateau d'Yquem, it 
must be experienced. 

Arguably the single most interesting 
object at the Biennale will be offered by 
the Kugcl brothers. The object is a 1582 
celestial globe that may be the ultimate 
representation of the Renaissance — 
which saw a technological leap that one 
thousand years from now may well be 
viewed as philosophically and histori- 
cally more significant than our own leap 
into space. There are only sixteen such 
globes in the world (including the Em- 
moser globe, at New York's Metropoli- 
tan Museum, given by J. Picrpont Mor- 
gan); the Kugcls arc asking $5 million 
for theirs. Today's leaders expect no art 
in a Hubble telescope or a computer, but 
for their counterparts in the Renais- 
sance, the Medici rulers and their con- 
temporaries, art was an essential part of 
everything — from armor to bidets to a 
celestial globe. 

This year over 25 million francs — 
some $4.5 million — is being spent to 
transform the big, flamboyant Beaux- 
Arts-stylc Grand Palais into a welcom- 
ing, comfortable, and beautiful setting 
for antiques, explains the new president 
of the Biennale, Yves Mikaeloff. As 
always, wide aisles, relaxing gardens, 
fountains, bars, and restaurants will be 


Wiener Werkstdtte tapestry (1919) 
by Edmund Dulac. 

An armchair 

desi^^ned in 1903 by 



Sixteenth-century Indian miniature. $100,000. 

A small Louis XH' Boulle desk. $.i60,000. 

interspersed with dealers' stands. And 
for the first time, the Biennale has an 
overall theme, "Love in Art." What 
does that mean? Alain Pasquier, a cura- 
tor at the Louvre, gives a suitably broad 
definition: "The love of gods, of heroes, 
of men and women, pure love, physical 
love — legitimate or forbidden, sacred, 
venal, inverted, or perverted." 

Such a broad theme does not restrict 
what can be shown, and the selection at 
this year's Biennale will be as catholic as 
ever. One of the happiest functions of a 
great fair is that it forces the collector to 
look at a variety of objects outside of his 
or her area of special interest. A collec- 
tor of French fine arts and decorative 
arts may well be tempted by African or 
Oceanic pieces; surprised by antiquities 
from Egypt, Greece, Rome, and pre- 
Columbian America; won by arms and 
armor; or entranced by ivories, icons, 
clocks and watches, tapestries, or rugs. 

This variety may both broaden your 
taste and serve a purpose. If you are gen- 
uinely interested in militaria, you might 
visit the Galerie Pyramide 
stand, which will offer med- 
als, guns, swords, pistols, 
flags. If you are more inter- 
ested in matters social, you 
could do well here buying 
proofs and patents of ances- 
try. A few medals — French, 
Italian, Spanish, German, 
even Turkish — framed on 
your wall and purportedly won by your 
great-grandfather could be useful. 

The stand of Emile Bourgey will 
appeal to ordinary romantics, anyone 
susceptible to dreams of sunken and lost 
treasures. An eight-escudos piece of 
Philip V, recovered only four years ago 
from a Spanish treasure ship that sank 
offthe coast of Florida in 1715, is offered 
at $5,500. Another gold coin, even 
more provoking, is a masse d'or 
($16,000), a French Gothic piece pictur- 
ing Philippe IV (Le Bel), best remem- 
bered because on Friday the thirteenth 
of October, 1307, he jailed the Knights 
Templar, hoping to extort from them 
their immense treasure, which, in fact, 
has never been found. 

Among the Biennalc's rare books and 

manuscripts, Jacques-Henri Pinault's 

most beautiful object is a book of hours 

(Continued on pa^e 166) 

A pear-shaped 
Cartier necklace 
(1900) of plati- 
num, ^old, dia- 
monds, emeralds. 

Head for Paris. The Biennale alone is worth the price of the trip. 



r^ " 



Dealers who ol)jecttgiM0iti£gm^ the 






This handsome sarcophacus, decxiuateo with 





Turkey is the world's number one sup- 
plier of classical antiquities to the West 
— all illegal. The marble sarcophagus 
shown below is Roman and is in one of 
America's fmest museums. It was 
smuggled from Turkey. The thrce- 
foot-tall Muse at right was illegally dug 
up in Turkey and smuggled out of the 
country; it now graces the richest mu- 
seum in the United States. 

Where were the antiquities unearthed 
and how did they get to market? 

There are more ancient Roman towns 
in Turkey than in Italy, more antique 
Greek sites in Turkey than in Greece. 
Remember that two of the seven won- 
ders of the ancient world were in Asia 
Minor (Turkey) — the Halicarnassus 
Mausoleum and the Ephesus Artemi- 
sium. Turkey's immensely rich archae- 
ological heritage — it was home to thir- 
ty-six great cultures, including the Hit- 
tite, Assyrian, and Byzantine — is spread 
across and down the multilevels of its 
fertile soil. Thrust a plow into the land, 
and you jnay well hit a treasure. Push 
the start-up button on your metal detec- 
tor, and chances are the machine will 
soon start screeching. 

In the United States, if your local 
museum has just put on view some 
"singular" Greek or Roman acquisition 
or loan, the odds are six out often that it 
came from Turkey. If someone you 
know collects Roman busts, or bronzes, 
or ancient seals, the lion's share of the 
collection has to have come from Tur- 
key. What might amaze you (and possi- 
bly the collector) is that the 
pieces are almost certainly 
stolen and smuggled. Turkey the four Muse 
absolutely forbids the export 
of any and all antiquities. 

The International Founda- 
tion for Art Research esti- 
mates that the yearly world- 
wide trade in illicit art 
amounts to S2 billion. Proba- 
bly half of that consists of 
antiquities, the most valuable of which 
are classical antiquities. The exact worth 
of the Turkish portion is not known — 
let us say, conservatively, some hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars — but that is 
plenty enough for someone to make a 
vast sum of money, tax-free. With such 
amounts at stake, organized crime en- 
ters the game, manipulating the spoils 
into Western coffers, private or public. 
How does this well-organized illicit 
Turkish art market work? Who runs it? 
Where in the United States are some of 
the most important treasures today? 

The answers lie along what we might 

Ric.HT: One OF 

IN the Getty 
Museum. It was 
Cremna. in 
SOUTH Turkey. 





• •4 







call the Antiquities Route. Its source is 
the Turkish countryside. It sweeps into 
Istanbul, then veers northwest into Eu- 
rope, becoming a caravan of gold and 
silver, marble and ceramics. The first 
destination is the clean and bustling city 
of Munich. There, the top smugglers 
have opened galleries, attracted by the 
lax laws concerning stolen property and 
the avid market for antiquities. When 
we started our investigation — one that 
was to last almost two years — we natu- 
rally headed for Munich. 

We wanted to talk to Edip Telli, a 
Turk of Kurdish extraction and without 
doubt the most important Turkish 
smuggler. He and his family partici- 
pated in the smuggling of the two most 
renowned treasures to arrive on Ameri- 
can, or any, shores: the Lydian Hoard, 
of sixth-century B.C. objects, now at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New 
York, and the opulent silver Byzantine 
treasure at Dumbarton Oaks, in the 
suburbs of Washington, D.C. 


We had good reason to believe that 
Telli would talk to us. He had avoided 
all our previous attempts to reach him. 
We had run across his traces while 
reporting on the so-called Decadrachm 
Hoard — an astonishing find of some 
2,000 silver coins dating back to 475 
B.C. and including no fewer than four- 
teen decadrachms, the rarest of rare 
Greek coins {Connoisseur, July 1988). 
Telli had helped to smuggle the hoard 
out of Turkey and to sell it to the Boston 
multimillionaire William Koch for $3.5 
million. One week after publication of 
the story, he called us. 

The man was almost painfully cor- 
dial. "You really should have called me 
before this article. But now, ask me 
anything. You can reach me anytime. 
Anytime. And of course you know 
where I work, at the gallery. " Edip Telli 
was calling from Munich, where he 
lives with his family. He is married to a 
German woman named Monika. His 
gallery, Gryphos, is located in an af- 
fluent quarter of Munich, on the tree- 
lined Ottostrasse. This is definitely not 
the layman's idea of a modern-day Bar- 
bary Coast teeming with pirates. But 
that's what it is. 

Among curators, collectors, and 
dealers of superior antiquities, Telli's 
gallery has been for decades the place to 
go. What we discovered, while doing 
the research, is that a second stop is 

becoming necessary — at the Artemis 
Gallery, named, ironically, after the 
goddess of chastity and owned by Fuat 
Uziilmez. Like Telli, he is a Turk (but of 
Syriac descent) and was involved in the 
decadrachm caper. Fuat is in his midfor- 
ties, a sharp dresser going slightly to 
flab. His gallery, on the vast and leafy 
Maximiliansplatz, is a quiet hideaway at 
the end of a balcony on the third floor of 
number 12A. Unlike Edip's Gryphos, 
Fuat's Artemis seems a place more to 
make deals than to view treasures. 

Then again, each man conies from a 
different smuggling background. The 
Telli family's involvement in serious 
smuggling goes back to the sixties. At 
that time, contraband Western goods 
were flooding into Turkey. The Tellis 
plunged into nylons, jeans, cigarettes, 
and guns coming mostly from Germa- 
ny by truck. Having set up an efficient 
smuggling organization, they were in 
the perfect position to act as brokers for 
the exporting of antiquities in the same 
trucks. Edip's elder brother Nizamettin 
was killed in 1967 in a police shoot-out. 
In 1968, Edip was arrested for smug- 
gling, an event that prompted his move 
to Germany soon afterward. (As if to 
uphold the family tradition, his younger 
brother Nevzat did five years in the ear- 
ly 198()s in a German penitentiary with a 
man regarded by Turkish authorities as 
one of the country's top five drug lords; 
they were running two tons of hashish a 
month into Europe.) 

Fuat's heritage is more cultivated. He 
was trained by his father, Fara^, the 
dean of antiquities dealers in Istanbul's 
Grand Bazaar. Edip and Fuat, oddly 
enough, appear to be far from competi- 
tors. They are colleagues, not quite 
equal partners in crime; Edip used to be 
the unchallenged kingpin, but Fuat 
seems to be rising fast. Together, they 
run the Munich antiquities mafia. 

Around them orbits a galaxy of Turk- 
ish suppliers and Western buyers. 
Sometimes a job is clinched without 
them, but that is rare. Even then, if you 
look carefully, you will find that Telli 
and Fuat are not too far away. 

On a bleak night in February 1976, at 
the ancient Roman city of Aphrodisias, 
deep in a forested valley in southwestern 
Turkey, thieves slipped into a depot that 
housed hundreds of artworks that had 
been unearthed in this, the world's most 
famous classical dig. Eight fine marble 
pieces were kidnapped. The police came 
the next day. The countryside was 
searched. Nothing, not a trace, was 
found. No one had any doubt that, 

within days, perhaps hours, after the 
theft, the valuable sculptures had left the 
country. The incident created some- 
thing of an international sensation. The 
celebrated archaeologist Kenan Erim, 
the New York University professor 
who has patiently been bringing the 
ancient city to light, was astonished to 
find that he had been accused of the 
theft. He worked tirelessly to clear his 
name and to recover the loss, publishing 
photographs of the pieces in art and 
archaeological journals. His efforts paid 
off when a piece was mailed back anon- 
ymously. Then, in November 1977, 
four pieces were spotted for sale in the 
Summa Gallery, in Los Angeles, owned 
by the West Coast's most active antiqui- 
ties dealer, Bruce McNall. McNall, a 
moviemaker, race-horse breeder, own- 
er of the L.A. Kings, and former art 
adviser to Nelson Bunker Hunt, was 
"aghast" at the news that the pieces 
were stolen. He promptly returned 
them to Turkey. 


A sixth Aphrodisias marble was 
found in early 1978 in New York. A 
research associate of Erim's happened to 
come across a charming two-foot-high 
marble Eros on sale at the Winter An- 
tiques Show. The U.S. Customs special 
agent Charles Koczka looked into it, 
establishing that the Eros matched the 
one in Erim's photo. Further research 
revealed the importers to be Noel and 
Ronald Meli, of the Phoenix Gallery of 
Ancient Art (now defunct). According 
to Koczka's notes, the Melis stated that 
they had bought the piece from a wom- 
an called Monika Telli at a gallery in 
Germany. As to the final two pieces, 
they remain missing to this day. 

We have dug up countless similar sto- 
ries. On June 18, 1988, a cargo official of 
KLM in Istanbul was puzzled by the 
half-ton weight of a large wooden crate, 
which seemed too heavy for the plaster 
casts for dolls described in the docu- 
ments accompanying it. The official or- 
dered the crate opened. Inside he found 
a larger-than-life marble statue of the 
goddess Demeter, elegantly sculpted 
and beautifully detailed. She was head- 
less — heads can be sold separately — but 
there was no doubt about her identity 
because she was holding a baby and a 
horn of plenty. The authorities discov- 
ered that the statue belonged to Fuat 
Aydiner, known in Turkey as "Little 
Fuat" to distinguish him from the Mu- 



nich Fuat. An unsavory character. Ay- 
diner was at the time already being 
sought by Turkish pohce and hiterpol 
for questioning for his supposed role as 
a participant in the smuggling of the 
Decadrachm Hoard. "Little Fuat" had 
fled Turkey because of that problem. 
(He returned later with a forged English 
passport, was arrested, tried, and sen- 
tenced to five years in jail.) 

Wary of getting too close to the De- 
meter, "Little Fuat" Aydiner had depu- 
tized his nephew, Sait, to handle thejob. 
Sait contacted his usual customs broker 
for exports. He got all the papers 
approved for a ghost shipment out of 
Turkey (of doll casts) and then used 
them to authorize the transportation of a 
real object (the Demeter). 

Sait, forewarned of the discovery of 
his ruse, fled to Canada, where he has 
citizenship. He was convicted in absen- 
tia. In the trial it was revealed that the 
Demeter was not the first such rare an- 
tiquity to be shipped. Evidence was 
produced that a crate — exactly the same 
type and size and switched in the same 
way at the last minute — had departed 
the Istanbul airport two months earlier 
for Munich, Germany. The address on 
the bill of lading was that of Fuat 
Uziilmez's gallery on Maximilians- 
platz, Artemis. A few months later, a 
stunning, larger-than-life marble em- 
press appeared in a prime gallery of the 
San Antonio museum, in Texas, loaned 
anonymously. According to a highly 
placed confidential source, this statue is 
the very one Sait sucessfully slipped out 
of Turkey to Fuat. It is expected to 
become one of the high points ot the 
dazzling new classical-antiquities wing 
that will open in November at San An- 
tonio's Museum of Art. 

Between Edip's unexpected invita- 
tion to talk to him in person, in mid- 
1988, and our arrival in Munich in mid- 
1989, his real motives became clear. He 
was feeling the hot breath of the Turkish 
authorities. When the Turkish police 
first uncovered the disappearance of the 
Decadrachm Hoard, m 1984, they is- 
sued a bulletin to the Cierman police for 
Edip's arrest and extradition through 
Interpol. In fact, Edip was the only man 
living outside Turkey mentioned by 
name in police documents concerning 
the coin hoard. Having uncovered the 
hoard's location in the United States, 
Connoisseur published the full account 
four years later with fresh information 
on the roles of both Fuat Oziilmez and 
Edip's younger brother Nevzat. The 
story was picked up by the Turkish 

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press. Yet. inexplicably, neither Fuat 
nor Nevzat was indicted. Only Edip 
remained an official fugitive. 

The police pressure forced him to 
hunker down in Munich and restricted 
his movements throughout Europe. In- 
deed, venturing into Italy, he was bnet- 
ly arrested but subsequently released. 
This unrelenting pressure begins to ex- 
plain why Edip finally had the urge to 
talk to us. He wanted to use the press to 
clear his image. 

The interviews took place at Gry- 
phos. in an impressive marble and glass 
building overlooking a park. Edip 
seemed genuinely willing to cooperate 
and insisted he was ready to answer our 
questions frankly. Over the course ot 
three days, he sat for hours each day at a 
glass-and-steel desk in his pristine gal- 
lery, offering us refreshments, tielding 
our questions, a model host. It any- 
thing, his cordiality was slightly over- 
done. At frequent intervals he intro- 
duced his children. His wife. Monika. 
an attractive German woman of early 
middle age. was present throughout. 

Slim, sleek, and dapper. Edip main- 
tained the air of an urbane, cultivated 
man who knows another, darker world 
but who is not talking about that other 
world. On his safe turf Edip acted the 
role of the familv man. In answer to all 
our queries about his involvement with 
smuggled antiquities, he defended him- 
self as a respected businessman, a pillar 
of the Munich community. If Germany 
did not consider him "undesirable" or 
"criminal."" who were the "ignorant" 
Turks to claim otherwise? 

Throughout our conversations with 
Edip. one crucial question haunted the 
meetings — the question of Fuat 
Uziilmez. He apparently was taking ad- 
vantage of Edip"s restricted life to ex- 
pand his own activities. Why? A long- 
time American dealer who knows both 
Edip and Fuat has noted a key difference 
between the two: "Edip is wealthy, 
happy, and comfortable with his tami- 
ly. and his wife is a solid businesswom- 
an. Fuat. though married, is a playboy 
and throws away his earnings. He is 
hungrier and has to work harder be- 
cause he's always broke. " 

A story about Fuat reported in the 
Turkish newspapers backs up that as- 
sessment. On a quiet afternoon at the 
Frankfurt airport in April 1975, the 
police were alerted to an oversize suit- 
case revolving round and round on the 
conveyor belt while baggage from other 
flights had come and gone. The officials 
opened the suitcase and were astonished 

to be confronted with a trove of antique 
treasure — coins, goldjewelry. and a ter- 
ra-cotta vase — worth several hundred 
thousand dollars. It was six hours after 
the plane carrying the suitcase had 
touched down when a gentleman 
named Fuat, whom the Turkish police 
identify as usually operating out of Mu- 
nich, finally turned up to claim the 
goods. The reason for the casual tardi- 
ness was that Fuat had been up partying 
the night before. The German police let 
him 2:0 but turned the suitcase over to 

the Turkish consulate. In Turkey, arrest 
warrants were issued for Fuat. his 
father. Farac Uziilmez, and another 
Turkish smuggler. Nihat Kola^in. 

In the course of our research, we came 
upon ten murders that were related to 
smuggling. The business is dangerous, 
and Edip Telli in particular has a reputa- 
tion for using force. He moved from 
mere smuggling to big-time antiquities 
dealing way back in 1971 by violently 
pushing aside the father of the industry, 
the scholarlv George Zacos. who was 

Something like the Mafia 

Although Edip Telli and Fuat Uziilmez, cen- 
trally placed in Munich, are the dominant 
public figures in the international smuggling 
network, they are only part of a larger, if 
loose, organization. Ot the subgroups that 
operate within Turkey — whence they often 
supply the Munich distributors — the Ko- 
lasins. the Aydincrs. and Sami Giileners 
gang are the most prolific. 

Sami GiJlener was a Telli protege — 
though his allegiance wavered momentari- 
ly — and he operates like an old-fashioned 
smuggler. He has a nationwide network in 
place, which he runs for Telli. His couriers 
maintain contacts in the countryside who are 
responsible for buying up cheaply any and 
all antiquities found in their local regions. 
Then, the couriers travel from Istanbul to 
the contacts and gather up the hauls. Thcv 
deposit the antiquities back in Istanbul at 
various safe houses. When the time comes, 
the goods are driven across the Turkish-Bul- 
garian border and transferred to a waiting 
vehicle inside Bulgaria. The new courier 
then drives to Edip in Munich. According to 
the testimony of gang members, the Bulgar- 
ian authorities never interfere. They are 
probably well rewarded for that. 

The other groups — the Kolasins. Deres. 
and Aydiners — are not so much dyed-in- 
the-wool smugglers as old-time antiques 
dealers who have turned to smuggling. 
Based in Istanbuls Grand Bazaar, they do 
not need to maintain a network in the interi- 
or. The cannier farmers will take especially 
valuable pieces directly to them in Istanbul, 
where the farmer can strike a better deal. The 
result is that Telli's people get tons of mate- 
rial but of a lesser quality. 

This, no doubt, displeases Edip Telli and 
helps to explain why he has reacted strongly 
to any disruption in his well-thought-out 
operation. He has threatened dissidents with 
hit men and has obstructed rival deals by 
informing the authorities. Conversely, the 
Aydiners and Dcrcs have tried to avoid 
dependence on Telli by opening their own 
outlets in the West. Sait Aydiner. a partici- 

pant in a foiled attempt to smuggle a statue of 
Demeter out ot Turkey, has a business in 
Quebec. Canada. Selim Dere. who had a 
role in the heist of the Hercules sarcophagus, 
owns the Fortuna gallery, in New York. 

The extraordinary thing about the Turk- 
ish antiquities smugglers is that most of 
them come from the same town. Mardin. in 
southeastern Turkey. TheOziilmez. Aydin- 
er. and Dere clans are Svriacs. Christian 
Arabs, whereas the Tellis are Muslim Kurds. 
Mardin is an ancient place, many of whose 
ethnic groups and traditions go back over a 
millennium. When the poet W. B. Yeats, in 
"Sailing to Byzantium," wrote of "such a 
torm as Grecian goldsmiths make/Of ham- 
mered gold and gold enamelling," he re- 
ferred to the self-same tradition that Tur- 
keys Syriacs have kept alive from Byzantine 
times. Since they are renowned goldsmiths, 
it was to them that Turkish farmers took 
newly unearthed jewelry, silver, or gold. 
From there, knowledge of antiquities fol- 
lowed naturally. The Kurds, however, op- 
erated exclusively in smuggling. Spread as 
they are over several contiguous countries 
and because they are more nomadic than the 
Christians, they have always shifted goods 
across borders. Add to that a tradition of 
powerful feudal customs (binding lovalties; 
patriarchal control over peasants), and the 
Telli code of business becomes clear. 

Still, the Tellis are fighting an uphill bat- 
tle. Like the Mafia, or any organization of 
crime lords, the smugglers must be cease- 
lessly alert, constantiv wary. So abundant is 
the supply of antiquities and so great the 
Western demand that the flow always 
threatens to bypass the established organiza- 
tion. Every newfound artifact can spawn a 
new little competitive subgroup. The more 
people in smuggling, the bigger the risks of 
gang wars and of ones being turned in to the 
authorities. Conversely. Western buyers are 
always happy to find new, cheaper maverick 
sources. As Edip put it, "If I withdraw from 
the scene, do you think there will be no more 
smuggling from Turkey?"^ — O.A. aihi M K 



lucky to come out of it alive. Even now 
Edip is quick to threaten violence, a 
ploy he has found works. 

This was borne out by reports in the 
Turkish press — full of smuggling- 
related stories after the publication of 
our article on the Decadrachm Hoard. 
One paper asserted that a hit man from 
the Telli organization was sent to Istan- 
bul to eliminate a defector who had 
joined a rival outfit. The defector's 
name was Sami GiJ- 
lener, and he was a 
longtime protege of 
Telli's. Sami had 
joined up with the 
Nihat Kola§in 
gang, a group ot 
notorious antiq- 
uities racketeers in 
Istanbul. Edip did 
not actually deny 
the report: "Of 
course we were up- 
set. Sami came up 
under us. He was 
p r a c t i c a 1 1 V our 
kid." Withm 
months, however, 
Sami had resumed 
working tor Edip, 
presumably scared 
back into line. 

Edip clearly has 
been able to contin- 
ue doing a lot of 
business despite the 
restrictions hob- 
bling him. Why, 

then, does he tolerate Fuat's increased 
activity on his own turf? What is Fuat's 
role? Edip would say only, "Ask him, 
ask him!" He refused to say anything 
about Fuat even thc^ugh dealers often go 
out ot their way to criticize the competi- 

But whether the two are now really 
competing is questionable. Being im- 
mobilized in Germany, Edip needs a 
front man — an ambassador-partner 
who can travel throughout Europe and 
to America. Fuat can fill that role. It also 
seems likely that Edip has a stake in 
much of Fuat's business and perhaps has 
cut a deal as well with Nihat Kola^in. up 
to now exclusively an ally of Fuat's. 

Less is known of Fuat's operations, 
mainly because they have not been, 
until recently, as extensive as Edips. 
We did uncover an early job that took 
place in 1973. Although the full story 
still remains a mystery, it is known that, 
on April 4, a truck loaded with sand was 
parked on a side road in Istanbul. Chil- 









Rescued FROM 
Clockwise fuom 
ui'i'eu lept: a 
Roman siatueof 



I ASI mitl I < AMI 
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drcn climbed into it to play and dug up a 
group of marble fragments with figures 
hidden in the sand. The police were 
called. The pieces were identified as 
coming from a large and historically 
important sarcophagLis found in a farm- 
er's field near the ancient Roman me- 
tropolis of Perge. On the four sides of 
the sarcophagus, in a dynamic style, the 
twelve labors of Hercules were exqui- 
sitely carved. The exceptional object, 
dating from about a.d. 170, had been all 
but dismembered by thieves. Police be- 
gan to track the pieces. At a shop 
belonging to a goldsmith named Aziz 
Dere, they discovered five scenes. It 
turned out that he and a New York stu- 
dent named Boris Alexander Mussein- 
ko had bought the pieces for 110, ()()() 
Turkish lire, or $7,700. Dere, his broth- 
er Selim, and Fuat Uziilmez's father 
were arrested. The remains of the sar- 
cophagus found in the truck and the 
pieces found in the goldsmith's shop 
were sent to the archaeology museum in 
Istanbul. »The authorities gave up hope 
of finding any more of the missing 
scenes of Hercules. But in February 
1974, a Turkish archaeologist, Jale Inan, 
working at the Getty Museum on a 
grant, happened to see photographs of 
three Hercules scenes in the museimi's 
photo archive. She sent copies to the 
director of the Istanbul museum, where 
curators enlarged them to life-size. The 
scaled photographs fitted exactly to epi- 
sodes missing from the sarcophagus. 
The Getty returned the one piece it had 
in its possession. 

Jiff Frel, then the Getty's curator of 
Greek and Roman antiquities, was 
asked by Turkish authorities about the 
other two pieces. He denied ever having 
had them physically at the Cietty, ex- 
plaining that a California art gallery, run 
by the then-partner of Bruce McNall, 
had offered him the pieces for the sum of 
$16,000. Immediately after the discov- 
ery of the photographs, the actual sculp- 
tures vanished and seem eventually to 
have turned up in the Mahboubian Gal- 
lery, in London. A story about the frag- 
ments appeared in the Sunday Times of 
London, and they were shown on tele- 
vision. The television correspondent, 
attempting to interview Mahboubian, 
received a death threat and was told by 
Scotland Yard for her own sake not to 
pursue the story. The pieces ended up in 
a Swiss private collection; they were 
shown for a while in tiie art museum in 
Kassel, Germany. 

Otiier illicit Turkisii anticimtR's re- 
mained at the (ietty, however. Among 



the most lyrical statues in the Roman 
collection are four small ones of Muses, 
in such good condition that they retain 
some of their original colors. Though it 
is uncertain whether they passed 
through the Telli network, they are 
labeled explicitly as coming "from Tur- 
key." Indeed, Connoisseur has discov- 
ered that the Muses were unearthed in 
Cremna in 1967 by a group of villagers 
who had been plundering the site for 
three years. One of the statues, the 
finest, came through the antiquities 
dealer Elie Borowski, who is now 
retired from active dealing, preferring 
to plan the opening of a spectacular 
museum in Jerusalem bearing his name, 
devoted to his private collection of 
antiquities. He says he bought the statue 
from a Turk in London, whom he re- 
fuses to identify. 

Borowski, a gentle man, looks down 
on the current generation of young 
Turkish smugglers. To him, the older 
generation was made up of "scholars 
and gentlemen, whereas the current 
ones are operators. . . ." But most oth- 
er dealers in "important" antiquities do 
not share Borowski's hesitation about 
dealing with the new generation. One is 
the American Robert Hecht, a resident 
of Paris, who owns the elegant Atlantis 
Antiquities gallery, on Sixty-ninth 
Street, on Manhattan's East Side. 

Hecht IS on good terms with both 

Golden Silence 

The popular image oi Turkey is ot a place 
that is extraordinarily tough on criminals. 
So why do so many smugglers get away 
unscathed? The reason is not that the Turk- 
ish authorities do not know about them. The 
officialdom has dossiers — thick ones — on 
the major actors in the accompanying 
article. But that knowledge has all too often 
been translated into remarkably little ac- 

We have discovered various anomalies 
that point to an answer. In 1988 we found 
that retired military officers set up a compa- 
ny to use military aircraft to do aerial surveys 
of ancient sites. From those surveys, maps 
were made to sell to the smugglers. And 
consider what happens to policemen wiio 
challenge the smugglers. Hilmi Ozer, the 
police chief who led the investigation into 
the Decadrachm Hoard, lost his job for his 
efforts; he is now exiled to remote Hakkari. 
His replacement, Fahrettin Cakar, seized an- 
other cache of illicit antiquities. He was soon 
transferred to another post. These cases, tar 
from isolated, indicate an unfortunate in- 
fluence in high places. — O.A. aiid M.K. 

Edip Telli and Fuat. Hccht's younger 
daughter calls the latter "Uncle Fuat." 
In fact, we recently caught up with the 
elusive Fuat at a reception in Hecht's 
gallery. (He promised us an interview at 
his hotel the next day, but when we 
phoned to confirm the time we learned 
he had already checked out and had left 
for the airport.) In a prominent place in 
Hecht's gallery is a fine, slender marble 
sculpture, probably a leg of a grandiose 
Hellenistic table. In vivid workman- 
ship, the marble depicts the grim finale 
to the mythic musical competition be- 
tween Apollo and Marsyas. Apollo 
won, and flayed poor Marsyas. The 
piece has been for sale at Atlantis for 
some two years. The price: $540,()()(). 


IN TURKEY, S7,000; 

IN NEW YORK, $540,000 

Normally, the provenance of the vast 
majority of smuggled antiquities never 
comes to light. But the Marsyas is an 
exception. We have been able to trace it 
to the farmer in Turkey who found it. In 
May 1988, Abdurrahman Qetin hit the 
Marsyas with his tractor in a field in 
ancient Philadelphia, in the west of Tur- 
key, and broke it into three pieces. He 
too-k them home, ptit them back to- 
gether, and displayed them proudly be- 
side his television set. He even took a 
photograph, a copy of which we ob- 
tained from the Turkish police files. 
Qetm was offered SI, 500 for the Mar- 
syas by local traders but wisely waved 
them off. Eventually he transported the 
pieces to Istanbul and sold them to a 
brother of Nihat Kola^in's tor $7,000; 
the Kola§ins usually let Fuat handle their 
goods once they reach Munich. No 
doubt Robert Hecht would be edified to 
know precisely where the Marsyas 
came from. No doubt the Turkish au- 
thorities will be delighted to know of its 
whereabouts, in New York. 

New York is also the current, possi- 
bly temporary, resting place for another 
treasure from Fuat's seemingly endless 
supply of "museum quality" aiititiui- 
ties. Monumental in scale, breathtak- 
ingly confident in execution, so perfect- 
ly preserved that it is hard to believe the 
piece is 1,840 years old, the work is a 
three-ton sarcophagus embellished 
with garlands held up by vigorous putr; 
and decorated with a series of strikinL, 
personifications. Experts at the nui- 
seum in Antalya, in Turkey, identify 
this sarcophagus as one of the tinest pro- 

ductions of a Roman workshop active in 
the second century A.I), in Perge, the 
same one that produced an almost iden- 
tical piece now in the Antalya Museum. 

The Garland sarcophagus today oc- 
cupies a place of pride in the Greek, 
Roman, and C^optic hall at the Brooklvn 
Museum. The rare piece is on loan. The 
lender, Damon Mezzacappa. is an active 
antiquities collector and benefactor of 
museums. He works as an investment 
banker at Lazard Frcrcs, which happens 
to have the Turkish government as a 
major client. After the sarcophagus 
came out of the soil in Turkey, it passed 
through an intermediary to Fuat, says a 
conhdential source. Exactly how it got 
to the generous Mezzacappa and the 
grateful Brooklyn Museum is not 
known at press time. In this case, too, 
the Turkish authorities will be pleased 
to learn of its whereabouts. 

Yet, what will Turkey do about the 
Garland sarcophagus? Or about Hecht's 
Marsyas? Or the Getty Muses? Or the 
marble empress on loan to the museum 
in San Antonio? Or the beautiful pieces 
of the Hercules sarcophagus in a Swiss 
private collection? The answer depends 
on the outcome of two costly lawsuits 
the Turks are fighting through the U.S. 
courts right now — the suit to regain the 
Lydian Hoard from the Metropolitan 
and the suit against the millionaire col- 
lector William Koch to recover the 
remains of the Decadrachm Hoard. The 
Turks are waiting to see \\ hat tangible 
results they get for the expense and the 
tune. Considering the power and 
wealth ot their t)ppoueiits. results m.iv 
not become apparent for years. St> 
fecund in antujuuies is the I'lirkish soil 
that the authorities ma\ not choose tt> 
pursue e\ery smuggled artitatt. 

Hut we have le.uiied at press tune th.u 
Turkevs l.iw\ers pl.m to pay a visit to 
Robert I lecht. And thev \\\\\ consider 
legal proceedings against the leiulers of 
the smuggled lurkish treasures in the 
San Antonio and HrookKn museums, 
unless they take positive steps to return 
the pieces to Turkey. It woiddseeni th.u 
tor museums, dealers, ami prnate ci>l- 
lectors holding antiquities illicitly taken 
from Turkey and coming through Telli 
or Fuat or anv other smuggling net- 
work, the old Roman adage "C^aveat 
emptor." let the buyer beware, is star- 
tiingly up-to-date. D 

"d^ ( )ct,'('(; Ann is .J h\uiin\i I'tnki^h ncws- 
piipci iourihilis! hiisfii in ,\Vir V(»i'. Mclih 
Ktiyliin tt'as born in Turkey and is a lontrih- 
utin^i editor of this magazine. 



Ldtc hlooi>tcr: 
Antonio da S(iii{;tjllo tin 
Elder (]455-m4) 

By Dan Hofstadter ^^ PhotO(^raphs by Paul Warchol 















Within the church of 
the Madonna di San 
Bia(>io, the dijfitse 
Hhimination creates 
a driftini^, silvery 
atmosphere; call 

FORMED US THAT THE a ekyiacU^ht. 




The Madonna di San Biaj^io, a<^cni in Montcpulciano l)y Antonio da Sanj^allo 



church was called the Madonna di San 
Biagio and that it was the chief" work of a 
Renaissance Florentine architect named 
Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. I had 
heard of Antonio da Sangallo the 
Younger, who. as it turned out. was this 
man's nephew and who designed the 
Farnese Palace and the Villa Madama. in 
Rome. I was so impressed by the uncle's 
masterpiece that I decided to do my best 
to make his posthumous acquaintance. 
This was accomplished by wandering 
about Montepulciano, which bears his 
stamp, for he fortified it and built two of 
the grand houses on the piazza and sev- 
eral other patrician residences. (The 

eludes any view, and even any sense, of 
a domestic interior. Wandering along 
the city's three or four palace-fronted 
streets, the stroller feels wedged be- 
tween two rows of giants peering down 
over closed fists. Most urban Tuscan 
palaces staunchly abut the street, as if to 
suggest the bully-boy pugnacity of the 
old aristocracy; what is so remarkable 
about this town is the sheer densitv of 
proud stone structures lining crooked 
medieval thoroughfares — streets that 
were never widened except for their 
debouchment at the Piazza Grande. 

Here the visitor surveys the rest of the 
world, if onlv intermittentlv. Odd 

llliat makes San Biagio the finest domed chiirch in Italy? 
If the design is so unoriginal, why is it so good? 

most notable is the Palazzo Cervini, 
now a bank.) 

The long, narrow town rides like a 
stone vessel high over the rolling Chia- 
na Valley, whose roads it dominated in 
the late Middle Ages. Faithful to Flor- 
ence in the city's strife with Siena, it 
gradually acquired a military impor- 
tance far out of proportion to its popula- 
tion of less than twenty thousand. 
Though geographically closer to Siena^ 
Montepulciano became an outpost ot 
Florentine culture, a complete city m 
miniature with a town hall like the Pa- 
lazzo Vecchio and a charming central 
piazza with a cathedral. 

Montepulciano strikes the visitor as a 
collection of small but ample palaces: 
stone-faced, great-portaled, bending a 
blankly haughty gaze upon the streets 
below. In the usual Tuscan manner, 
these houses reserve the large-win- 
dowed second story for the/)/iJ)/ii nohilc, 
or living and reception area: the massive 
ashlar work of the ground floor ex- 

scraps and angles of landscape — bits of 
vineyards and orchards and red tile 
roofs — untiirl now and then at the end 
of a lane or pop up around the curve of a 
wall or under the arch of a buttress. In 
the Piazza Grande some quality of the 
light itself tells you that now you can 
climb no tarther — unless, ot course, you 
wish to mount the tower of the Palazzo 
Communale. a crenellated and emi- 
nently detensible-looking fortress. In 
this piazza is the t"a(;adeless Duomo, 
designed by Ippolito Scalza, an unsung 
sculptor of genius; also, a blocky build- 
ing by Antonio da Sangallo, the Palazzo 
Contucci, and another, attributed to 
Giacomo Vignola. 

Antonio da Sangallo belonged to one 
of those extraordinary artistic families 
that, like the Hellinis and the C\irraccis, 
set their stamp on a whole province ot 
the visual imagination. The family firm 
was founded, in the early fifteenth cen- 
tury, by a Florentine carpenter and 
wood-carver known as Francesco di 
Paolo Gianiberti. Francesco trained his 
two sons in the arts ofjoinery and wihhI 
carving, at which they rapidl\- grew 
adept. Giuliano. the elder .nid more 
fitted i^f the pair, acquued the moniker 
da Sangallo while working on a inonas- 
ter\ near the Florentine ( late ot San C ial- 
io. Fie went on to become i>ne ot the 
chief architects i>f the Medici and help- 
ed plan St. Peter's, m Rome. 

Everything that we know oi Aii> 
nio, who was ten years younger, s" 
gests that he w as essentially a dutiful .uid 
useful person. He spent much ot his 
young adulthood caring for an illegiti- 

mate son of Ciiuluno de' Medici. Wish- 
ing, no doubt, to strengthen the tie 
between the Sangallos ind the ruling 
Florentine dynasty. Antonio and his 
wife accepted the child. Giulio. as a 
member ot their own young t'amilv. 
Seven years later, the boy was admitted 
to the Palazzo Medici; he would one dav 
become Pope Clement VII. 

During his long apprenticeship Anto- 
nio took quiet note of the brilliance 
around him. He was a great absorber — 
ot his father's and his elder brother's 
skills, of the learning of the Medici 
court, of the architectural canons of 
Vitruvius. Later, when he went to 
Rome, he made detailed draw iiigs of the 
monuments of antiquity, as if to lay up 
an inexhaustible stock of other people's 
ideas. This was common practice; un- 
common was the fidelity with which he 
would hew to these examples w hen, in 
his sixties, he began to draw buildings 
of his ow n. He was not a man of genius, 
and his single great w ork is devoid of 
any original feature but one — its abso- 
lute simplicity and restraint. 

In Rome. AnttMiio helped his brother 
out with many important projects, in- 
cluding the cloister of San Pietro in Vm- 
coli and the ceiling of Santa Maria Mag- 
giore. There his careful work caught the 
attention ot Pope Alexander V'l, who 
entrusted him with the rebuilding ot the 
C^istel Sant' Angelo and the fortification 
of the papal domains. Graduallv he 
became w hat he was to remain until his 
brother's death — a military engineer. 
By 1501, he had become the principal 
fortifier of central Italv, shuttling cease- 
lessly betw een Florence. Pisa, and vari- 
ous hill tow lis. w lure he piled up \ .ist 
geometries of brick. Someot these ram- 
parts have considerable beauty ot a min- 
imalist st^rt. The feel tor well-propor- 
tuMied vtWumes evident in Antoim^'s 
later, artistic building may well have 
been gained from his vears at this luim- 
drum occupation. 

Antonio was si\t\-v>ne \e.ns old 
when Giiiliaiio died, in l.^lo. On the 
threshold of old age. he took o\er the 
fiinilv firm. Soon he saw that his new 
post represented not only .1 challenge 
but also .111 i>pportiiiiity. M\ \enturing 
to design buildings ot an aesthetic na- 
luie. he could uphold the reputation ot 
ie Sangallos; he ci>uld also [Mo\e that 
he was a real architect in his ow n right. 

Antonio had never designed si> much 

as one complete nonmilitary structure. 

but the first commission to come his 

((A'M/i//»('(/ on jhiiH' 167) 




A collector's j^uidc to the hotiw-funiishiiij^s niarket 
Produced by Nancy Ho vino 

What are the early clues to what living will be like 
in the nineties? Homes will be decorated to look 
carefree, in contrast to the lavish display of the 
eighties. And the quality of everything, from chair 
design to rug construction, will be higher than 
ever. Look for a surge of popularity for printed cot- 
tons with fresh colors and whimsical designs, as 
well as a return to old-fashioned dusky-colored lin- 
en fabrics. Another trend involves the heightened •n t-< 
new concern with broad environmental is- 
sues. Some products incorporate stylized sym- 
bols from nature, and some firms promote prod- 
ucts by pledging a percentage of sales to worthy 
causes. If "opulence" was the byword for the 
eighties, "refmement" may describe this decade. 

1. "Intarsia" ijcinec:hina 
with a border mimic:kin(; 


Gallo for Villeroy & 

2. Insouciant c:herui!s ON A 

Bentley SI'ENSFOR 
Christoi'her HYLANI). 
"Palami'ore," from an 
ei(;hteenth-c:en ruRY In- 
dian DYED-c;orroN pani i . 
Brunsctiwk; ik Fiis. 


c:et)us i'aini edciiaisi 
loncuh, eh her rich i- or 
lefi-handed. Fauna. 




6. From a series, "The Ele- 


Christine Van I)er Hurd. 

7. Brincinc nil c)U I doors 
IN: A wrouc;hi-iron rwKi 
TABLE, BY John Masche- 
UONI forJeffco. 

8. A ( UBISI-I^!SI'IR1 D C I UB 

c:hair, from I Vakoi a 


9. Insi'iri.d BY A Sevres 
I'LAiT. "WiNi ER Game 
Birds," by Lynn Chas? 
FOR Chase Ltd. 

10 ■'1^ussian"scrf; 
Karelian bi;: 

WALNLH l!<l.' 1 '.'■••!> liKAs^ 





The environment comes home. 


DicoMB Company. 

11. A Gothic-arched copy 

of an eichteenth-cen- 
tury tester bed, from 
Shields Town House, 
Natchez. Henredon. 

12. "New Orleans" AR- 

TION. KiNDEL Furniture. 

13. "L'Afrique Fleur," A 
flowered and leopard- 
spotted wool carpet. 
Patterson, Flynn & 

14. A handsomely TUFTED 

"Ghost" tub chair, by 
John Hutton for 
DoNGHiA Furniture. 

15. SeASHELLS by the SEA- 
SHORE: "La Glc^ire de la 

Mer." a linen-cotton 
mix, and "Sanibel," all 
coiToN. Leslie Merritt 
for Grey Watkins Ltd. 

16. "Wind Pipe" vases, by 
the brilliant Swedish 


17. "Anemone AND Apple," 


flower plates copying 


18. A TRIM chest-on-chest in 


Charles Pfister for the 
Baker Furniture Pre- 
mier Collection. 

19. "Brighton," A SUMP- 
tuous brocadedjac- 
guard fabric created 
after a document in the 
collection of jack 
Lenor Larsen. 

20. Thejungly "Monkey 
Medallion" fabric:, by 


Good-bye to the opulent eighties. 

FoNTHiLL Ltd., covers a 


21. Jasper Morrisons SLEEK 



House, in England. 
Century Furniture. 

23. "Onceupon A Time": 
French faience plates, 
each telling a story. 
From Gien. The table- 
cloth is Boussac's 

24. A cherry grandfather 
clock that strikes and 
chimes and tells the 
phases of the moon. 
"Beacon Hill Limited 
Edition," by Howard 
Miller Clock Company. 

25. A BASIC stacking chair, 
BY John Hutton for 
Donghia Furniture, 
confronts a highly or- 
namental "Empire" 
needlepoint rug, from 





DiDiER Aaron & Cie 

118, fg Saim-Honore - 75008 Paris - Tel. : (I) 

32 East 67 th Street New York NY 10021 - Tel. (212) 988.52.48 

21 Ryder street London SWIY 6 PX - Tel. (1) 839.47. 16 

AvELiNE - Jean-Marie Rossi 

20, rue du Cirque - 75008 Paris - Tel. : (1) 42. 66.60. 29 

Michel Meyer 

24, av. Matignon - 75008 Paris - Tel. : (1) 


Jacques Perrin 

3, quai Voltaire ■ 75007 Paris - Tel. : (1) 
98, fg Saint-Honore -'75008 Paris ■ Tel. : (1) 42.65.01. .« 

Maurice Segoura 

20, fg Saint-Honore - 75008 Paris - Tel. : (1) 42.65. 11. 0.^ 

Bernard Steinitz 

75, fg Saint-Honore 75008 - Paris - Tel. :( 1) 47 42 31 94 
125 E. 57th Street New York N.Y. 10022 - Tel. : (212) 832 37 1 1 

Meeting of six top antique dealers, specialized ii. French 17th 

and 18th century Furniture, Objets d'Art and Great Masters. 

Their skills and professional experience give collectors every 

guarantee of QUALITY and AUTHENTICITY. 




S- G O V^ E R Y 

A superb cache oflon^-lost daguerreotypes 

By Martha A. Sandweiss 

This spring, while inven- 
torying material in a 
storage vault at Am- 
herst College's Mead Art Mu- 
seum, we found a small card- 
board box. hiside the box 

A lost ori<iiual: Andrew Jackson. 

CAviUan for once: Winfield Scott 

were ten small bundles care- 
fully wrapped in brown paper 
and tied up with twine. I un- 
wrapped one and then opened 
the daguerreotype case I found 
inside. There was Andrew 

Jackson, staring with 
calm resignation at 
the face of death. 

The image was fa- 
miliar from many re- 
productions. It was 
on April 15, 1845, at 
the Hermitage, his 
plantation home near 
Nashville, Tennes- 
see, that Andrew 
Jackson, seventy- 
eight, last posed for 
his photographer. 
Gravely ill and in 
constant pain, the 
ex-president and 
military hero had to 
be propped upright 
with pillows. Two 
months later, he was 
dead. The best of the 
portraits from the 
session was engraved 
for a popular image 
of Old Hickory as he 
appeared "in his last 
days." Then the 
original, haunting 
portrait disappeared. 

are magical things. 
On the shiny silver- 
coated surface of a 
copper plate, finely 
delineated photo- 
graphic images seem 
preserved as if by al- 
chemy. While 
images on paper can 
be printed in count- 
less numbers from 
an origmal negative, 
each daguerreotype 
is unique, a direct 
positive made with- 
out the mediating 
agency of a negative. 
When I cradled the 
great nussing por- 
trait of Jackson in 

my hands, I held the plate that 
Jackson had actually gazed at 
through the camera lens on 
that long ago afternoon at the 
Hermitage. The light reflected 
off his face had impressed his 
image forever on the sheet of 

Jackson's was not the only 
familiar face to emerge from 
the long-forgotten box. As I 
opened the daguerreotype 
cases one by one I saw many 
familiar faces of great Ameri- 
can heroes of the 1840s: the 
aristocratic ex-president John 
Quincy Adams, General Win- 
field Scott, the popular poet 
William Cullcn Bryant, the 
painter Thomas Sully, the 
spellbinding orator Edward 

How did these splendid 
portraits come to be in that 
museum vault? Blame (or 
credit) the vagaries of fashion. 
Daguerreotypes, like most 
things, have had their ups and 
downs. In 1853, at the peak of 
the daguerreotype's populari- 
ty, an estimated three million 
daguerreotypes — more than 
95 percent of them portraits — 
were produced in the United 
States. Popular as a "demo- 
cratic art," daguerreotypy also 
served the nation's elite, 
fostering a cult of personality 
and celebrity. But as the tech- 
nology of the daguerreotype 
was supplanted in the late 
1850s by new techniques in- 
volving negatives and paper 
prints, daguerreotypes seemed 
less like marvels of artistry or 
chemistry than like outmoded 
artifacts of history. Not until 
the last few decades have large 
numbers of collectors again 
begun to value the extraordi- 
nary quality and presence of 

In early December 1949, a 
time when few people cared 
about daguerreotypes. Profes- 
sor Ciharles Morgan, director 
of Amherst C^loilege's soon-to- 

open art museum, received a 
letter from Robert Mclntyre, 
of the William Macbeth Gal- 
lery, in New York. "I am 
starting a cleaning out of the 
accumulation of untold 
years," Mclntyre wrote, "and 
now maybe you'd like to have 
a bunch of daguerreotypes." 
Busy moving into the new 
museum and preoccupied with 
plans for its inaugural exhibi- 
tion, Morgan accepted the of- 
fer, and the small cardboard 
box of daguerreotypes went, 
unopened, into a museum safe. 
There it remained. Now re- 
covered and published here for 
the first time, the long-miss- 
ing portraits bewitch us as 
both art and artifact. Powerful 
and compelling images, they 
also exemplify what Walt 
Whitman envisaged as "the best 
history — a history from which 
there would be no appeal." 
The rediscovered daq^nerreotypes 
will he on view at the Mead Art 
Museum, Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, through October 21 . D 

"H^ Martha Sandweiss , formerly 
a curator of photographs at the 
Amon Carter Museum, in Fort 
Worth, Texas, is the director of 
the Mead Art Museum, at Am- 
herst College. 

Right: A beloved 

aristocrat, John Quincy 

Adams. Above: A happy 

man, identity nnhnowti. 




lx^ >« 

»- '%!»»'» 

O Q I^ L^ E Q T> f IsU G 

Immortal Garbo 

By Peter C. Jones 

Back in early June, 
shortly before the 
opening of a Cecil Bea- 
ton retrospective in his Man- 
hattan photography gallery, 
James Danziger opened the 
third letter of the week con- 
taining the same inquiry, this 
time from Ohio: "Do you 
have a catalog, and does it have 
pictures of Greta Garbo?" 

The last time a vintage Ed- 
ward Steichen print — that is, 
one made within one year of 
the camera's click — of Garbo 
from the 1928 Vanity Fair Hol- 
lywood sitting was sold at 
auction was in 1980. At a time 
when the auction houses were 
struggling to maintain an av- 
erage price of $500 per lot, the 
Garbo brought $5,000. Gat- 
bo's death has, predictably, 
upped the ante. Today, Beth 
Gates-Warren, of Sotheby's, 

This Genthe qot $4,250 at auction. 

estimates that it would bring 
$30,000 to $50,000; "but for a 
really fine print of the best pic- 
ture, who can tell?" 

Unlike the vintage Steichen, 
Danziger's Beatons are post- 

al numbered Hurrell: $1,500. 

humous, printed and sequen- 
tially numbered in London by 
Sotheby's, owners of the Bea- 
ton estate, which has chosen 
not to limit editions. "These 
are fine aesthetic objects," says 
Danziger, "not an attempt to 
create an investment of great 
value. Few (or no) vintage 
prints exist of many of Bea- 
ton's images, and a collector 
has no other way to obtain his 
work." Danziger offers Beaton 
Garbos at $1,600, with an en- 
larged contact sheet at $2,000. 

The Staley-Wise Gallery, 
also in Manhattan, has late 
prints from the four Garbo 
suites of fifteen photographs 
by Clarence Sinclair Bull. The 
suites were published by Ed- 
ward Weston Editions, in var- 
ious print sizes, in total num- 
bered editions of 273, plus 
more than thirty artist proofs. 
Bull died during production 
and signed only twenty suites. 
The portfolios were com- 
pleted in 1980 under the super- 
vision c:)f John Kobal and 
Jeanne Bull, the artist's wid- 
ow. The photographs at Staley- 
Wise are offered at $1 ,200 to 
$1,800. Also available is an 
8-by-l 0-inch Bull, vintage 

I he Mala Hari aura captured by 
Clarence Sinclair Hull (I'J.U); 
arailable at .Staley- IVise for $1,200. 

although unsigned, for $1,800. 

David Fahey, of the Fahey/ 
Klein Gallery, a prime outlet 
for such material in Los An- 
geles, relies mainly on three 
unnamed West Coast collec- 
tors as his source. "They are 
true Garbo fanatics," says 
Fahey. "Because these collec- 
tions have such depth, I can 
offer prints that are really spe- 
cial." This includes a group of 
11 -by- 14-inch vintage, 
stamped Bulls for $1,000 each 
and vintage prints of Garbo by 
Ruth Harriet-Louise at $800 to 

"The public assumes that 
vintage Hollywood photo- 
graphs exist in huge quanti- 
ties," says Fahey. "This was 
never true, and now the mar- 
ket is drying up. Today, a col- 
lection of fifty Garbo prints is 
substantial." His clients seek 
out vintage prints but also can 
be satisfied by George Hurrell 
prints published in two port- 
folios from 1979 and 1980, 
each in several different sizes, 
with total editions of 552 and 
663 prints per image. A signed 
and numbered 16-by-20-inch 
Hurrell Garbo retails for $1,500. 

Caveat emptor. The fastid- 
ious collector will want to be 
sure that a "late Steichen Gar- 
bo" is really one printed by 
Rolf Petersen in the sixties — 
and not from a posthumous 
portfolio. Those who pur- 
chase at auction should note 
what Sotheby's now prints on 
every page of its photography 
catalogs: "Unless otherwise 
stated the photograph ... is 
not offered as one of a limited 
edition. " As posthumous 
prints proliferate, their value 
may well sag. The prospects 
for the vintage prints, howev- 
er, could hardly look brighter. 
Garbo's legend lives. (More 
photos, pa{^e 152.) D 

"d^ Peter C. Jones is the author 
of the forthconiini^ hooh The 
American Landscape (Pretitice 
Hall lulitions; Jail 1991). 

ifty years ago, 

I tradition was just beginning. 

\nd MM was just the plione company 

It's been 50 years since "The Telephone Hour" first aired 
1 the nation's radios, ringing in a new AT&T tradition of 
■inging the arts to America, of partnering the daring, the 
iiovative, the profound. Today, we" re continuing that tradition 
1 the airwaves with "The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour " and 
VT&T PRESENTS. " And we're bringing that tradition to the 
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r&T: OnStas e; to concert halls with the AT&T American Encore 

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id to museums around the world with an extraordinary 
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ith whom we've worked, for a half-centur\' of unforgettable 
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nly celebrate, but pledge to continue for years to come. 










V N^ 


A Vanity Fair Steiclicfi, hcimtmrcd down at S6,00() in 1986. 

Vintage prints have never been 
plentiful^ and the sources are drying up. 

With Barrymore, by Hurrell: $1,500. 

C Garbo by Beaton, 1946: SI, 600. 

A I'intaf^c Ruth Harrict-Lonisc at 
Fahey/Klein; only $1,000. 





Bonded Brome Wall Relief 30" x 69" 


Oil on canvas 37 '/4" x 30" 


Oil on canvas 15" x 18" 


Acrylic on canvas 38'/4" x 50^4' 

Ambassador Galleries feature many fine works of 20th 

Century art. Now on permanent extiibit at Ambassador 

Galleries are also works by Delame, Howard Behrens. 

Malva, Jules Herve, Suzanne Eisendeick, and Ann Froman. 

And now there are two locations to serve you better. 



137 Spring Street 

New York, NY 

(212) 431-9431 

11 am— 7pm 

7 Days 



190 Route lO West 
Whippany, New Jersey 

(201) 386-1505 

Mon.— Fri. lOom— 6pm 

Sat. 11 am— 5pm / Sun. 1 pm— 5pm 


T> R A^ y^ B I, 

U^ E 

Oslo's hot spot; a base in Chiatiti; how to get around in Eastern Europe 

in London you should 
know about — 22Jerniyn 
Street, in the heart of the attrac- 
tive area ot St. James's, close 
to some of the best shops, res- 
taurants, and theaters. 

It has thirteen individually 
decorated suites and five bed- 
rooms, all with private bath- 
rooms. Room service and 
breakfast in the suite or bed- 
room, but no restaurant. 
However, the neighborhood is 
hlled with good restaurants. 

Business travelers who need 
sophisticated communications 
systems are well provided 
for — two direct telephone 
lines, fax machines, and an in- 
house secretarial service are all 
on tap. Rooms, 5l135; suites, 
£190 or £240. (Phone: 71-734- 
2353. Fa.x: 71-734-0750.) 

High Hope Estate, in Jamai- 
ca, is a very handsome villa 
seven miles from Ocho Rios, 
on St. Ann's Bay. This forty- 
acre estate overlooking the 
Caribbean can be rented com- 
plete with cook, maid, butler, 
laundress, security guard, car 
for a week, and three meals a 
day. Seven bedrooms, each 
with its own bath (four with 
queen-size beds, three with 
twin beds). Marble floors, fine 
antiques, a big swimming 
pool, and modern conve- 
niences such as tax machines 
make the villa ideal for a small 
corporate meeting or for sev- 
eral friends. (4920 Topanga 
Canyon Boulevard, Suite 145, 
Woodland Hills, CA 91364. 
Phone: 818-888-3762.) 

If you go to Medoc, in 
France, to see the great vine- 
yards of the Rothschilds, 
Chateau Margaux, and the 
other famous vineyards, stay 
at Chateau Cordeillan-Bages, 
in Pauillac, which opened in 
1989. In this attractive inn, 
rooms are large, sunny, and 
comfortable. Rooms, Fr 630; 
suites, Fr770. (B.P. 90,33250 
Pauillac, France. Phone: 

Ill the Tuscan hills the Fattoria La Loj^^ia is a good base for exploring the Chianti region. 

The Chianti Classico area, 
between Florence and Siena, is 
fascinating to explore. And a 
very pleasant place to head- 
quarter while you are there is 
Fattoria La Loggia, a working 
wine and olive-oil estate, 
founded in 1427. 

Its present owners have ren- 
ovated several houses and the 
convent of an ancient village 
on the estate, creating eight at- 
tractive apartments with pri- 
vate bath and kitchen. Each 
accommodates a different 
number of guests. Activities 
include riding, walking, trips 
into the surrounding area and 
to Florence, Siena, and Arez- 
zo, cooking courses, and wine 
tasting at Chianti estates. 

Minimum stay: one week in 
high season (May-Septem- 
ber), at SI, 000-52,000 per 
apartment, which includes 
daily maid service and unlim- 
ited house wine; three days in 
low season (October-April), 
at $400-S8()0. (Via Collina, 
50020 Montefiridolfi, Firenze, 
Italy. Phone: 55.824.4288; in 
the U.S.A.: 718-261-4035. 

In Cosi a Rica, we highly 
recommend an out-in-the- 

country hotel. La Mariposa, 
about a thirty-minute flight 
southwest of San Jose, near 
Quepos. A cluster of small 
cottages hangs on the side of a 
bluff overlooking Manuel An- 
tonio National Park; all have 
beautiful views of the Pacific. 
Lots of flowers, birds, and 
monkeys; very quiet and rest- 
ful. (Reservations: 800-223- 

In Oslo, do not miss the The- 
atercafeen, in the Continental 
Hotel. A meeting spot for art- 
ists, writers, and travelers, this 
is where everything happens. 
Opens at 11:00 A.M. 

Eastern Europe. Very good 
cars and drivers who speak 
English are now available in 
Prague, Budapest, Warsaw, 
and Krakow. Details: Euro- 
pean Chauffeured Car Asso- 
ciates, P.O. Box 19, 8702 Zol- 
likon, Switzerland. This firm 
also has representatives in all 
major cities of Europe. 
(Phone: 1.391.8490.) 

Pricey Moscow. Some Mos- 
cow restaurant prices are now 
almost as steep as New 
York's. Here are some alterna- 

tives to keep in mind: 

Arlekino, 15 Druzinikorb 
(205-7088). An attractive Ital- 
ian-Russian co-op. Good, au- 
thentic Italian food. Antipasto, 
pastas, and salads excellent, 
but avoid the risotto. 

Peking, 1/7 Sadovaya (209- 
1865). Big Chinese menu. 
Music. Convenient location. 

Kolkheeda, 6 Sadovo-Sa- 
motechnaya Ulitsa (299-6757). 
A real find. First-rate Geor- 
gian food served in two cozy 
rooms. You can pay in rubles, 
so it is very inexpensive. 

Pierosmany, across the 
street from the Novodevichy 
Convent (247-1926). Agree- 
able room and quite good 
food. Except for drinks, the 
bill is payable in rubles. 

Glazur, Smolensky Boule- 
vard (248-4438), is a good, ex- 
pensive Belgian-Russian co- 
op. Requires hard currency. 

Yakimanka, 2/10 Bolshaya 
Polyanka-1 Strayeniye (231- 
1085), is supposed to be the 
best of the Uzbek co-ops. D 

^^ Produced by Passport, the 
Monthly Letter for Discriminat- 
ing Travelers, l-or sample copies: 
350 W. Hubbard Street, (Chicago, 
IL 60610; (800) 542-6670. 




J O A I L L I E R S 


THE Car'uhh ijiamo.nds. 

C \RT11 R.FOR 140 ^ I \RS 
I MTIN(, I.K(.I;M) Willi HI \l ITY. 
(HKMIMI^ \M) \(:HII\I\1IM 

I MM n II \s (11 \N(.i:i) I III \ iin 
colrsk of thk hum. irs \ri. 
Generations of dedicxted xnd 


\iA(;i(T\NS. Cartier CREMORS 

IN Ml nil WORLD. 

Since 1847 

L O T U S L A N D 
(Continued Jrom page 103) 

mean that my mission lies elsewhere 
and my search . . . was only part of the 
process of preparing my soul for some- 
thing bigger. " Then she met Theos Bar- 
nard. For the first time, she said, she 
was taught "the actual value of our 
physical body, the dwelling place of our 
spirit," and in this both personal and 
metaphysical union she thought she had 
found what she had been so urgently 
searching for all her life. 

Thus "Tibetland," as she called her 
new property, was not to be merely a 
home but a "Sacred Grail," where 
scholar-monks would translate the su- 
tras and ignite, across America, the 
great spiritual renaissance she felt rising 
"in the pure soil of California." 

Once again she suffered a humiliating 
failure. The monks did not materialize: 
the purity of the White Lama was sullied 
by the unexpected appearance of a pre- 
vious wife and children in Philadelphia. 
Failing in love, in singing, and in her 
desire to illuminate mankind, Madame 
Walska at last poured all her passionate 
energy into the garden. 

At first she treated it as a setting for 
entertainment, adding to the existing 
European-style layout a huge new 
swimming pool (turning the old one 
into a lotus water garden), a small Eliza- 
bethan theater of clipped Monterey cy- 
press, and a topiary garden. 

Each has a Walska twist. Grotesque 
little statues of dwarfs, hunchbacks, co- 
quettes, and mountebanks decorate the 
theater. Under deodar cedars by the 
pool a wide beach of sand supports sev- 
eral giant clamshells from the Sulu 
Sea — open, like huge sets of teeth, and 
planted with blue crassulas. The topiary 
is a menagerie of ivy or evergreen ele- 
phants, teddy bears, ducks, a rhino, and 
a sea lion. She also created a floral clock, 
its face and hands packed not with 
annuals, as in a municipal park, but with 
multicolored succulents. And she tried 
her hand at ajapanese garden. 

The real glories of Lotusland, 
however, began when she 
stopped striving for the unex- 
pected and let her joy in the plants them- 
selves take over. One technique, devel- 
oped with William Paylen, was to mass 
shade-tolerant species under the im- 
mense arms of her ancient California 
live oaks. In the fern garden, lush as a 
Douanicr Rousseau paradise, huge 
bunches of staghorn ferns, six feet 

across, hang on chains from the trees, 
their forked green tongues swaying 
lightly in the dappled shade. 

Near her pavilion, bursting from a 
ground cover of bark and oak leaves, 
some hundreds of bromeliads surge 
over half-submerged boulders and up 
the trunk and branches of another oak. 
Luminous yellow-green shading to rust 
or even fuchsia pink, they have vaselike 
central reservoirs that gleam palely un- 
der the oak's wide canopy. 

Beyond them, in juxtapositions 
equally characteristic of the Walska 
style, an arm of the wide green lawn 
spreads out in the sunshine to a thickly 
shaded wood, improbably edged with 
six-foot rosettes of blue Agave jranzo- 
sinii. To the left, a group of silvery "old 
man" cactus, Cephalocereus senilis, light- 
ens the dark trees. To the right rise the 
rounded, furry spires of a hundred oth- 
ers — a New York City of cactus, all of 
different heights. Beneath, pushing 
through with an almost palpable urgen- 
cy, smaller species writhe and stretch, in 
spring sporting outrageous crimson 
flower bracts at right angles to the 
stems, and tiny, starlike flowers. 

Across the lawn, the shady wood 
opens into a further garden of 
bromeliads and a grove of bot- 
tle-trunked Beaucarnea recurvata, their 
heads crowned with droopy tufts of 
reedlike foliage, their bases blown out 
and cracked in the bare earth like old rhi- 
no skin. Beyond these lies a strange little 
garden of earthy hummocks on which 
stand flat desert sandstones, natural 
sculptures once painted to resemble ele- 
phants and dwarfs. 

A sandy path winding through this 
garden eventually passes the blue gar- 
den, a pale haze ofFestuca ovina "glauca" 
spread out beneath blue Brahea armata 
palms, blue Atlantic cedars, blue 
spruce, blue yuccalike Furcraeas. 
Through it all march the luminous, pale 
trunks of Chilean wine palms — a legacy 
from the remarkable nurseryman Kin- 
ton Stevens, who first developed the 
property in the 187()s. Surrounding all 
this, inspired perhaps by the huge gem- 
stones she favored in her necklaces, is 
one of Madame Walska's wildest 
strokes of genius. Seeking to illuminate 
the glaucous shade, she set around the 
paths here, like the tips of a thousand 
glimmering icebergs, big, rough-cut 
chunks of turquoise slag glass from a 

Coca-Cola bottling factory. 

The aloe garden, just across the drive- 
way, is equally unhampered by conven- 
tions of good taste. Nobody but Ganna 
Walska would have thought of aloes 
— singularly ill-favored plants — as sub- 
jects for a decorative essay, but, like 
many masterpieces, it confounds old 
prejudices, hideed, the effectiveness of 
massing scores of different varieties to- 
gether partly depends on the plants' vig- 
orous ugliness. A terra-cotta-colored 
path winds in and out of sight through 
mounded hillocks of Madame's much 
loved red and black lava gravel, while all 
around rise bristling strap leaves, rough 
stems tufted with sword rosettes and 
whorls of foliage. Most astonishing is 
the shallow, horseshoe-shaped pool 
that lies in the center. Pale and clear, it is 
surrounded, with inimitable Walska in- 
genuity, by large rosettes of luminous, 
almost fluorescent abalone shells. 
Beyond all this, in undulating layers, 
rise the enclosing green fronds of fan 
palms, the tops of distant eucalyptus, 
and in the distance the scarred blue hills 
of the Santa Ynez Mountains. 

Ganna Walska's last work, seven 
years in the making with help from the 
specialist Charles Glass, was the cycad 
garden. By then in her nineties, she had 
left behind her whimsies, and to create 
her effects she used only her signature 
winding path, grassy hillocks, and the 
stiff fronds of the cycads themselves. 
Sharply outlined against the brilliant 
grass in the hard California sunshine, or 
looming through the early-morning 
mist, they are primitive, disturbing 

These two gardens, where fantasy, 
botany, and the vital personality of the 
maker are in perfect balance, reach the 
level of creative genius that Ganna 
Walska strove for so passionately. In the 
end it is not perfection but Lotusland 
complete, with all its brave attempts 
and failures, that so moves the visitor. 

Outside the entrance a bronze plaque 
announces, GANNA WALSKA. LOTUS- 
LAND. There is no possessive apos- 
trophe after her name, and none is 
needed. Vibrant, beautiful, theatrical, 
making everything else around it seem a 
little tame — this is not Ganna Walska's 
Lotusland; it is Ganna Walska. D 

^^ Maggie Keswick is the author of The 
Chinese Garden: History, Art & Archi- 
tecture (Rizzoli). 



This holiday season, give the gift that says it all.,. 


The old, the new, tlie beautiful, 
the rare, tlie best. . . it's all in Connoisseiu-. 

Today's leading international magazine about all tilings that 

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A Publication of Tlie Hearst CoiporaUon. 

T I-l E R 1 ( ; H T C H t^ W D E R 
(Coiitimicd from pa^ie 108) 

upset about this kind of meddling. After 
all, the B Minor Mass would not be 
improved by adding an accordion solo. 

Once you have added tomatoes, why 
not put in a few more vegetables? Once 
the vegetables and, perhaps, some herbs 
are in, why not change the base from 
milk to fish stock? And having gone this 
far, why not add a jolt of Pernod? 

However, I will not go so far as to use 
canned clams. Many cookbooks seem 
to find this acceptable. To me, it is 
acceptable only if you like the taste of 
salted pencil erasers. 

The basic ingredients in classic New 
England clam chowder are hard-shell 
clams (also called quahogs), milk, on- 
ions, potatoes, and salt pork. Every- 
thing on the list speaks for itself, except 
the salt pork, which adds an indispensa- 
ble unctuousness to the chowder base. 
(Bacon would overpower it.) 

Most recipes for chowder are a little 
clam-poor. What looks like a bushel of 
littlenecks dwindles into a tiny, insignif- 
icant pile of actual meat once the clams 
are shucked. Nothing is more irritating 
than spooning through vats of broth 
and turning up just potatoes. Unless 

you can fmd the largest quahogs, some- 
times called chowder clams, use the 
quantities given below — which are 
double the usual. 

Thickening the broth with flour 
and adding cream are not consid- 
ered New England-y. On the 
other hand, how authentic do you want 
to be? Even real New Englanders no 
longer endure two-hour sermons in 
freezing meeting houses. Like the rest of 
us, they will secretly prefer a chowder 
whose edges have been slightly gilded. 
About all the following recipe for 
Manhattan clam chowder has in com- 
mon with its cousin is clams, potatoes, 
and cream. As with all such soups, you 
may alter the vegetable proportions at 
will, or add other vegetables entirely. 
The optional Pernod or ouzo would 
have made the Puritans explode, but I 
never make this soup without it. 

"just in the refridge," my fish dealer 
told me when I asked him how best to 
store my clams. You mean you're not 
supposed to let them sit in saltwater and 
cornmeal overnight and make theni fat- 
ten up, disgorge their sand, and purge 

themselves of impurities? "///.s/ in the 
refridge," he repeated wearily. 

Nevertheless, I went ahead and gave 
half the clams a cornmeal bath, leaving 
the other half just in the refridge. 
Though the "cornmealed" clams did 
not disgorge noticeable quantities of 
sand, they did seem less scary inside 
when 1 chopped them. Besides, I like to 
imagine that I'm doing something nice 
for my clams before I kill them. 

If you, too, want to give your con- 
demned clams a last meal, scrub them 
thoroughly with a stiff brush. Then 
place them in a large kettle and cover 
them with a gallon of water mixecH with 
one-third cup of salt. Stir in a handful of 
cornmeal and put the clams in the refrig- 
erator for three hours. Drain, scrub 
again, and proceed. Instead of trying to 
open the clams with a knife, let steam do 
the job for you. 
New Englatid Clam Chowder 
4 dozen littleneck clams, scrubbed and 

"bathed" (see above) 
2 cups water 
6 ounces salt pork (rind removed, 

blanched, and chopped) 
2 large onions, diced 



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on a specifically concealed ball-bearing base, the bookcase rotates a 
full 360 degrees with only a touch and needs only 4" clearance. You 
have easy access to any of the 8 individual compartments, each a 
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On phone credit card orders 

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Above Number is for ordering only, for customer inquiries call (201) 367-2900. 

1 •800-456-2434 

Please send us a letter specifying the item, the code number 
and the quantity of each item. The item price is shown fol- 
lowed by the shipping and handhng charges in ( ). Sor- 
ry, we cannot accept Canadian, Foreign or COD orders. 
Total the amount of your purchase and make your check or 

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250 W 55 ST , NY . NY 10019 

2 tablespoons unsaltcd butter (if needed) 

3 tablespoons flour 

4 cups boiling potatoes (scrubbed but 
unpeeled, cut into half-inch cubes) 

1 cup milk 

2 cups heavy cream 

freshly ground pepper to taste 

Scrub the clams once more with a 
stiff brush and place in a large kettle 
with the water. Bring water to a boil, 
add clams, and steam, covered, for 
five minutes. Throw away any clams 
that have not opened. 

Reserving the broth, coarsely chop 
the clams. Through a fine strainer 
lined with a clean dish towel, strain 
the broth into another bowl. 

Fry the salt pork in the soup pot 
over medium heat until fat is rendered 
and pork begins to brown. Remove 
scraps of pork and add onions, 
sautcing gently until they are soft and 
translucent. Add butter if necessary. 
Add flour and stir over low heat for 
five minutes without browning. 

Add three cups of clam broth and 
cubed potatoes. Simmer, covered, for 
fifteen minutes. 

Add clams and simmer very gently 

until tender, ten minutes or less. 

Add milk, cream, and optional but- 
ter. Stir constantly over a low flame 
until heated through. Do not allow 
liquid to boil. Add optional pepper. 

When heated through, serve, or, 
better, chill overnight; reheat slowly 
the ne.xt day. Serves four. 
Maiihatrati Clam Chowder 
4 dozen littleneck clams, scrubbed and 

2 cups water 
'^2 pound bacon, diced 
1 large onion, chopped 
1 large red or green bell pepper, diced 
1 large carrot, halved and sliced 
1 large leek, sliced 
1 bay leaf 
'/: teaspoon dried thyme 

1 15-ounce can tomatoes, chopped 
but undrained 

2 cups boiling potatoes (scrubbed but 
unpeeled, cut into half-inch cubes) 

1 cup heavy cream 
salt and pepper to taste 

2 tablespoons Pernod or ouzo 
'/4 cup finely chopped parsley 

Scrub clams with a stiff brush and 
place in large kettle with water. Bring 

to a boil and steam, covered, five min- 
utes. Discard unopened clams. 

Reserving broth, chop clams coarse- 
ly and set aside. Through a fine strain- 
er lined with a clean dish towel, strain 
the broth into another bowl. 

Fry bacon in soup pot over medium 
heat until fat is rendered and bacon 
barely brown. Add onion, pepper, 
carrot, and leek. C'ook. stirring fre- 
quently, until tender but not browned. 
Add bay leaf and thyme. Cook five 
minutes more. 

Add three cups of broth, tomatoes, 
and potatoes. Simmer, covered, for 
fifteen minutes. 

Add clams and simmer ten minutes 
or less. Do not allow liquid to boil. 

Add heavy cream; stir over a I'lry 
low flame until heated through. C'or- 
rect seasoning; add optional Pernod. 

Like New England clam chow der. 
this soup will taste better if alK)\\ed 
to rest in the refrigerator overnight. 
Sprinkle with parsley Just before serv- 
ing to tour people. L 

?^ Ann Hoiii^nhin is <j food n'liict and the 
author oj twenty-five ihiidren'> hook's. 

not whether you win or lose. It's where you play the game. 

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e\en uhen\ouVe not usinjiouriuDchallcni:- 
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Because you can simply enjoy the 
22.^ tropical acres, gentle ocean ua\esan(.l 
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Not to mention our private oceanrri>ni 
beach cluh. w ith ualersports f'ishing and 
hoating. Fitnesscenters. Nighil\ enteriain- 
ment. Plusahostoloutstanding resiauranls- 
so \(Hi can ch(Hise to dress up or go casual 

No other iio|iical resort ol lets our lc\cl 
of elegance and action. See \our ira\el 
agent. Or lor more uitormation about 
our Five-Star. Fiw-Diamond resort write 
HO. Bo\ >{)2>. Boca Raton. II. ^^A}2. or 
call toll Tree l-SOO .^27-0101. CM. 05. 

Also ask about our special goM. tennis. 
hoiie\ moon and holiday packages. 


The Boca Rxton 


The I- Iciiant Place To Plav 



National Treasure 
(Continued fivni pa^^c 113) 

Game" whenever anybody rings the 
front-door bell. 

Of necessity, Halper has to restrict 
access to his collection, but he is now 
seriously talking about opening a mu- 
seum. "I have two very interested par- 
ties," he says. "One in Hoboken [where 
the first recorded games were played], 
and one in New York City. What does 
the Cooperstown get? Four hundred 
thousand people a year? If it's in New 
York, we'd have to draw, conservatii'ely, 
five thousand a day, one quarter of a 
sold-out house in Madison Square Gar- 
den. That's a hundred fifty thousand 
visitors a month, more than a million 
and a half a year." 

Among the objects in Halper's collec- 
tion are more than one million baseball 
cards (yes, more than one million, 
including four of the extremely rare 
Honus Wagner cards, worth at least 
S100,000 each), bronzes of players, 
nineteenth-century cabinet photo- 
graphs of players, signed gloves, signed 
bats, every World Series press pin since 
they were first issued, in 1911, plus such 
ephemera as Casey Stengel's high- 
school yearbook, Ty Cobb's leather 
shaving strap and dentures, the helmet 
that Hank Aaron wore when he broke 
Babe Ruth's career home-run record, 
and the shoes and glove that Bill Buck- 
ner of the Red Sox wore when Mookie 
Wilson's ground ball went between his 
legs in the sixth game of the 1986 series, 
against the Mets. In a note to Halper, 
Buckner wrote, "This glove has too 
many holes in it." 

Halper has the autographs of 
everyone, yes, everyone, in the 
Hall of Fame, including the rar- 
est of all, that of Thomas F. McCarthy, 
an outfielder for Boston, Philadelphia, 
and St. Louis in the 1880s and 1890s. 
McCarthy's lifetime batting average 
was only .294, and why he made it into 
the Hall is a mystery to many, but in any 
event Halper has McCarthy's signature 
on his last will and testament, dated 
August 3, 1922, shortly before he died, 
in Boston. 

Halper also has the largest collection 
of uniforms in existence, 964 of them all 
told. Eight hundred and fifty of them 
are secreted behind a wall in his study. 
When Halper presses a button, the wall 
moves away, and there, passing in re- 
view on an enormous automated dry- 
cleaning rack, arc more than enough 

uniforms to outfit every player, coach, 
manager, and batboy on all twenty-six 
major-league teams today — provided 
they do not mind appearing as members 
of the 1914 St. Louis Federal League 
team or the 1938 Boston Bees. 

Among the rarities are Lou Gehrig's 
autographed 1936 Yankees uniform, 
which Halper considers his best item; 
Babe Ruth's autographed uniform of 
1920, his first year with the Yankees; 
and Shoeless Joejackson's Chicago uni- 
form of 1919, the year the "Black Sox" 
threw the World Series to the Reds. 

Given the incredible breadth and 
depth of his collection, it is sur- 
prising to learn that Halper did 
not start collecting seriously until six- 
teen years ago. But the germ had always 
been there. Now fifty. Halper is a life- 
long fan. When he was a kid in Newark, 
he collected baseball cards and pro- 
grams and pestered players on the New- 
ark Bears, the old Yankees farm team in 
the International League, and those on 
visiting teams for autographs. One day, 
an exasperated Lou Novikoff, the "Mad 
Russian" slugger, who had played for 
the Chicago Cubs, said to him, "Be here 
tomorrow, kid, and I'll give you some- 
thing to stop asking for autographs." 
Halper was there, and Novikoff gave 
him the Detroit Tigers road uniform 
that Barney McCosky wore in 1940. 

After attending the University of 
Miami, Halper entered the paper com- 
pany that his grandfather, a Russian 
immigrant who began with a pushcart, 
founded in 1910. He led the normal life 
of a business executive until one day in 
1974, when he happened to read a notice 
about a baseball-cards convention in 
Manhattan. The Rosebud syndrome 
struck, he went to the convention, and, 
as his wife, Sharon, says, "Afterwards, 
he went to his mother's house, got his 
old baseball cards, programs, and the 
Barney McCosky uniform, and t'.cr ^'^ 
just took off from there. He ^< \p 
den. Then he filled up a see i n. 
Then we had to add on to the ho e." 

In 1 979, Halper bought a limited part- 
nership in the Yankees. Being a limited 
partner has meant just that, but Halper 
is happy because the connection gives 
him opportunities to let his collecting 
wants be known. The front office gives 
Halper every letter that the Yankees 
receive from fans wishing to sell, swap, 
or buy baseballiana. 

Halper lets his mail pile up for two 
weeks. Then, like a kid ripping open 
birthday presents, he quickly reads each 
letter. Here, for instance, is a Texan 
who knew Mel Ott's grandmother. He 
wants bubble-gum cards of the Giants 
slugger. Hmmm; maybe if he's got 
something in exchange . . . 

Halper never knows what he might 
pick up in a swap. He got a small book- 
let from another collector, who threw it 
in at the last minute to complete a deal. 
"The guy didn't know what it was," 
Halper says. Published in 1846, the 
booklet is unique. It is the earliest- 
known copy of the rules of the game, 
drawn up by the Knickerbockers of 
New York, the first organized club. 
Founded by Alexander J. Cartwright 
and four other men in 1845, the Knick- 
erbockers called themselves a club and 
reportedly used a blackball to screen 
candidates for membership. After they 
lost their Manhattan field to developers, 
they played on the Elysian Fields, in 
Hoboken, across the Hudson. 

In 1849, Cartwright moved to Hono- 
lulu. In 1938, he was elected to the Hall 
of Fame, in Cooperstown, and six years 
ago Halper bought a box full of Cart- 
wright material inherited by a descen- 
dant in Hawaii. He reveres these relics 
because he regards Cartwright as the 
true father of baseball. No one believes 
the preposterous story that Abner Dou- 
bleday invented the game one day in 
1 839 by using a stick to scratch out a dia- 
mond on a field in Cooperstown. 

Above and beyond an ample 
purse and his involvement with 
the Yankees, Halper also has 
what some might call luck. Branch 
Rickey, the towering genius of the 
game, once observed that luck is the 
residue of design, and Halper's knowl- 
edge, drive, and passion have allowed 
him to spot treasures overlooked by 
others. While visiting a flea market sev- 
eral years ago, he spotted a cane in a 
bunch of walking sticks. "How much 
for this one?" he casually asked the deal- 
er. "Five bucks," was the answer. Hal- 
per bought it at once. 

What gave his heart a jump was the 
engraved inscription, "N.Y. B.B.C. to 
n.W.H., 1888," on a small silver plate 
affixed to the shaft. Halper knew that 
the New York Base Ball C-lub had pre- 
sented it to DeWolf Hopper, an actor 
and singer of light opera, and research 



disclosed that the Giants were in the 
Manhattan theater audience the night he 
first recited Ernest Lawrence Thayer's 
poem "Casey at the Bat." Although 
Hopper had a distinguished stage ca- 
reer, he is best remembered today for 
his recitation of "Casey," which he 
gave at least 10,000 times. 

Similarly, at an antiques show Halper 
bought a child's wooden sled for S250. 
What the dealer did not realize was that 
the portrait painted on the sled showed 
that it had been endorsed by Michael J. 
("King") Kelly, a great star of the 1880s 
and 1890s who played for Chicago and 
Boston. Kelly was a base stealer, whose 
chanting fans inspired the song "Slide, 
Kelly, Slide." 

Halper owns three of the first 
baseball cards ever issued. They 
feature the legendary Cincinna- 
ti Red Stockings, the first professional 
club. Managed by Harry Wright, the 
Red Stockings played a record 100 
straight games without a loss barn- 
storming across the country from 1868 
to 1870, until the Brooklyn Atlantics 
came from behind in the eleventh inning 
to score an eight-to-seven victory. 

But the greatness of any baseball col- 
lection is tape-measured by the Babe, 
and Halper's holdings arc truly extraor- 
dinary. Consider these Ruthian relics. 

• The life-size wax model of Ruth, 
wearing a Yankees uniform, from Ma- 
dame Tussaud's, in London. 

• A lock of Ruth's hair, with a signed 
note from the Babe attesting to same. 
Halper got it in a trade. He gave the oth- 
er guy a lock of General Custer's hair. 

• Ruth's separation agreement with 
his wife Helen, signed by both on 
August 4, 1925. She got the firm, the 
Packard car, and $100,000. 

• Ruth's 1914 rookie Red Sox uni- 
form, which is unsigned but has his 
name label inside. 

• Letters to and from Ruth, such as 
the Babe's 1941 reply to a fan — the let- 
terhead reads simply, "Babe Ruth, New 
York" — in which he cites baseball re- 
cords that are likely to be broken or 
stand for all time. It is a marvelous letter 
in and of itself, but Halper believes he 
added to its significance by having 
Mickey Mantle, Whitey Ford, Hank 
Aaron, and Pete Rose append relevant 
comments about what the Babe had to 
say. For example, Ruth wrote, "All it 
will take is a good homerun hitter to be 


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when Tony Rizzoli got out of school, there 
was a long black limousine waiting at the curb. Lucky 
Luciano was in the backseat. He waved the boy over 
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'I can't, Mr. Luciano, I'm late for..' 'Get in.' 1^1^ 

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(Cotititmedfrom pa<^e 161) 

followed by another good homcrun hit- 
ter like I was with Gehrig for years" (to 
break his season record of sixty home 
runs). Next to this, Mantle, who fol- 
lowed Roger Maris in the 1961 Yankees 
batting order when Maris hit sixty-one 
homers, wrote, "Hey Babe! You was 
[sic] Right. Roger did it." 
• The bat that the dying Babe used to 
support himself during his farewell ap- 
pearance at home plate in Yankee Sta- 
dium, a scene memorably captured for 
posterity in Nat Fein's 1949 Pulitzer 
Prize— winning photograph. "The Yan- 
kees were playing the Indians that day, " 
Halper says, "and Ruth was wobbly 
going up to the plate. The Indians sent a 
bat out for him to lean on. When he 
came back to the dugout, he was asked 
to sign the bat. I also have affidavits by 
Bob Feller, Bob Lemon, and Eddie 
Robinson of the Indians that this was the 
bat that Ruth used." 

And finally, what the exuberant 
Halper describes as "the greatest 
coup — 'a find' — -quote, un- 
quote!" It came about ten years ago 
when a visitor to New York phoned 
Halper after seeing him on a local sports 
program. "Years ago this guy had 
moved into a house in Riverdale, New 
York, once owned by Jacob Ruppert, 
the owner of the Yankees, " Halper says. 
"This guy sells the house and moves to 
Florida. Fifteen years later, another guy 
buys Ruppert's old house and finds a 
box in the attic and sends it to the guy 
who called me. I meet him, and the box 
contains Ruppert's records. There are 
letters from Harry Frazee of the Red 
Sox, who sold Ruth to the Yankees; 
there are Babe Ruth contracts and hand- 
written letters from Ruth to Ruppert." 
With such a mother lode, could Hal- 
per wish for anything more? Yes! Yes! 
The St. Louis Browns uniform, bearing 
the number 1/8, that the midget Eddie 
Gaedel wore after Bill Veeck sent him 
up to pinch-hit. Gaedel walked on four 
pitches. It was the midget's only appear- 
ance at bat, because he was ruled ineligi- 
ble. Three years ago, Halper thought he 
was about to get this smallest of uni- 
forms, which looms so large in his 
mind, but no. "It never panned out. I 
hope it's around somewhere. Boy, what 
a great thing to have!" D 

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el car. Wild as the car is, it represents 
nothing that could not be made accord- 
ing to the specs tor the Mazda 2 + 2 
package. "We coulcl wake this car," 
Matano says enthusiastically- "This is 
the bold design we must have." 

If Nick Pugh is the designer who is 
destined to deliver the new Cor- 
vette, another student at the Art 
Center, Dean Robinson, is the designer 
who will give us the Corvette powered 
by the sun. He represents the other con- 
cern of the car world: extremely practi- 
cal solutions. Car design is at a fork in 
the roaci. At a time in which sniog on the 
vast web of the Los Angeles freeways is 
so bad it looks like a third-rate special 
effect, the need for smaller, cleaner 
automobiles is drastic. And students 
here are under pressure to develop 
designs tor cars that are simultaneously 
powerful and environmentally safe. 

"Dean has a very sophisticated idea 
about the future of the automobile," 
says a former instructor. "He knows the 
real world. He's actually hiiilt cars." 
Robinson, who practiced karate com- 
petitively, worked before going to 
school at building custom limousines 
and AMCj Mercedeses, along with a stint 
asjane Fonda's bodyguard. At age twen- 
ty-eight, he decided to do what he felt he 
had always done best: ciesign cars. 

And one he would like to construct 
now is the Manta trike, a three-wheeled 
commuter vehicle designed around a 
pod resembling a sleekly pregnant man- 
ta ray — a ray that could serve as a com- 
muter car occupying 50 percent less 
space on Los Angeles freeways and 
designed to lock into a high-velocity, 
trainlike track, where it could speed 
long distances at 300 mph. "Construc- 
tion of the track would be easy, " Robin- 
son says. "Even in impacted areas, 
where horizontal real estate is expen- 
sive, vertical real estate is free. You 
could run whole tracked tiers, coming 
and going down the middle of any Los 
Angeles freeway." 

Robinson's idea already has its enthu- 
siasts. Says Tim Lawrence, principal 
designer of Disney's new Tomorrow- 
land, "It's very feasible, the kind of sys- 
tem we have to have in the very near 

Tom Matano, back at his Mazda 
headcjuarters, slides a coded card into a 
computer lock under a sign reading, 
RESTRICn.n AULA NO UNAUI I K )l<l/,l.l ) 

ADMHTANCIE. "A car is the closest thing 
to a machine with a soul that there is. 
People love the heat and smell ot cars. 
They think of a cherished car as almost 
living. A car you love doesn't leak; it 
bleeds. But cars lost their emotion. 
Before we designed the Miata we 
looked at the world and asked, 'What 
are we missing?' Our answer was, 'Not 
much.' Even the Ferrari was no longer 
so much emotional as scientific." He 
laughs. "It started making too much 
sense! Too logical! It was becoming a 
brain ciecision to buy a Ferrari — what's 
the resale value? what's the insurance? — 
not a heart decision." 

Matano, who is as enthusiastic about 
practical solutions as he is about wild, 
emotional cars, picks up a picture of 
Dean Robinson's Manta trike. "When I 
was in school, traffic was the problem I 
disliked most. Commuter cars are right 
tor the environment, right tor society, 
right for traffic jams, but who the hell 
wants to own one? But this is a solu- 
tion" — he points to the trike — "because 
it is exciting." 

"What I would like," Matano contin- 
ues, "is to go back to the tradition of 
Duesenberg and Cord, where you offer 
a chassis and engine, and then the cus- 
tomer goes to any number of coach 
builders and has his own body put on. 
You see" — he turns to me — "during the 
thirties, forties, and fifties, the Ameri- 
cans were the leaders in design. Wrap- 
around windshields, tail fins — Ameri- 
cans had it. Lost it." 

Perhaps, but the American auto- 
makers are coming back strong. 
"We're in a game of winning," 
C^huckjordan, GM's design chief, says, 
"not just catching up." Witness the 
recent success of the new Pontiac Trans- 
port, the Ben Salvador-designed Ca- 
price, and the stunning project cars like 
the Cadillac Voyage. He paints GM 
ready to deliver "new, distinctive, emo- 
tional, focused'' automobiles: "We want 
a Cadillac that's a Cadillac, a Buick 
that's a Buick. You look at it and smell 
and see Buick. " 

His son, Mark Jordan, a top graduate 
in the class of 1978, however, looked at 
CM and smelled bureaucracy. "I 
worked at (jM tor over tour years. And 
tile problem wasn't that there wasn't 
enough talent there; it was that there 
was too much. The Japanese tavor a 
much more one-on-one approach to de- 

sign. The secret of the Miata was that we 
just did it — no paint shop, no commit- 
tees, no nothing. There's a saying here: 
Be caretul what you draw because 
somebody might build it." 

Not so, counters his tatiier; design 
alone is not enough. "I told Mark, 
'You'll grow old and gray there.' " 
That the Japanese rarely put Americans 
in a high executive position is a senti- 
ment echoed by the Hollywood creative 
designer Jacques Rey: "Thejapanese are 
as racist as we are." 

Nick Pugh and Dean Robinson talk 
about end-running the whole corporate 
dratt by setting up their own design stu- 
dio. "Designers don't have any power 
because they say they don't have any 
power," says Pugh. "But in Europe, 
designers like Bertoni and Giugiaro all 
design independently of the big corpo- 
rations." Pugh's goals are simple. "I 
want to bp intluential in a big way 
quickly. I want my name on a car." D 

^^ Mark Christeiiseii is writitK^ a hook. 
Dream Machine, about the future of the 
Aiiu'iican autouiobile industry. 

Muscle Cars 
(Continued from pa'i^e 121) 

death knell had sounded. 

They are not likely to return, al- 
though the original idea of muscle has 
resurfaced of late in the guise of the 
"sleeper" car, the car that runs taster 
than it looks. A notable example is the 
Super High Output model, which Ford 
ofters for its tamily-style Taurus. Hard- 
ly any external ditTerences will tip otT 
the guy beside you at the stoplight. The 
irony of the muscle car's tate is that its 
most lasting contribution to main- 
stream automobile design has been less 
one of power than one of beauty; its 
descendants are tast-looking cars, not 
fast cars. 

Meantime, keep an eye out as you 
drive. Maybe the owner of that beat-up 
Mercury Cougar Eliminator parked in a 
driveway, or the retired salesman with 
the GTO — maybe they do not know 
what they have. Maybe you can buy it, 
fix it up, and return to a simpler time 
when you were young, and America 
was nt)t yet old, either. II 

^^ Phil Patlon, (H/r/zor o/'Open Road: A 
C Celebration of the American High- 
way, is U'orkinii on a hook ahout desi{^n. 



PICTURE SOURCES: Page 9: (top left) Photo. 
Michael Gciger; (bottom left) photo, Markjcnkin- 
son; (center) Edgar Degas, Le Ballet, 1880; medium, 
gouache on fan-shaped silk; size, 7'':" x 23^ k"; 
courtesy Philippe Bramc, Bernard Lorenceau Clal- 
lery. Pans; (top right) photo. Ken Probst/Outinie; 
stylist, Suzanne Rubin; hair and makeup, Dawn 
Sutti; location, the Etrusca; (bottom right) Funerary 
Figure, eighth to sixth century b c ; medium, jadc; 
size, 8 cm; provenance. La Vcnta; figure, courtesy 
Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes/lnsti- 
tuto Nacional de Antropologi'a e Historia, Musco 
Nacional Je Antropologi'a, Mexico City; photo, 
Michel Zabe, courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, N.Y.C. Page 30: (top left) Andre Derain, Port 
de Peche, Collioure, 1905; medium, oil on canvas; 
size, 32'/i6" X 39-''«"; (top right) Man Ray, The Red 
Badge of Courage; medium, photographic print with 
color added during the offset printing process; pub- 
lished in Harper's Bazaar, February 1937; (bottom 
left) George III mahogany dining chair in the man- 
ner of Thomas Chippendale. Page 31: (top left) 
Henri Matisse, Woman in Blue Bodice (det3i\), 1935; 
medium, oil on canvas; size, 18" x 13"; (center) 
Artist Unknown, one of a pair of statues of Kichijo- 
ten (detail), Japanese, Heian period; medium, wood 
with polychrome and cut leaf. Page 42: (top) Marcel 
Duchamp, Ready-Made Girl unlh Bedstead (Apolmere 
Enameled), 1916-17; medium, painted tin; size, 9'/k" 
X 13''k"; (bottom) medium, silk and natural dye- 
stuffs; size, 63'':" x 45'':". Page 52: Model, Sylvie; 
dress, gray flannel wool; bolero, wool lined in gray 
taffeta; Peter O'Brien for Rochas. Page 70: Date, 
1957; medium, gelatin silver print; size, 9'/»" x 
12''/i6". Page 74: Photo, Ken Probst/Outline. Page 
80: Photo, J. Ross Baughman/Visions. Page 94: 
(top) Manuel de Velasco, Archangel, 1685; medium, 
gilded and polychromed wood; size, 120 cm x 65 
cm; courtesy Secretaria de Desarollo Urbano y Eco- 
logi'a, Catedral Mctropolitana, Mexico City; (bot- 
tom) Lidded Vessel (Hunchback), tenth to sixth cen- 
tury B.C.; medium, ceramic; size, 36 cm; courtesy 
Instituto de Cultura de Tabasco, Direccion de Patri- 
monio Cultural, Museo Regional de Antropologi'a, 
Carlos Pellicer Camara, Villahermosa; photo, Mi- 
chel Zabe. Page 95: Jose de Alci'bar, Sor Maria Ignacia 
de la Sangre, ca. 1777; medium, oil on canvas; size, 
180 cm x 109.2 cm; courtesy Consejo Nacional para 
la Cultura y las Artes/Instituto Nacional de Antro- 
pologi'a e Historia, Museo Nacional de Historia, 
Mexico City; photo, Gerardo Suter, Lourdes Al- 
meida. Page 97: Jose Clemente Orozco, Pancho I 'il- 
ia, 1931; medium, oil on canvas; size, 61 cm x 49.5 
cm; courtesy Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las 
Artes/Instituto de Bellas Artes, Museo de Arte 
Alvar y Carmen T. de Carillo Gil, Mexico City; 
photo, Salvador Lutteroth, Jesus Sanchez Uribe. 
Page 98: (top left) Stemberg, Portrait of Madame 
Walska, 1912; medium, oil on canvas; size, 42" x 
69". Page 126: (top) Tournai, Les I'endanges, fif- 
teenth-century tapestry; size, 288 cm x 304 cm; 
courtesy Galerie Bernard Blondccl, Antwerp; (cen- 
ter) Masse d'Or, 1285-1314, courtesy Emile Bour- 
gey, Paris; (bottom) Celestial Globe, Christophe 
Schissler; Internal Mechanism, Johann Reinhold, 
1582; medium, bronze; size, 50 cm high; courtesyj. 
Kugel Antiquaires, Paris. Page 127: Tulips, Peonies, 
Poppies, Roses, Hyacinths, Marigolds, Auricolae, a 
Cortiflower, a Passion Flower, Ajrican Marigolds, and 
Other Flowers in a Glass P\ise with Beetles, a Grasshop- 
per, and Other Insects on a Stone Ledge, 1750; medium, 
oil on canvas; size, 34^/k" x 26^/«"; courtesy 
Newhouse Galleries, N.Y.C. Page 128: (top) Eastern 
Fairy Tale (Love Couple); size, 137 cm x 158 cm; 
courtesy Pieter Hoogendijk, Holland; (center left) 
size, 89 cm x 45 cm x 47 cm; courtesy Yves Mikae- 
loff, Paris; (center) Sanwala, riie Painter and the 
Horse, 1585; medium, gouache on paper; size, 11.8 
cm X 16.7 cm; courtesy Art Musulman Antiquities, 
Paris; (bottom) size, 27.5" high x 35.5" wide x 21" 
deep; courtesy Galerie Gismondi, Paris. Page 129: 
Necklace, courtesy Martin du Daffoy, Paris. Page 
148: (top) Edward Anthony, Andrew Jackson, 1845; 
medium, half-plate daguerreotype; size, 5'/^" x 
4'/2"; gift of William Macbeth Clallcry; (bottom left) 
attributed to Mathcw Brady, Winfield Scott, ca. 
1848; medium, half-plate daguerreotype; size, 5'':" 
X 4'U"; gift of William Macbeth Clallery; (bottom 
right) Unknown Photographer, Vnidentiped Siller, 
ca. 1840s; medium, quarter-plate daguerreotype; 
size, 4'/4" X 3'/4"; gift of William Macbeth Gallery. 
Page 149: Philip Haas, /i)/i» Quincy Adams, ca. 1843; 
medium, half-plate daguerreotype; size, 5''2" x 
4'/:"; gift of William Macbeth Gallery. Page 1.50: 
(top left) Arnold Genthe, Greta Garho, ca. 1920s; 
medium, gelatin silver print; size, 13''2" x 10"; (top 
right) George Hurrell, Greta Garbo, from Romance, 
1930; medium, gelatin silver print; size, 16" x 20"; 
(bottom left) GrcM Garho, 1932; medium, gelatin sil- 
ver print; size, 11" x 14"; from Garho Portjolios, 
Original Photos, 1929-31, published by Edward 
Weston Fine Art, Northridge, Calif 

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Nothing but the Best 
(Continued from pag^e 128) 

from 1460. But his most moving pieces 
are a haunting love letter to Alfred de 
Vigny from his mistress, the actress 
Marie d'Orval ($700), and a passionate 
love letter from the young Napoleon to 
a Mademoiselle Anna. The future em- 
peror is careless about his spelhng but 
careful not to sign his name ($55,000). 

If you are interested in drawings — 
from Bandinelli to Vuillard — and in 
prints — from Diirer to Rembrandt 
to Whistler — the place to go in Paris is 
Paul Proute S.A. The gallery has them 
by the thousands, classified by artist, by 
subject, by period; and the prices begin 
at twenty dollars. Not surprisingly, at 
the Biennale, where exhibitors will be 
paying rent at $1,036 per square meter, 
Hubert Proute's stand will display sub- 
stantially more expensive things. His 
pride is a Degas pastel landscape for 
$120,000, and he has a landscape etching 
by Rembrandt for $70,000. 

Muslim and Indian arts are not wildly 
popular among American collectors, 
despite the broad range, from splendid- 
ly colored pottery to subtle, refined 
miniature illustrations that can put to 
shame work done in the same period in 
Europe. This year, the Paris dealer Jean 
Soustiel plans to show only miniatures, 
including a 1585 gouache on paper of 
the artist Sanwala and his horse, priced 
at $100,000, and a sumptuous eigh- 
teenth-century Mughal wedding minia- 
ture in the same medium of Prince Dara 
Shokuh on a blue horse, offered at 

Art, in addition to delighting our 
senses, often summons up half-forgot- 
ten history lessons. At the stand of the 
Antwerp dealer Bernard Blondeel, a 
twelfth-century ivory box, painted in a 
Sicilian-Arabic style and priced at 
$100,000, reminds us that there were 
centuries when the followers of Mu- 
hammad led the world in the arts and 
science. On a different note, Blondeel 
also has a fifteenth-century wool-and- 
silk Tournai tapestry. It depicts a grape 
harvest and wine pressing and will be 
offered at $400,000. 

The increasing number of American 
collectors of art deco, art nouveau, and 
Wiener Werkstatte will rejoice in Paris. 
The Galerie jean-Jacques Dutko is to 
show a six-panel 1 925 lacquer screen by 
Jean Dunand for $250,000 and a 1930 
black-lacquer desk by Eugene Printz. 
For those who think of tapestries only in 

terms of long ago, the Galerie Pieter 
Hoogendijk's Wiener Werkstatte tapes- 
try will come as a surprise. It is dated 
1919, signed by Edmund Dulac, and 
pictures a lovemaking couple in an 
imaginary Oriental garden. 

There is only one exception in the 
Biennale's rules about how old the "an- 
tique" objects on display must be. It is 
for jewelry. Top jewelers, including 
Bulgari, Van Cleef & Arpels, Maubous- 
sin, and Boucheron, show stunning 
contemporary jewelry. Perhaps more 
interesting for collectors are the older 
pieces offered by such jewelers as the 
Societe Balian, Castiglione, Martin du 
Daffoy, and Bruno Pepin. These are the 
stands where you are likely to find 
signed pieces by such heavy hitters as 
Georges Fouquet, Lacloche, and 
Frederic Boucheron. Du Daffoy will 
offer, for $70,000, a 1900 Cartier plati- 
num, gold, diamond, and pear-shaped- 
Columbian-emerald necklace; it is 
called a neglige because of the studiedly 
negligent way that the diamond-and- 
platinum bow is tied. 

"We must give our visitors sur- 
prises," says Yves Mikaeloff, the Bien- 
nale's president, and the grand show 
does just that. Visitors will find trea- 
sures they did not expect: Mikaeloff is 
offering at $28,000 an armchair made in 
1903 and signed by Leonjallot; it antici- 
pates the architect-designed furniture of 
the modernist movement. 

The show offers dealers a way to 
combat the increasing power of 
the auction houses. The anti- 
quaires know that sellers favor auctions 
because auction catalogs are often seen 
by more potential buyers than come to 
the galleries of even the most famous 
dealers. Nonetheless, by the time the 
Biennale closes, more than 300,000 men 
and women eager to buy a work of art 
will have attended the exhibition, and 
over $2 million in tickets will have been 
sold. That is a lot of people — and a good 
reason for the Biennale's sponsors to 
make a special effort to cater to them. 
The advice from this reporter is, thus, to 
head for Paris. The show alone is worth 
the trip. D 

The Biennale, at the Grand Palais from Fri- 
day, September 21 , to Sunday, October?, is 
open six days a week from eleven A.M. to 
eleven P.M. and on Sundays from ten A.M. to 
eight i>.M. The entrance fre is 60 francs. 

Coups des Antiquaires 

The world's best antiques fairs are made up 
of great dealers — who arc, by definition, 
successful, self-employed, fiercely indepen- 
dent capitalists. To each of them, the only 
rule worth following is his or her whim. 
Objective rules — rules that apply across the 
board — arc absolutely necessary in order for 
a big antiques show to function. Clashes 
between the individual stars and the show 
organizers thus seem all but inevitable. And 
indeed, each of the major antiques shows has 
a history of breakaway movements. 

The first revolution was in London, 
where a group of important dealers quit the 
annual Grosvenor House antiques fair in 
1979 to start up a competitive, every-other- 
year Burlington House show. A similar 
thing happened in Paris in 1986, when six of 
the preeminent dealers left the Biennale; in 
1988, they staged a rival show in the Baga- 
telle, di folic on the outskirts of Paris. Then, 
last year in New York, a group of major 
American dealers, angry at the way Mario 
Buatta, a leading interior decorator, was 
running the Winter Antiques Show, orga- 
nized their own show, called the Interna- 
tional Antique Dealers Show, in September. 
(This year it will run October 5-10.) 

Like many other would-be reformers, the 
insurrectionist antiques dealers tend not to 
have as much staying power as the establish- 
ment. Earlier this year, the rebellious Lon- 
don dealers rejoined the Grosvenor fair, 
much to everybody's benefit. In Paris, the 
Biennale suddenly and unceremoniously 
dumped its chairman of the last five years, 
the patient, principled dealer Philippe 
Brame, and replaced him with Philippe 
Kraemer, one of Paris's top eighteenth-cen- 
tury antiquaires. That was clearly a first step 
in assuaging the six rebels, and their leader, 
Maurice Segoura, told Connoisseur, "We 
will definitely be back in the Biennale in 1992 
and make a bigger boom than ever." 

Only the New Yorkers remain in flagrant 
revolt, though the object of their attack, 
Mario Buatta, seems to be impcrturbably in 
command. One reason is that he is a con- 
summate politician who has kept the 
backing of both dealers and patrons. Anoth- 
er is that his timing is good. New York's 
September show, unlike Buatta's, overlaps 
with the Paris Biennale, putting a severe 
strain on any dealers who might be in both. 
If one were to bet on the outcome, the smart 
money would be on the winter show's con- 
tinuing — alone. — L. H. 

^^ Leon Harris is a frequent contributor to 
this magazine. 



S A N G A L L O 
(Continued from pa^c 141) 

way was for the Madonna di San Biag- 
io, a major piece of work. The edifice 
was supposed to replace a ruined parish 
church where, in the spring of 1518. a 
miracle had taken place: a stone carving 
of the Blessed Virgin, half-hidden by 
bushes and fallen masonry, was discov- 
ered to have supernatural powers. One 
day. two passing servant girls noticed 
that the image was blinking; several 
days later, it blinked at a plowman, 
whose oxen piously genutlected. 
Townsfolk with chronic afflictions be- 
sought the statue's aid. with encourag- 
ing results, and before long the old ruin 
became a place of pilgrimage. 

Since the original basilica had been 
dedicated to San Biagio (Saint 
Blaise), the new structure was to 
be named in honor of the "Madonna di 
San Biagio." Construction was initiated 
in the same year but dragged on until 
midcentury. Antonio never saw his de- 
sign fully realized, for he died in 1534. 

One of the chief aims of the architects 
of the day was to fit the perfection and 
symmetry of ancient Roman building to 
the needs of Christian worship. An 
interest arose in finding the stylistically 
purest way to place a classical dome 
over that part of the standard, cross- 
shaped church where the transept inter- 
sects the nave. One solution, proposed 
by Michelangelo in an unused plan tor 
St. Peter's, in the Vatican, was to set the 
dome over the center of a Greek cross — 
a cross with four equal arms — thereby 
creating a plan symmetrical through 
both axes. At Prato, north of Montepul- 
ciano, Giuliano da Sangallo had built a 
"temple" like this; another had been 
erected by Bramante on the Janiculum. 
in Rome. Their visual syntax reappears, 
little altered, in San Biagio. 

If the design of San Biagio is so un- 
original, why is it so good? Part ot the 
answer has to do with Sangallo's elastic 
treatment of the building type he bor- 
rowed — how he pushed and pulled the 
domed-temple form this way and that 
until its masses were perfectly propor- 
tioned — and part of the answer has to do 
with siting and materials. San Biagio 
sits on an eminence high enough to raise 
it above its surroundings but low 
enough to throw it into relief against the 
backdrop of the hill of Montepulciano. 
It is like a diamond in a setting; trom 
whichever direction the sun shines, cer- 
tain of its facets will glitter. 

The site, of course, was not Sangal- 
lo's idea, but then San Biagio, like a lot 
ot great architecture, is a product of tra- 
dition and collaboration. Sangallo was 
also tortunate in having plentv of gor- 
geous, honey-colored travertine stone 
at his disposal, but his decision to make 
it the unique element in the tacing of the 
building was unusually strong-minded: 
it makes for a structure that was all of a 
piece. And his travertine has worn beau- 
tifully. Still fresh in texture and hue. it 
has kept a mysterious hint of gold. 

Sangallo apparently felt that any 
domed building must satisfy several de- 
sign requirements. First, the drum, di- 
rectly under the cupola, should suggest 
all the power necessary to support it. 
but not much more; otherwise the 
cupola would look flippant, like a skull- 
cap dropped on a massive stone block. 
Second, the dome should rise out ot this 
structure with a soaring articulation 
clearly visible trom the ground; where it 
does not. as in St. Peter's, it appears to 
hover at an indeterminate distance and 
to sink as we approach it. 

The architect deserves much credit, 
too, for leaving the walls of his temple 
virtually undecorated; they have all the 
serene sobriety of Roman antiquity. 
Only the corners have pilasters, to sug- 
gest a little reinforcement. The simple 
Doric capitals are the only major carved 
decorations on the fagades; at certain 
hours they play gracefully with the out- 
lines of the shadows cast by the massive 
frowning cornices, a wonderful feature 
adopted from medieval Tuscan archi- 
tecture. Because there are no fussy carv- 
ings under them or spiky ornaments 
over them, they throw great, dignified 
patterns of shadow. At the rear ot the 
church, Sangallo added a semicircular 
apse, whose noble curve prepares our 
eve for the arc of the dome without 
breaking the coherence of the temple's 
elevations. Though his plan provided 
San Biaiiio with twin towers, onlv one 
was actually built, a satisfying campani- 
le whose triple order was cribbed from 
Raphael's drawings for St. Peter's. I su.s- 
pect that the other campanile was never 
constructed because people realized, in- 
tuitively, that it was not needed. A sin- 
gle tower offered a clearer emblem of 
spiritual aspiration. 

Inside the church, simple Doric col- 
umns rise almost straight from the 
floor, man-scale yet massive. I used to 
think that the hght in here was rather too 


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S A N G A L L O 
(Continued from paj^e 167) 

dim, but on a recent visit I changed my 
mind. Snicc most of the arches in the 
drum are blind and could have been 
pierced, Sangallo must have wanted this 
diffuse illumination, this elegiac Hght. 

Several decades after the completion 
of San Biagio, all building of Greek- 
cross churches in Italy ceased. Several 
existing ones were pulled down. Peo- 
ple — especially the clergy — said that the 
idea was essentially pagan. Christian 
worship demanded an orientation to- 
ward a high altar, whereas the biaxially 
symmetrical temple seemed to imply a 
sort of democracy of space — far better 
suited to a senate house or a library than 
to a house of prayer. 

I believe that Sangallo refuted such 
criticism at San Biagio. Largely be- 
cause of its muted Hght, his temple 
does have a dominant orientation, 
which is KJ2' toward the lantern on high. 
Whenever an architect draws a square 
on the ground, places a dome over it, 
and lets down light through a lantern at 
the zenith of the dome, he is well on his 
way to consecrating the point at the 
center of the square on the ground. The 
Romans knew this and erected such 
domes directly over funerary altars. 
For this reason I do not think it too 
fanciful to regard the Madonna di San 
Biagio as a symbolic sepulcher for the 
Virgin, in which visual analogues to 
entombment and ascension all play their 
part. At the same time, the very stones 
of this church, in their mathematical 
perfection, affirm what many people 
have denied: that secular humanism and 
Christian spirituality can be brought 
into absolute harmony. D 

Visiting Montepulciano 

Montepulciano can easily be reached by bus 
from Siena or Chianciano Termc, or by cut- 
ting off the Florence-Rome stretch of the 
A-1 highway at Chianciano Terme. The 
hotel II Marzocco, at 18 Piazza Savonarola, 
Montepulciano 53045, Siena (phone: 0578 
757262), is pretty, clean, and inexpensive 
and has lovely views. The most reputable 
local trattoria is La Diva. Splendid panoramas 
may be enjoyed on the way to the stately 
nearby hill town of Pienza. (While there, 
have a meal at Dal Falco.) Note: Montepul- 
ciano (Siena) should not be confused with 
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo. 

2^ DiVi Hofstadtcr has hoohs on art and lit- 
erary love affairs forthcoming^ from Knopf. 




Home Furnishings 
Shopping Guide 

Gallo Design: "liitarsia ' dinner pl.ito. bone china, |l)''2". 5- 
pieee place setting. SlSll. Villeriiy *> lioch Creation, 'J74 
Madison Avenue. New York; Pentagon Cilv hashion (Cen- 
ter. Washington. I)C;., ,VW North Rodeo i)rive. Heverlv 
Hills Christopher Hyland: ■•C:heriibs" #BSlll2, linen and 
cotton, S7H/yard. Representatives can be contacted through 
C^hristopher Hvland Incorporated, ^)7*) I'hird Avenue, Suite 
1714, New York, NY 1(1022, (212) (.HH-(,121 . Pacina: ■■(■..n- 
tessa" chaise longue, in grigu>, as shown, or black; .ipproxi- 
niate price witht)iit labric ot choice. S4,7*J(1. Margo Messic 
('■allery, I'alni Ucach; Danipierre and C'oinpjiiy. New York; 
Kneedler-Fauchcre Inc. (to the trade only), San Francisco 
Design CA-nter; I'atina Inc., .^51 I'eachtree Hills Avenue, Nh, 
Atlanta, GA 30305, (KOO) (i3.S-4365. Brunschwig & Fils: 
"Rock Garden" cotton print lor both draperies and upholste- 
ry, all cotton, 55"; "Palampore" stripe cotton print, draperv 
border and tiebacks, all cotton, 55"; "Palampore" panel, 
extracted ^nd nuiunted at right, all cotton, S^' 2" \ 55"; 
"Brittany" sofa, S7,4()5. liruiischwig ^ Fils. ')7'; I liird Ave- 
nue, New York, NY I(HI22, Grange: "MctallK|ue" ciueen 
canopy bed, approximate retail price, $3, l')5 Grange Furni- 
ture Inc., C^hicago; San Francisco; Dania, FU>ritla; 2(K) Lex- 
ington Avenue. New York, NY lOOU), (212) (>S5-')().57. 
Christine Van Der Hurd: "Earth" UK) percent hand-tulted 
wool rug, 6'x ')'. $3,600. Modern Age, New York; Driade, 
New Yt)rk; Postmark, San Francisco. JefTco: "Twig" table, 
by John Mascherom, wrought iron, 14" diameter x 21':" 
height, S7'W. Jet'tco, 1 North liroadwav. White Plains, NY 
106II1, (<)14)()K2-0307. Dakota Jackson: "C;uba" club chair, 
leather and bronze, S4,75S, to the trade only. Dakota |ackson 
Inc., 306 East 61st Street. New York, NY l(KI21, (212) S.W- 
'M44, Chase Ltd.: "Winter Game Birds" porcelain platter 
and bowl. S.575, S425. Scully & Scully, New York; Geary's, 
Beverly Hills; Maier & Berkele, Atlanta; C;hase Ltd , PC), 
Box 1IS2. Ridgetield, C:T 06H77, (HOO) 22')-'J'JO'). John 
Widdicomb: "Russian" screen, Karelian birch and walnut 
trim, four panels, 22''4" width .x 7K" height, each panel; 
approximate retail price, $5.51 K), including fabric. Grcen- 
bauni Interiors, Patcrson, N.J.; Cllabman Furniture, Los 
Angeles; John Widdicomb Company, 601 Fifth Street, NW, Rapids, Ml 49.504, (616) 459-7173. Henredon: 
"Shields Town House" bed, mahogany, 53,490 (canopy 
extra). Glabman Furniture, Los Angeles; Hurwitz-Mintz, 
New Orleans; Cabot House. Haverliill, Mass.; Henredon 
Furniture, P.O. Box 70, Morgaiiton, Nt; 2H655, (KOO) 444- 
MiH2. Kindel Furniture: "New Orleans" armoire, a Wiii- 
terthur reproduction, mahogany, $9,800. Marshall Field's. 
Chicago; Glabman Furniture. Los Angeles; C'lassic Galleries. 
Long Island; Kindel Furniture, P.O. Box 2047. Grand Rap- 
ids, MI 49.501, (616) 24,V.V.76. Kosta Boda: "Wind Pipes" 
vases, by Bertil Vallien, lead crystal, 17':", $l.'iO, 10", $H5. 
Macy's California, San Francisco; Orrefors Crystal Gallery, 
5H East .57th Street, New York, NY 10022, (212) 753-.5442 
Patterson, Flynn & Martin: "L'Afrique Fleur" carpet, IIH) 
percent wool face. 3'3" width. Form III, Dallas; Patterson, 
Flvnn &. Martin Inc. C^hicago; 979 1 hird Aventie, New 
York, NY 10022, (212) 6KH-7700, Donehia: "(;host" tub 
chair, S2,667. Donghia Furniture li^ Textiles, 4H5 Broadway, 
New York. NY Uioi3, (800) DON-GHIA. Grey Watkins: 
"CJIoire dc la Mcr" linen and cotton fabric, 50" width. $128/ 
yard; "Sanibel" cotton fabric. 52" width. $112/yard. (irev 
Watkins Ltd.. 979 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022, 
(212) 371-2333. Spode: "Fruit and Flower" plates, fine bone 
china. 9", $85 each, Spode, 41 Madison Avenue, New 
York, NY 10010, (212) 68.V7I.10. Baker: Chest-on-chest by 
Ptister, of primavera, $2,738. Bloomingdale's, New York; 
Richard Honquest, Barnngton, 111.; John Brenner Co., 
Northern California; Baker Furniture, 917 Merchandise 
Mart, Chicago, II 606.54, (312) .129-9410, Jack Lcnor Lar- 
sen: "Brighton" fabric, 1(NI percent cotton, 55" width; 
approximate retail price, under $100/yard. Jack Lcnor Lar- 
sen. Sales S. Marketing Dept., 41 East llth Street, New 
York, NY 10003, (212) 674-.W93. Fonthill: "Paradiso India- 
no" cotton fabric in lodeii, 55" width, $l35/yard. Kncedler- 
Fauchere Inc., Los Angeles; Nicholas Karas Associates, (Chi- 
cago; Marion-Kent Ltd., Washington, D.C.; Fonthill Ltd , 
578 Nepperhan Avenue, Yonker's, NY 10701, (914) .176- 
2(K)0. Greenbautn: "C^harles X" chair, French fruit-wood 
finish, $2,450 (upholstered). Greenbaum Interiors, 101 
Washington Street, Patcrson, NJ 07505, (201) 279-3000. 
Century: "Petworth " gilt console table, marble top, wood 
with gesso-ornamented base; approximate price, $2,688 tor 
gold metal leaf C'entury Showroom. Htniston; Hurwitz- 
Mmtz, New Orleans; Arleiie Golub Interiors, Rockville, 
Md.; Century Furniture C'onipanv, P.O. Box 608, Hickorv. 
NC 28603, (8(K)) 852-5552, Palazzetti: Sofa by Jasper Mor- 
rison, S3, 475. Exclusively through Palazzetti, 515 Madison 
Avenue, New York, NY HK)22. (212) 8.12-1199. Gien: 
"Once upon a Time" faience plates, 2 of a set of 6, $2lKl. 
Lucy Zahran, Southcoast Plaza, C^alif ; Borsheims, Omaha; 
Baccarat, 625 Madison Avenue, New York. NY 10022. 
(212) 826-4100. Boussac: "Montrose" hnen. rayon, and cot- 
ton fabric, 59" width; approximate price, $l40/vard, Bous- 
sac of France, 979 Third Avenue, New York. NY 10022. 
(212) 421-05.14. Donghia: "Anziano" chair, birch veneer. 
$442. Donghia showrooms in New York; Dania; Los 
Angeles; Donghia Furniture & Textiles, 485 Broadway, 
New York, nV 1001,1, (8(K)) l)C)N-GHIA. Asmara: "Em- 
pire" needlepoint rug, 100 percent wool, approximate retail 
price, $5,000, Stark C:arpet, New York, Asmara, 451 D 
Street. Boston. MA 02210. (800) 451-7240, Howard Mil- 
ler: "Beacon Hill Limited Edition" grandfather cKuk. 91" 
height X 27" width x 17'/:" depth, $'8,000. Howard Miller 
CMock Company, 860 East Main Avenue, Zecland, Ml 
49464, (616) 772-9131, Photo credits; Brunschwig ^ Fils, 
Peter Vitalc; Dakota Jackson Inc., Eddie C^eonick; hat, cour- 
tesy Patricia Underwood; gloves, courtesy La Crasia Cre- 
ations, Inc.; photographs by Elizabeth Zeschin, styled by 
Kim Freeman and Jamie Lustberg. shot on location at Puck 
Studios, New York, NY. 



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PICTURE SOURCES on page 165. 

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i; ;ind \\ist, Ihc k,sli\~.ll,s, the Nir> its, the .si>;ht>. 

Not to UK iiiion the thoiisiiuK upon ihoiisanjN th;ii say "rc.siM mc ilyou can!" 

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That Getty kouros — morc unanswered questions 

By Thomas Hoving 

In an act of no little cour- 
age, the Getty Museum an- 
nounced on Friday, July 6, 
that its prized sixth-century 
B.C. athlete, or kouros, had 
been taken off exhibition and 
sent back to the lab for further 
art-historical and scientific 
tests, owing to fresh new 
doubts about its authenticity. 
According to the antiquities 
curator Marion True, a mod- 
ern torso has surfaced in 
Switzerland made out of the 
same stone, possibly from the 
same quarry, as the Malibu 
boy. The two statues, True 
said, have more in common 
with each other than with any 
kouros of indisputable authen- 
ticity in Greece. In 1984 the 
museum carried out a battery 
of scientific tests, which the 
Getty said proved conclusively 
and positively that its marble 
kouros could not have been 
aged artificially. The Getty 
now says that these tests are 
"not valid." 

I am not surprised. Back in 
the spring of 1986, I heard that 
the kouros was fake from one 
of the world's leading "fake- 
busters," in Rome. When I 
saw the kouros being prepared 
for exhibition, I was con- 
vinced. The huge thing incor- 
porated a jumble of styles, had 
a strange, homogenous sur- 
face, and did not look old at 
all. After stating my opinion 
in print, I caught hell. Apollo 
magazine roasted me; so did 
Vanity Fair and Spy. Art & 
Antiques called my charge a 
"slushy snowball." 

I still think the thing is a 
phony, and I believe the Getty 
finally knows it is, too. But 
that's really not the point. The 
point is that almost everything 
about the Getty kouros is 
tainted, including the curious 
response by high Getty offi- 
cials to allegations (to put it 
mildly) of wrongdoing. 

Here's the story: The kou- 
ros was discovered back in 


983 by the Getty's 
former antiquities cu- 
rator Jiri Frel, who 
eventually was ousted 
because he violated 
the musuem's prac- 
tices involving dona- 
tions. (Frel, we 
should remember, 
was the same charac- 
ter who engineered 
the purchase of a 
fourth-century B.C. 
I j head by Skopas and 

I §3- sixth-century At- 

V I tic relief representing^ 

\ J a Greek hero, both of 
which were later rec- 
ognized to be fake.) It 
took a while for the 
trustees finally to ap- 
prove buying the kou- 
ros. It was presented 
to the board by Frel 
initially at $12 mil- 
lion. When a trustee, 
Federico Zeri, one of 
J. Paul Getty's early art 
advisers, objected violent- 
ly that the kouros was a 
phony, the purchase was put 
on the back burner. The sec- 
ond time it was proposed, it 
had a price tag of $9.9 million. 
Once again the purchase 
stalled. Then Zeri was per- 
suaded by the museum's presi- 
dent, Harold Williams, to 
leave the board, and in January 
1985 the kouros was at last 
bought, at a price reported to 
be around $7 million. The cu- 
rator who argued on behalf of 
the purchase was Frel's succes- 
sor, the acting curator of 
antiquities, Arthur Houghton. 
The knowledge of antiqui- 
ties of young Houghton, a 
numismatist, a former diplo- 
mat, and son of the former 
president of the Metropolitan 

The famous kouros, a six-foot, 
nine-inch marble statue, 
has been taken from public 
t'iew for study. 

Museum of Art, is described 
variously by classicists. But 
supporter and detractor alike 
agree that he is scrupulously 
honest — a classic straight- 

According to the sale con- 
tract, the Swiss dealer who 
owned the kouros, Gianfranco 
Becchina, of Basel, vouched 
that he had proper legal title 
and guaranteed the accuracy of 
all the records and documents 
he provided in the provenance 
file. These papers stated that a 
Geneva physician, Jean Lauf- 
fenburger, had bought the 
piece from a Greek dealer 
named Roussos around 1930. 
The tile contained two highly 
significant letters praising the 
kouros. One was from the late 
Ernst Langlotz, the most re- 
nowned expert in the fifties on 
early Greek sculpture and the 
author of a landmark book on 
kouroi. Langlotz wrote to 
Lautfenburger in German: "I 
am very grateful to you for 
having given me the opportu- 
nity to see your marble youth. 
I have reviewed again my 
thoughts concerning it and 
tind that my original opinion 
is confirmed, that stylistically 
it stands closest to the Anavy- 
sos youth, though it belongs 
to a somewhat earlier phase of 
this style." The letter is dated 
March 12, 1952. 

The second letter to Lauf- 
fenburger is from the late an- 
tiquities dealer Herman Ro- 
senberg, who had a legendary 
eye for quality. On March 20, 
1952, Rosenberg wrote in 
French to Lauffenburger: "I 
thank you very much for hav- 
ing agreed to let the noted 
Professor Langlotz see the 
'Lauffenburger Kouros.' The 
Professor was very enthusias- 
tic, and he judged it to be a 
masterpiece of archaic sculp- 
ture of the greatest rarity. As 
for myself, I still hope that 
you will reconsider your deci- 
sion not to sell it." 



Although it would be ridic- 
ulous to say that the Getty 
bought the kouros solely on 
the basis of the Lauffenburger 
provenance — cooked prov- 
enance documents have been 
known to serve as smoke 
screens to hide the location of 
discovery — the Langlotz and 
Rosenberg endorsements did 
help. They were emphatically 
used to counter Zeri's 
objections. So, at least 
in part because of these 
letters, the Getty board 
bought the kouros. 
A cloud began to 
form over the letters in 
early 1986, when Ar- 
thur Houghton noticed 
that the provenance pa- 
pers accompanying the 
gifts of certain of Frel's 
donors were similar to 
those of the kouros. 
Suspicious, he com- 
pared Ernst Langlotz's 
signature on the kou- 
ros letter with one on 
another Langlotz 
booster letter in the 
Getty files, this second 
one praising the fake 
Attic "hero" rehef 
The handwritings were 
utterly different. 
Houghton obtained 
Langlotz's initials af- 
fixed to a genuine 
memo the scholar had 
written, and it seemed 
evident that Langlotz's 
real handwriting was 
totally different from 
that on the file letters. 
Both Langlotz letters 
in the Getty files had to 
be fraudulent, Hough- 
ton figured — forgeries 
concocted by Frel. To 
check his conclusion, 
Houghton then sent 
the Rosenberg-Lauf- 
fenburger letter to an 
old acquaintance of the 
dealer's, who stated 
flatly that the signature 
on the kouros letter 
was fraudulent. 

In March 1986, 
Houghton took his 
findings to John 
Walsh, the director of 
the Getty, who ap- 
peared to agree. Walsh 
instructed Houghton 

not to proceed with further re- 
search into the signatures. Not 
long afterward, Houghton 
submitted his resignation in a 
four-page letter outhning all 
his findings about the kouros 
letters and complaining about 
Walsh's irresponsible conduct. 
Harold Williams received 
a copy. 

In mid-July, I learned about 

the questionable letters and 
contacted Walsh and Williams, 
asking why a full investigation 
had been quashed. I wanted to 
know if the board of trustees 
had been told about the letters. 
Had the museum's lawyers 
been briefed? If the board 
had been told, why had action 
not been taken to get the mu- 
seum's money back from the 

Too iimHar to the koiiroy. this tiiiauthiiitic tono 

dealer Becchina? 

After avoiding the questions 
in a number of replies and de- 
clining to make any statement 
about Houghton's reasons for 
resigning, Walsh finally an- 
swered: ". . . let me say that 
we have followed up prompt- 
ly and aggressively all possible 
leads that might have shed 
light on the provenance and 
authenticity of the 
kouros, and we contin- 
ue to do so. These en- 
quiries have been car- 
ried on by competent 
professional investiga- 
tors and legal counsel 
in the United States 
and Europe, and all 
significant findings 
have been reported to 
the Trustees." 

What were the spe- 
cifics? I wrote Walsh 
that I found it puzzling 
that he refrained from 
answering any ot my 
pointed questions. I 
added, "13ut from 
what you write, I will 
J assume that you and 
' Williams, your law- 
yers, and professional 
investigators scrutin- 
ized the fraudulent let- 
ters of Langlotz and 
Rosenberg and re- 
ported the results o\ 
the scrutiny to the 
trustees." Walsh re- 
plied, "I do not intend 
to answer." 

Ikit let's suppose 
that the trustees h.ul 
indeed been told that 
the letters m the prove- 
nance tile were dis- 
covered to he frauds. 
Why they did not 
take action is tough to 
figure out. Perhaps 
there are yet cnher 
pieces of the jmi \ 'e 

In an\ c\ eiit, the 
cas'- now so murky 
that the trustees would 
serve the museum well 
by speaking out — by 
telling us exactly what 
they were told, by 
which lawyers and in- 
vestigators, and why 
they acted or did 
not act. D 



The elegant, highly aerodynamic 
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But its true beauty also lies in Park 
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The 1991 Buick 
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Motor Trend says: "Buick engineers 
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The Park Avenue offers a new 



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As you'd expect, all Park Aver 
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As one example of what Buick qu 
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1990 Initial Quality Survey'" re 
Buick the most trouble-free Amer 


i) November ^ ' 


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coi>i^tei>^t;^s. November 

t 9 9 u 

KRAKOW'S TREASURES The world's finest Leonardo, Rembrandt's (greatest landscape, and more, by Thomas Moving 1 13 

BARYSHNIKOV GOES MODERN He joins Mark Morris in an electrifying new partnership, by Joan Acocella 1 IH 

VICTORIAN HEAVEN Rediscovering last century 's interiors in their exuberant variety, by Barrymore Laurence Scherer 1 20 

THE CRUISE OF YOUR LIFE If you're thinking Caribbean, you're not even warm, by James Gorman 126 

THE GREAT TREASURE HUNT .4 guide to the Paris flea markets, with a first-ever, exclusive map, byJ.-C. Snares 132 

WINE TASTER'S CHOICE Two Paris bars where every heady sip is an education, by Michael Henry 142 

PLAYABILITY What makes Tom Fazio the premier designer of golf courses in the world today, by Mike Bryan 144 

THE REAL STUFF A shop in Paris specializes in printed fabrics that copy eighteenth-century originals, by Ann Headin^ton 1 4S 

HOT PHOTOGRAPHERS Six contemporary masters revive old traditions, with eye-catching results, by Peter C.Jones 150 

STICK YOUR NECK OUT The age of the important necktie is upon us 1 56 

HELP YOURSELF! Sinful (but not too sinful) treats for the serious dessert lover, by Sally Schneider 160 



LETTERS Of the essence of art and the climate that nourishes it— or fails to 26 

CONNOISSEUR'S CHOICE One tip of many: the best bird for your Thanksgiving table is a wild bird 36 

CONNOISSEUR'S WORLD Two museums with the personal touch; the Barbour jacket; compact discs for the discriminating 45 

AUCTIONS Phillips scores with a rare Caspar David Friedrich; Sotheby's, with theflnest Constable yet to hit the hi,'. k 72 

PEOPLE For starters, meet the Texan minister's daughter who comes to the Metropolitan Opera as a scheming pagan tjueen HL 

COLLECTING Ship models are the eloquent expression of sailors' fantasie<— and of the aspiratior. - of whole civilizations 164 

FILM On the set of Mr. and Mrs. Bridge with Merchant and Ivory, boutique moviemakers on a shoestring budget 168 

DESIGN The anci"nt arts of carpet weaving and the native woods of Brazil kindle Jresh inspiration 1 72 

MY EYE Of museums, their personalities, and the Brandy wine in particular, by Thomas Hoving 186 




Designer Bjorn 
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lotus leaf and car- 
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An opera in porcelain is what Magic Flute 
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Richard Latham 
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With the Olympus Bowl the 
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crystal beauty is a true study 
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This is the 

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37 East 12tk Street 

NY, NY 10 ." 

(212) 673-6644 

Also at Dertfdori (joodman, riMn Avenue and 58tn Jtreet. 

w^Tvibute to freedom 
I by Theo Faberge. 

Inspired by the momentous changes occurring 
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Rich cranberr\' crystal is embeUished with a 
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today and your descendents' heritage tomorrow. 

For further information and a complete catalog on 
all IWC timepieces, please call: 1-800-432-9330. 




N / - 


Our 12th Century 
jade mythical animal 
expresses the refme- 
Period. Acknowledged 
as China's "Renaissance'' 
the Sung Dynasty 
(%0 A.D. to 1278 A.D.) 
elevated artistic 
expression to the 
highest priority. 

The same Emperor 
that "invented" impres- 
sionistic paintin_ 
inspired the artist that 
carved our mythical 
deer. It is a tribute 
Emperor Hui-tsung 
and the environment 
he helped create. 
Come see this elegant 
icon of the Period 
and learn more about 
China's Golden Age. 

Ashkena/ie & Co. 

Jade «& Oriental Art 
in the lairmont Hotel 
^)5() Mason Street 
San lrancisco,CA 94106 

Affairs Of The Heart 




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The Essential 

Brian Sewell's article ["Basia 
Johnson's Taste in Art," Au- 
gust 1990] reminds me of the 
essence of art. Strip away the 
auction-house reports, the 
pohtics, the fakes, the frauds. 
The essence of art is to stand 
in front of it and weep. 

Tihby Wilcox 
Atistiti, Texas 

Musical Chairs 

I read the article about the mu- 
sical-chairs game of art-mu- 
seum directors with interest 
(June 1990]. Chnstma Orr- 
Cahall, of course, has come 
from the Corcoran Gallery to 
our Norton Gallery, in Palm 
Beach, and at this point 1 feel 
we are fortunate to have her. 

A similar number could be 
done on the musical chairs 
played with the musical direc- 
tors of city symphonies. This 
directorship is also a tough 
and thankless job. When she 
fired our very talented and 
successful director a few 
weeks ago, the chairman of 
the Greater Palm Beach Sym- 
phony remarked, "It happens 
all the time." 

It was not a pretty affair and 
has now landed the chairman, 
at least, in court with a mul- 
timillion-dollar lawsuit. If I 
have judged public opinion 
correctly, it is generally hoped 
that she will lose. 

I attended a membership 
meeting of the symphony here 
and went away with the feel- 
ing that the relationship be- 
tween art, on the one hand, 
and fund-raising, bottom line, 
social aspirations, and who 
knows what else was way out 
of balance. 

Art has been so bashed and 
battered this last century that 
one wonders whether worth- 
while creativity can survive. 
The world loves great opera, 
great music, really great paint- 
ing, but we don't provide a 

The travails of art, and other matters 

very fertile soil for it to thrive 
in. Perhaps articles like yours 
will start to enrich it. 

Rose P. Addy 

West Palm Beach, Florida 

The Second Coming 

I want to compliment Lloyd 
Rose on her review o( Lettice 
& Lova^e [August 1990]. 
Though a minority view, it is 
right on. 

The first two scenes were 
padding for a fair one-act play. 
What was amusing in scene 1 
eludes me, and having Dame 
Maggie thrown at you with- 
out any buildup was ditticult 
to take. Scene 2, with that 
comic secretary outdoing 
Dame Maggie, almost drove 
me from the theater. 

Act 2 reeked with Tennes- 
see Williams overtones. In- 
tended or not, they were 
there, and no one seemed 
aware of them. I kept tiiinking 
ot Williams's short play Soine- 
lliiin^ Unspoken, about two el- 
derly women living together. 

However, Maggie, awful as 
I thmk she was, is an audience 

pleaser, who is perceived as 
offering a cross between great 
acting and the Second Com- 
ing. Fascinating! 

Joseph Miller 
New York City 

Funny Coincidence 

What is the relationship, 
chronologically, etc., between 
Parmigianino's Conversion of 
St. Paul (poster. Metropolitan 
Museum show, March 26— 
May 24, 1987) and L. Carrac- 
ci's The Penitence of St. Peter 
{Connoissetdr, August 1990, 
page 26)? The two seem un- 
abashedly similar. 

Crystal Sasse Ra^sdale 
Austin, Texas 

Ms. Ra{isdale has a ^ood eye — 
and a {lood memory. The paint- 
ings are similar and perhaps with 
reason. Painted in 1530, the Par- 
mii^ianitio was commissioned by a 
wealthy resident of Bolo{itia. Lo- 
doi'ico Carracci (1555-1619) was 
horn and bred in that city and may 
well have seen and studied the 
earlier master's work. It has been 
docuiiuiilcd that he traveled to 

Venice to look at Parmigianino 
paintings. The painting repre- 
sented in the Met's poster is in 
Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Mu- 
seum. — Ed. 

Cut or Uncut? 

You are mistaken in stating 
[September 1990, page 38] 
that the new Erato recording 
of Le5 Huguenots "affords the 
first opportunity in this cen- 
tury, maybe the first ever, to 
hear the score uncut." There is 
no critical edition of the score, 
which is something of a textu- 
al mess. The eliminated pas- 
sages consist of a section of the 
second-act duet for tenor and 
soprano, a repeat, and some 
ballet music — plus an aria for 
the character Urbain that 
Meyerbeer interpolated after 
the opera's premiere. The Era- 
to set runs three hours and fif- 
ty-three minutes; the cuts to- 
tal, at a guess, five to ten min- 
utes. To put the matter in per- 
spective, many of Verdi's 
operas contain less than two 
hours of music. I share your 
enthusiasm for the new Hu- 
guenots. In some ways (e.g., 
Cyril Diederich's fine con- 
ducting) it serves the opera 
better than any previous re- 
cording — but uncut it is not. 
Brad Deamer 
Buffalo, New York 

Wlien Connoisseur asked Era- 
to's producers whether the new 
Huguenots was complete, the 
answer given was yes. In view of 
the notoriously tangled circum- 
stances under which this grand 
opera reached the Paris stage, dis- 
agreement among experts as to 
what constitutes a "complete" 
score is not unusual. — Ed. 

&9^ Letters to the Hditor, with 
the writer's name and address, 
should be sent to Letters l:ditor. 
Connoisseur, 1790 Broadway, 
New York, NY 10019. Letters 
may be edited in the interest of 
space and clarity . 



^ - 1 • -. -■ ^ .y N •.. J" ; y 

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bibliophih's will 
relish Swatin Galleries' 
auction (Noi'ember 15) 
of miniature books, 
including a minute 
Rubaiyat, a 1760 nurs- 
ery-rhymes collection, 
and a wee 1742 guide 
to Westminster Abbey 

rare American 
Indian peace medal, one 
handed out to chiefs by 
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12-14), with other 
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of Japanese Screen 
Painting brilliantly 
reproduces thirty-seven 
memorable screens, 
ranging in spirit from 
deep serenity to sheer 
frenzy, in all their subtle 
or vivid colors and 
blazing geld (Braziller; 


esides his 
Prairie houses and 
earthquake-proof hotels , 
Frank Lloyd Wright 
put his crafty hand to 
chairs, art glass, books, 
wallpaper, and maga- 
zine covers. (The 
Chrysler Museum, in 
Norfolk, November 
9-January6, 1991.) 


or the dedicated 
amateur of shoes, a 
provocative satin evening 
pouch by l-'erragamo, 
dripping with miniature 
footwear ($525). 

, ' « At 

or years 
Gene Moore's witty ami 
magical windows in the 
Tiffany store have been one 
of New York's prize 
delights. Read about 
them in My Time at 
Tiffany's (St. Martin's 
Press; $60). 

^ dgy, moody, 
glistening with sensual- 
ity, Maria Ewing is the 
depraved dancing prin- 
cess of Richard 
Strauss' s Salome, 
opening the Washing- 
ton Opera 's season on 
November 3. 


A. h 

he Concours 
d' Elegance means over 
125 cars burning up the 
track at Palm Springs 
between November 15 
and November 18 — 
like this 1948 Cisitalia 

he ultimate 
bazaar: the Sixth Inter- 
national Conference on 
Oriental Carpets, in 
San Francisco, Novem- 
ber 17-20. The city's 
museums will shou' 
great rugs, learned papers 
will he read, and 
the public may buy at 
the dealers' show. 


native bird: wild turkeys 
have made a comeback. 
They taste more like 
pheasant than Butter- 
ball. To order one 
frozen, teleplume (800) 









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C O 1>^ H O I. S S E U R 


W C) R L D 

Dining in style at the Sauoy ix^ A Tapies museum ^'^ The best CDs 
Inspired dancers from Georgia (USSR) ^ A yen for oiled-cotton jackets ^ Hearst's choicest collectiou 

At Home with 
the Impressionists 

In Baden, twenty minutes 
outside Zurich, a new art 
museum has just opened. 
Villa Langmatt was the home 
of Sidney and Jenny Brown, a 
couple who took up residence 
there in 1892. Entering the 
house now, you seem almost 
an intruder into the lives of 
two collectors, for here are 
their Renoirs, Cezannes, and 
Pissarros, not to mention their 
towels and hairbrushes. They 
might have gone off on a short 

On their honeymoon the 
Browns bought a Boudin and 
a Trouillebert for 500 francs. 
By 1908 they had begun col- 
lecting Impressionists in ear- 
nest and went on into the 
1920s. There are fewer than 
100 paintings all told — several 
each by Renoir, Cezanne, 
Corot, Pissarro, Boudin, and 
Degas; one each by Monet, 
Sisley, Courbet, Gauguin, van 
Gogh, Redon, and Bonnard; 
and some eighteenth-century 
works to boot. 

The appeal of Langmatt is 
in the total setting. The 
grounds are lovely, but the 
furnishings, the silver knick- 
knacks, and the Chinese ce- 
ramics are what reveal Sidney 
and Jenny as warm, intelli- 
gent, and a pleasure to know. 

The museum is open from 
April to October, Tuesday to 
Saturday, 2:00-6:00 P.M.; Sun- 
day, 10:00-6:00 P.M. 

— Richard A. Wolters 

Noble Essences 

Anthony Van Dyck es- 
tablished a style of 
portraiture, noble yet 
intimate and penetrating, that 
lasted almost three centuries. 
His portraits of the doomed 
King Charles I and his family 
and court are as definitive in 
their way as Holbein's were of 

Van Dyck's Queen Henrietta Maria. 


Horens Dcuchlcr 


H.rausgeg.bon von dcr Ge.cllscha.. ,0, Schuc.xcn,^h. Kun^.^^UO^ 

A new Swiss museum: Sidney and Jenny Brown's Impressionists 

the world of Henry VIII a cen- 
tury earlier. A major retro- 
spective, commemorating the 
350th anniversary of the paint- 
er's death, in 1641, at the age 
of only forty-two, can be seen 

at the National Gallery of Art, 
in Washington, from Novem- 
ber 1 1 through February 24, 
1991. Among the paintings, 
mythological and religious 
subjects are included as well as 
many ravishing portraits, like 
this one of Queen Henrietta 
Maria and her dwarf, Sir Jef- 
frey Hudson. The fully illus- 
trated exhibition catak)g in- 
cludes essays by distinguished 
Van Hyck scholars. 

— Hue Auchiniloss 

Hearst's Rugs 

Besides the moi!i' 
carefully nunilu 
stones that had been 
old-world castles an*' ' ■ : 
discriminate piles c 
he collected, Willi i i 

dolph Hearst bought up Na- 
vaho textiles — "first-class," 
"the best." "the real things." 
He even considered 
builduig, instead of 
San Simeon, a series 
of concrete pavil- 
ions in which to 
house them. About 
Navaho rugs he 
knew and cared 
more than was his 

For three hundred 
years the Navaho 
had been sheepherd- 
ers who wove fleece 
into fine blankets 
tor their own use; the Plains 
Indian tribes wore and prized 
them too. The patterns were 
stripes, zigzags, and diamonds 
in natural browns and white, 
animated by indigo dye and 
vivid reds woven with ravtl- 
ings of commercial clotii. 

At the time of the Civil War 
everything changed. The gov- 
ernment drove the trouble- 
some Navaho to a distant fort 
and penned them up tor tive 
years. When they returned 
home their isol.uii)!! was about 
to be breached by the arrival 
of the railroads. Reservation 
traders had arrived, teedmg 
them ideas tor rugs to sell to 
tourists — often bad ideas, like 
copying Oriental rugs. Nev- 
ertheless, many works of this 
later time are splendid. Styl- 
ized sheep, i.ittle, luirses ap- 
pear among the stripes. One 
marvelous rug represents a 
railroad train, complete with 
smokestack and engineer. 
Bnlliaiil new t heinical dyes 
inspired "eye daz/lers," with 
head-spinning abstractions. 
The more than 2(K) pieces 
thai Heust collected are of 
highest quality. A gt>od one 
might have cost him S.500 (he 

• - • ' ""S percent dis- 

I reluctantly); 
got a 



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gray Navaho rugs that were a 
standard feature of early- 
twentieth-century decor. 
Their design is assured, danc- 
ing with vitahty; the colors, 
whether strong or subtle, in 
harmony. None is finer than a 
blanket consisting simply of 
alternate indigo and white 
stripes and wavy lines, with a 
central band of red. The whole 
throbs with energy and must 
have given great authority to 
whoever wore it, the red 
stripe sizzling down his back. 
Fifty-one of the best are in- 
cluded in "Art from the Nava- 
jo Loom: The William Ran- 
dolph Hearst Collection," 
shown at the Textile Museum, 
in Washington, until the end 
of the year. (2320 S Street; 
202-667-0441. Tuesday-Sat- 
urday, 10:0(KS:00; Sunday, 
1:00-5:00.) —H. A. 

Sublime Survivors 

Just as, in figurative art, the 
greatest work points to the 
divine and the worst de- 
notes merely itself, so with 
decorative art. This is especial- 
ly true in the Islamic tradition, 
where because of the taboo 
against figurative art the im- 
mortals could work only in 
minor media — calligraphy and 
textiles, tiles and pottery. An 
exquisite case in point is Otto- 
man sultanate ceramic ware, 
or Iznik ware, whose heyday 
was roughly contempora- 
neous with the High Renais- 
sance. Their interwoven celes- 
tial-blue-on-turquoise leaf pat- 
terns suggest floral sprigs 
from paradise. 

In the West it was variously 
misidentified as coming from 
Rhodes, Damascus, and the 
Golden Horn. It was actually 
Iznik, a small town south of 
Istanbul, that began producing 
plates, jugs, tankards, mosque 
lamps, and tiles in the fifteenth 
century for the court at Top- 
kapi. Unfortunately the sul- 
tans prized imported Chinese 
wares more highly and al- 
lowed palacefuls of the 
domestic product to be 
smashed or lost in the fires 
that plagued the city. Their 
low regard tor it and the fact 
that Iznik production lasted 

pottery: the 
ceramics of 

A show in 


William Randolph 

Hearst's Navaho 

rugs and blankets . 

only two centuries (circa 1450 
to 1650) makes it exceedingly 
rare and, of late, rather pricey. 
Those who cannot afford a 
dish may console themselves 
with an extraordinary book, 
Iznik (Alexandria Press/ 
Thames and Hudson, distrib- 
uted by W.W. Norton in the 
United States; $200). The au- 
thors, Nurhan Atasoy and 
Jonathan Raby, of Istanbul 
and Oxford universities, 
chronicle Iznik production vir- 
tually decade by decade, chart- 
ing the nuanced alterations in 
motifs, from the earliest Chi- 
nese- and Persian-inspired pat- 
terns to the freer, polychrome 
styles under Siileyman. Above 
all, the pictures are superla- 
tive, showing how mere deco- 
ration can have mystical sym- 
metries and carry the force of 
poetry. — Melik Kaylan 

In Focus 


lindangercd: the gentle Himalayan hear, hunted for his fur and paws. 

I he portrait on the front 
cover of Paul Strand has 
a startling frankness of 
expression; entitled "Rebec- 
ca," it is a full-face confession 
of personality and perfectly 
chosen as the lead-off image 
for Aperture's gorgeously 
handsome book celebrating 
the hundredth anniversary of 
the photographer's birth. In- 
side are 144 of Strand's pic- 
tures collected from all over, 
along with some never-be- 
fore-seen images, chosen to 
complement a major retro- 
spective to open next month 
in Washington, D.C., at the 
National Gallery of Art. 

This Strand book and an- 
other, Paul Strand: Essays on 
His Life and Work (also from 
Aperture), are two of several 
photography books coming 
out this fall that make it an es- 
pecially noteworthy season. 

At first glance. Survivors: A 
Vision of Endangered Wildlife 
might seem at the other end of 
the photography spectrum 
from Strand's work, but the 
photographer James Halog, 
who took the pictures for the 
book and wrote the engaging 
text as well, has a similar puri- 
ty of vision. These are nature 
photographs like none other 
ever taken. Most of the ani- 



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an opuientriti 




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nials pictured here can no 
longer sustain themselves in 
the wild, and so Balog has 
gone with his equipment to 
the zoos and private ranches 
where they now live, pro- 
tected from poachers and oth- 
er unnatural disasters. By us- 
ing squares of white fabric or 
drapings of silk and occasion- 
ally showing the apparatus ot 
the sessions, Balog emphasizes 
the artificiality ot his encoun- 
ters with the animals. In ap- 
plying this method, he avoids 
completely the cliches of the 
genre. In one picture, a Hi- 
malayan black bear rears back 
on its hind legs, its arms out- 
flung, like an opera star break- 
ing into song. In another, a 
mandrill perches on a stool, its 
hands clasped casually in its 
lap, like a business executive 
patiently sitting tor a corpo- 
rate portrait. Every page of- 
fers a revelation. 

Little, Brown's The Cat in 
Photoi^raph)' may be less dra- 
matic, but what it lacks in 
theatricality it makes up for in 
charm. Sally Eauclairc has col- 
lected these images, pulling 
together pictures from both 
famous and unknown pho- 
tographers, with a wry intelli- 
gence. Edward Weston was 
one of photography's great cat 
lovers, and Eauclaire docu- 
ments this with a couple of 
cat-filled Weston images. 
There are rich, regal cats, like 
Cecil Beaton's, and poor cats, 
like the one in the kitty por- 
trait Weegec took in a New 
York tenement; cats in action, 
like the one in Martha 
Swope's picture of George 
Balanchine's cat Mourka exe- 
cuting a grand jete for its mas- 
ter; cats in repose. 

The purpose of Constance 
Sullivan's comprehensive 
Women Photoi^raphers (Abrams) 
is to suggest how the work of 
women has "affected, in- 
fluenced, and shaped the lan- 
guage of photography." To 
accomplish this, the editor has 
included 200 pictures by some 
well-known women artists, 
from early ones like the medi- 
tative, Victorian images of 
Lady (Clementina Hawarden 
to Tina Modotti's Mexican 
studies and Susan Mciselas's 

savage views from Latin 
America. No single sensibility 
dominates the collection — 
there are portraits, nudes, ab- 
stracts, documentary and ma- 
nipulated images — and from it 
no definitive sense of "female- 
ness" emerges. Still, Sullivan 
realizes the goal she set tor 
herself and has made a beauti- 
ful, eye-opening book. 

On a historical note, Doug 
Collins's The Story of Kodak 
(Abrams) examines the role of 
George Eastman and the East- 
man Kodak Company in the 
technological evolution of the 
medium. Nancy Newhall's 
P. H. Emerson: The Fi<^ht for 
Photography as a Fine Art 
(Aperture) returns the empha- 
sis to the artist and his aesthet- 
ic concerns as the motivating 
force in the medium's growth. 
With his images of the rural 
life of Victorian England — 
taken primarily in East An- 
glia — Emerson moved pho- 
tography from the scientific 
and the documentary to the 
poetic and, Newhall states, 
"wielded so mighty a fight for 
photography as an art 
that . . . he kept the photo- 
graphic world on both sides of 
the Atlantic in an uproar." 
These are masterly images, 
rarely seen, and this is a great, 
timely book. 

The dialectic between the 
aesthetic and the documentary 
is played out among a number 
of other books this fall, in the 
manipulated, art-conscious 
photographs (if that is what 

they are) of the Starn twins, in 
Abrams's Mike and Dom^ 
Starn; William Wegman's hi- 
lariously parodic portraits of 
his weimaraner Man Ray, in 
William We{^ Paintiiii^s, 
Drawings, Photographs , Video- 
tapes (also Abrams); and Se- 
bastiao Salgado's penetrating 
"concerned photographs," in 
Aperture's An Uncertain 
Grace. — Hal Hinson 

Caring Artists 

For these artists, charity 
begins with the homeless 
and hungry. After World 
War II, many an uprooted and 
destitute family was helped by 
timely delivery of a CARE 
package containing food, 
soap, and other simple neces- 
sities. As prosperity returned 
with the rebuilding ot Euro|5e, 
CARE shifted its attention to 
poor people worldwide, help- 
ing them find permanent relief 
from hunger and poverty. 
Like these problems, CARE's 
financial needs have grown. 
The artist Jim Dine has 
painted the first in a series of 
artworks to be contributed 
each year by artists to the 
CARE World Hunger Cru- 
sade. For 1990, Dine has 
created a huge heart to suggest 
the vastness of CARE's car- 
ing. The poster measures 24 
inches by 32 inches. It is avail- 
able for a contribution of 
$100. Contact Donor Services, 
CARE, 660 First Avenue, 
New York, NY 10016, or call 

( llouc 

loi'cis oi'cy Ills iiiiisriiiii. 

Maurice Sendak's Mother Goose 
writiiK^ her hypnotic rtiyntes. 


Just as Mother Goose's 
world is not always bright and 
cheerful, the lives of children 
in homeless families can be 
grim. Concern for these 
youngsters impelled the sing- 
er-songwriter Paul Simon to 
help start the Children's 
Health Fund, in 1988. Now, 
to support the mobile vans 
that go out to deliver health 
care to children in the poorest 
neighborhoods of New York 
City, Maurice Sendak, Sey- 
mour Chwast, Chris Van 
Allsburg, Barry Moser, Dan- 
iel Pclavin, and Guy Billout, 
all well-known illustrators of 
children's books, have joined 
forces to create original illus- 
trations of Mother Goose and 
five of her rhymes. One 
hundred ot the 300 limited- 
edition portfolios, produced 
by Serigrafia Ltd., are avail- 
able for a minimum donation 
ofS5,000 to the Children's 
Health Fund, 317 East Sixty- 
fourth Street, New York, NY 
10021; or call (212) 535-9400. 
— Nancy Moving 

His Own Museum 

Barcelona is full of visual 
drama, but nothing is 
causing more of a stir 
than 255 Arago, a nineteenth- 
century building now crowned 
by a glinting tangle of alumi- 
num tubing and smudges of 
wire mesh — eighty feet wide 
and forty feet high. This 
sculpture, called Glond and 
C]hair, is by Antoni Tiipies; it 
hovers over the Fundacio An- 
toni Tapies, opened through 
the joint efforts of tiie artist 



Some of the 

most beautiful moments 

in the history of design 

belong to Jean Schlumberger. 

When Jean Schlumberger began to design 
for Tiffany in 1*^55, he brought with him his 
gift for visual poetry. 

In exchange, Tiffany gave him access to the 
most exquisite gems and metals, as well as the 
highly skilled craftsmen who could bring his 
ideas to life. 

His only rule was that there were no rules. 
He followed no trends or design movements. 
Instead his jc'\\clr\' reflects his love of nature 
and the joy he found in the world he saw. 

The fruits of the partnership between 
Schlumberger and Tiffany are still a\ailable 
today at Tiftanv ^i t^.^. in New York, Beverly 
Hills, San Francisco, South Coast Plaza, 
Dalla- , Houston, Washington, D.C., Chicago, 
Aflant; . Philadelphia. To inquire: 


For centuries, the artisans of Saint-Louis have been blowing 
and handcutting crystal. Steadily, tirelessly, they repeat the 
gestures born from the purity of sand and the ardor of fire. 
Each of their unique works bears witness to the tradition and 
the creative breadth of Saint-Louis. 

Saint-Louis crystal is available at select boutiques and fine stores. For store listings and information, call (212) 858-3880 or write: 
Saint-Louis, Cristal de France, 745 Fifth Avenue, Suite 800, New York, New York W15L 

19 9 


GoMfrt (-oi.fli'-Rr 

The creative > 
since the XVI 


and the city last June. 

The foundation ditters trom 
those Barcelona institutions 
devoted to the work of Miro 
and Picasso — both ot them 
friends of Tapies — in that it is 
his brainchild and was de- 
signed and organized to meet 
his requirements. It is, of 
course, a museum ot his 
work, but unlike those of Pi- 
casso and Miro, which have 
token collections, this one dis- 
plays Tapies works almost all 
selected by him trom his per- 
sonal collection — and there- 
fore his best. 

Thv building is one of the 
earliest and most admired ex- 
amples ot Barcelona's modern 
architectural masterpieces. It 
was built in 1884 for a tirm of 
publishers to the design ot 
Domenech and Montaner. Its 
pioneer use of curtain walls 
and extensive glazing, com- 
bined with a fac^ade that al- 
kides to medieval Cataloman 
architecture, made it particu- 
larly congenial to Tapies, 
whose work consciously re- 
flects old ways and new 
means. The three-floor, open- 
plan exhibition space is a 
handsome conversion by Ro- 
ser Amado and Luis Dome- 
nech. Tapies has given his col- 
lection of books on Oriental 
art, perhaps the most compre- 
hensive in Spain, to start a li- 
brary promoting the study of 
non-Western arts. Although 
his work will always be on 
display, the foundation, di- 
rected by his youngest child, 
Miquel Tapies. intends to run 
a program ot compatible but 
independent exhibitions. 

Tapies at sixty-six ranks as 
the grand old man of not only 
Catalonian, and indeed Span- 
ish, art, but world art too. He 
has been heaped with honors 
over the years, most recently 
the inaugural Praemium Impe- 
rialc prize for visual art, trom 
the Japan Art Association (SI 
million split five ways with 
such notables as Leonard 
Bernstein and Gabriel Garcia 
Marquez). Yet his chief inter- 
est at the moment is in return- 
ing to the cool (/ his country 
house in the mountains and 
getting on with new work. 

— -John Mcliu'cH 

Seeing Beyond 

Based on everything 
trom mineralogical 
symbolism to prehis- 
toric weaponry, Mel Chin's 
sculpture is often site specific 
and always intriguing. You 
never know what he is going 
to pull into a piece. In a 1987 
installation. The Operation of 
the Sun throiK^h the Cult of the 
Hand, Chin allucied in a series 
of planetary constructions to a 
complex web of cross-cultural 
materials and metaphors, from 
an oyster shell to black silk 
and copper wire, from NASA 
photographs to African tribal 
beliets. In The Extraction of 

Mil C///V/'v ^tiilpiiui I he Opera 
ot Silence: pii^skiii and more. 

At the entrance to the Savoy, a 
statue oj Count Peter oj iaine. 

Paul Auslcr: America's best 
Prench novelist. 

Plenty from What Remains, two 
replicated White House col- 
umns squeeze dry a Central 
American cornucopia (macie 
ot banana fiber, coffee, mud, 
and blood), while Inescapable 
Histories, made ot Israeli mar- 
ble, an olive-wood peg, and a 
handwoven wool sling (as in 
the story of David and Goli- 
ath), digs a trench in the wall 
and alludes to the intifada. 

"It is not enough to create a 
form," this Chinese-American 
artist trom Houston says. "I 
try to load each piece with 
many things so that if you 
look deeper or adjust your 
eyes, you can eventually see 
beyond." His most recent 
work has strong ecological 
overtones. Somber cast-stone 
molds split to reveal the hol- 
low forms of extinct birds » 
(passenger pigeon, heath hen, 
inscribed with the dates of 
their extinction). A model 
garden tor a toxic-waste site 
has plants that can draw cad- 
mium, zinc, and other toxins 
trom the ground. State of 
Heaven is planned as a global 
magic carpet with a scale- 
model ozone hole, which will 
be enlarged or repatched 
monthly. The survey ot 
Chin's social, political, meta- 
phorical pieces now at the 
Walker Art Center, in Minne- 
apolis (through December 2), 
should provide a chance to see 
what is driving this artist's ele- 
gant, intelligent, provocative 
work. — Kim Levin 

Fireman's Destiny 

Paul Austcr made his in- 
tentions clear from the 
start. His first novel. 
City of Glass (1985), was a 
modern detective story with 
an ancient twist: the mystery 
to be solved was that ot hu- 
man identity. Since then, Aus- 
ter has proved himselt a reli- 
able performer, writing book 
after book on the same meta- 
physical themes: freedom and 
contingency, identity and 
meaning. He is, one might 
say, America's foremost 
French novelist. 

in Phe Music of Chaiue (Vi- 
king; S18.95), his hero is Jim 
Nashe, a Boston fireman who 

one day cashes in his past life 
to spend the next year criss- 
crossing the map from Fk:irida 
to Oregon — whether he is 
fleeing or searching, even he 
does not quite know. Along 
the way, he hooks up with 
Jack Pozzi ("Jackpot"), a 
cocky young poker shark 
who, like Nashe, is prepared 
to stake his life on a hunch, on 
a cut of the cards. Together 
they plan to score big in a 
poker game with Flower and 
Stone, two ultrarich lottery 
winners whose names and 
hobbies (one invents Utopias; 
the other collects irrelevant ar- 
tifacts) are laden with sym- 
bols. Although the stakes turn 
out to be higher than Nashe 
and Jackpot imagined, Nashe 
discovers a new sense of life's 
meaning: "his place in the 
invisible order of things." 

There is something terribly 
elusive about Nashe's ultimate 
destiny: Auster's American 
parable keeps hinting at epiph- 
anies it cannot quite deliver. 
Yet such elusiveness is also 
part of what makes his fiction 
compelling. Indeed, his genu- 
ine gift is found not in his 
weighty themes but in his sto- 
rytelling voice, lucid and 
deeply mysterious. It is the 
voice of a stranger you might 
chance upon at a bar and listen 
to all night long. — -John Powers 

Savoy Fare 

On a recent visit to the 
Savoy Hotel, I felt 
something was amiss. 
Finally I twigged. In Savoy 
Cotirt, the road outside the 
hotel, people were driving on 
the right. Everyone knows 
that in England we drive on 
the left. If the Savoy can ig- 
nore this rule it must say 
something about the enor- 
mous prestige ot the place. In 
the Savov's River Room res- 
taurant (phone: 071 836-4343), 
I found further evidence of its 
indifference to convention. 
I lere powerful customs of 
grand-hotel restaurants were 
being brazenly flouted. 

The first rule is that these 
restaurants should be quiet as 
cathedrals. Not so here. In- 
stead, the ceaseless chatter of 



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W O R L n 

The Georgian 

Stale Dance 

Company: rites 

of a fantastically 

exotic sp7ecies. 

the government ministers, 
media moguls, and wheeler- 
dealers blends with the bustle 
ot headwaiters, wine waiters, 
and just plain waiters to create 
the buzz ot a brasserie. 

Rule two is that the wine 
list will be long on first- 
growth clarets and ancient 
Burgundies but should be of 
little use if what you want is 
something that is merely 
agreeable. The River Room's 
list, however, is a pleasant sur- 
prise, with various French re- 
gional wines and even some 
reasonable half bottles, includ- 
ing an excellent Paul Jaboulet 
Cote ciu Rhone. 

Third, the food should be 
either pretentious haute cui- 
sine, indifferently cooked, or 
phony olde English. The Riv- 
er Room instead offers a * 
choice of roasts or nouvelle- 
ish combinations, such as hali- 
but with beetroot and baked 
smoked salmon enthroned on 
a galette. My saddle and rack 
of lamb was carved from a 
large haunch, displayed like 
some rare objet d'art on a 
domed silver trolley. The 
lamb was rare, too, marvel- 
ously moist, and served with a 
creamy potato gratin. 

Desserts also range from the 
traditional — creme brulce and 
chocolate mousse — to the con- 
temporary, such as orange ter- 
rine with a mango coulis. Like 
everything else at the Savoy, 
the restaurant demonstrates an 
awareness of when to keep the 
rules and when to break them. 
— Bertiard Merkel 

Georgia on My Mind 

Many are those who, 
when they hear the 
words "folk dance." 
will go hide until the danger 
has passed, but in the case of 
the Georgian State Dance 
Company this otherwise rea- 
sonable attitude should be 
promptly abandoned. 
Founded in the early forties, 
the Georgian troupe presents 
theatricalized versions of the 
dances ot that sturdy race of 
people who live in the Caucas- 
us between the Caspian and 
Black seas, eat a lot of yogurt, 
routinely live to be 100, and, 
according to their press agent, 
have coped with "three mil- 
lennia of continuous invasion 
by Mongols, Arabs, Romans, 
Turks, Persians, Russians, and 
others." Their dances are ex- 
otic — featuring pounding 
drums, wafting veils, hats like 
two-foot fright wigs — and 
wonderfully exciting. 

The Georgians' warlike his- 
tory can be read in the male 
dancing. The men fly around 
in capes as if on horseback. 
They charge at one another 
with daggers, filling the stage 
with sparks. Most terrifying, 
they hurl themselves into the 
air and land on their knees. In- 
deed, they circle the stage 
leaping from kneecap to knee- 
cap, as if knees were feet. 
(Anyone unhappy with his 
present line of work might 
consider becoming an ortho- 
pedist in Tbilisi.) They also do 
toe-dancing, hopping about 





nobility's snobbery — it does 
not make clear that the Jews 
might have been forced to de- 
velop their "expertise" in 
"usury." The play entertains 
the idea that mastery in this 
area "allotted" to Jews might 
have had, for a proud and bril- 
liant man like Mayer Roth- 
schild, its elements ot revenge. 
This Mayer Rothschild has 
not a trace of Shylock in him. 
He is just a smart, hardwork- 
ing guy who gets all the way 
to the top because the power- 
ful Christians are so, well, 
dumb about money. 

This potentially fascinating 
story of the growth of a finan- 
cial dynasty is turned into a 
sentimental family tale: "Mayer 
and His Sons." What The Rot!i- 
scliilds does not have that Fid- 
dler did is Sholem Aleichem: 
his ruefulness and hard hu- 
mor, his honesty. (At Circle- 
in-the-Square Downtown.) 

Like a character in a fairy tale, 
the playwright Craig Lucas is 
possessed of gifts that are also 
curses. With his eye for behav- 
ioral detail, he can fill minutes 
of stage time with triviality 
and keep his audience in- 
volved. In Prelude to a Kiss 
Peter (Timothy Hutton) has 
his bride, Rita (Mary-Louise 
Parker), stolen from him at his 
wedding. She is kissed on the 
lips by an old man (Barnard 
Hughes), who changes souls 
with her. Peter figures this out 
on his honeymoon — not, as 
one might imagine, in bed, 
but because of Rita's changes 
of habit and lapses of memo- 
ry — and sets out to get his 
bride back. Lucas almost fi- 
nesses the gender issue. By ig- 
noring it, he makes the old 
man's desire for life more pri- 
mal and desperate than a mere 
wish to be young again. But 
when it is found out that the 
impostor has cancer, he re- 
turns to his dying body with- 
out protest. His last words are 
a one-liner. At this point the 
play ceases to be about any- 
thing but its own, easy charm. 

Lucas has a talented collabo- 
rator in Norman Rene, who 
finds every bit of humor in the 
script, and a fine, eerie set by 
Loy Arcenas. Timothy Hut- 
ton is loose, self-deprecating. 

and amusing, and Mary- 
Louise Parker has an intensity 
and originality that occasional- 
ly give the production the odd 
soul it aspires to. (At the Hel- 
en Hayes.) — Lloyd Rose 

Listen Here 

For the music lover whose 
compact-disc library al- 
ready encompasses the 
basics, here are some reward- 
ing new areas to explore. 

■ The Operas of Benjamin 
Britten. Long out of print, 
these passionate, hauntingly 
scored, and thoroughly origi- 
nal twentieth-century master- 
pieces are at last being reissued 
in the authoritative readings of 
the composer and his closest 
associates (the only recordings 
most of them have received). 
Seven, all superb, are now 
available. Of special interest: 
The Turn of the Screw, the 
most subtle of all ghost op- 
eras; Death in Vcfiice, with its 
undertow of dark, Dionysian 
ecstasy; and The Rape ofLucre- 
tia, as fierce as it is majestic. 
From London Records. 

■ The Recordinfis of Pierre 
Boiilez. People forget (if they 
ever knew) that the most cere- 
bral of contemporary compos- 
ers is also a conductor of un- 
expected lyric gifts. This 
month, Sony Classical begins 
an extensive program of Bou- 
lez reissues, with albums de- 
voted to Alban Berg, Arnold 
Schoenberg, Maurice Ravel, 
Edgard Varese, and Boulez 

On the CD 
reissue, a Venetian 
souvenir of 
Britten (left) beside 
Peter Pears, for whoni 
he wrote his dark, 
Dionysian opera. 







12 East 86th Street, New York, NY 10028 
BY APPOINTMENT 212 472 9765 


■'antiques and collectibles 





Includes furniture, paintings, bronzes, 

art glass, jewelry, Americana, textiles, 

ephemera, toys, fashions, 

deco, moderne, and more. 


Show Hours: 
Sat. 9 am to 6 pm Sun. 11 am to 7 pm 

NOVEMBER 17,I8«24,25 


PIERS 88, 90 & 92. 

48th to 55th STREET AND 12th AVENUE, 



Stella Show Management Co. 201-768-2/73 







/ / 









^^v \- 

















'/.,',/ ,•'- 




i»' ,' , „..,--r»*///l/ii/lV 











> I, 





Discover the Lands End Experience 
of qualitj^ value and semce. 
Rease call for a free catalog of doton^- 
Softlugg'ag'e and occasions surprises. 

TolHree v^oos^&^^H 

orwrite Lands*End,ZX-r^ 

ILands'End Lane;Podgevjiie;WiscoDSin 53595 


Pair of 18th century 

scagliola urns. 

Height 19" 


315 E. 62nd St., New York, N.Y. 10021 212-838-2320 

chandeliers/lamps/sconces/candelabra/decorative accessories 

Sorry, no catalog 


I P.M. 

Harrison Fisher (detail) 

Maxfield Parrish (detail) 

Auction of Fine Illustrative Art 

Saturday, Nov. 10, 1990 at 1:30pm (Preview: Tues., Oct. 23-Fri., Nov. 9; Mon. through Sun., 10:30-5:30) 
This exceptional auction will consist of fine paintings and drawings representing a broad 
range of subjects and genres, including book and magazine illustration, calendar pin-up and 
advertising art spanning the past 100 years. 

Included in the auction: 

Edward Penfield 
Howard Pyle 
Jessie Willcox Smith 
Norman Rockwell 
N. C. Wyeth & others 

Howard Chandler Christy 
Dean Cornwell 
Harvey Dunn 
John Falter 
Leyendecker brothers 

ii Illustration 

House, Inc. 

96 Spring St., NY 10012, (212) 966-9444 

Wall & Roger Ki-cd, 71 h floor 

Please send for fully illu',trated calalofiuc CIO, $r>. (aamits two to tfic auction). 10% buyer's premium. 


W O R L 

himself. And be on the lool 
out for the imminent rerele 
of his uncannily transpareni 
rendering of Debussy's onl 
completed opera, Pelleas et 

■ The Complete Songs of 
Schubert. Years ago, Dietric 
Fischer-Dieskau recorded, 
chronological sequence, all 
the over six hundred Schub 
songs he felt it possible for 
man to sing. A landmark re 
suited: two boxed sets, tota 
ing twenty-five LPs, almos 
an encyclopedia. Now the 
British accompanist Grahar 
Johnson is recording all the 
songs with some three dozt 
soloists on as many compa( 
discs — each a thematic recit 
in its own right. Seven vol- 
umes have appeared. The v 
diet so far: uneven, but at a 
exceptional standard. On h 
perion, distributed by Har- 
monia Mundi. 

■ The Forgotten Music of 
France. On Erato, the new ■ 
rics MusiFrance investigate 
neglected French music fro 
five centuries. Among the ( 
coveries: baroque fare from 
Couperin, Charpcntier, De 
Lalande, Carpentras, and R' 
meau; chamber music of 
Roussel and Saint-Saens; o] 
eras of Lalo, Bizet. 

■ Neii' Albion Records. T 
name and San Francisco ad- 
dress suggest that sonic wal 
paper — partly electronic; p; 
ly whale songs, turning tid 
and sighing telephone wire 
called "New Age." Yes, th 
is a meditative, even mystii 
cast to many of the New A 
bion albums, but the music 
fresh, distinctive, and alive 
The California minimalists 
more sensuous and melodic 
than the East Coast variety 
are at home here, but so is 
music from long ago and/o 
far away (fourteenth-ccntu 
France, present-day Boliv- 
ia . . .). Lou Harrison's bri 
La Koro Sutro (for lOO-voic 
chorus, ganiclan, harp, and 
organ) has bccc^me a cult cl 
sic, as has Stuart Dempster 
solo-trombone album In th 
Great Abbey of (Element VI. 
a free catalog, call 415-62 
57.S7.) — Matthew Curewitst 



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jb\n the Lalique 
' Society of America 
and live witli 
a goddess. 

The Lalique Society of 
America announces its 
new 1990 limited 
edition design, Hestia 
the Greek goddess of 
the hearth. It is available 
only to members. 

Join this exclusive 
association and Hestia 
can grace your home 
along with the quarterly 
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exclusive gifts, and 
invitations to special 
Society events. 

Hestia paperweight. S295 


membership is S30. 
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The Barbour jacket is as 
much a part of the En- 
ghsh countryside as 
moors, mists, and manor 
houses. Constructed of dura- 
ble Egyptian cotton in a range 
of earth tones, from dark for- 
est green to tawny sandstone, 
the jacket is hned in cotton 
tartan and collared in cordu- 
roy. It has an intriguing as- 
sortment of pockets — some 
lined with moleskin to keep 
hands warm, others detach- 
able and washable for holding 
the catch of the day — and it 
comes in some fourteen differ- 
ent styles. Its distinctive fea- 
ture, the surface, has a dull 
shine that comes from its hav- 
ing been boiled in oil and 
waxed to render it impervious 
to wind, rain, and briers, or, 
as Barbour claims, to make it 
"thornproof. " 

It takes its wearer hunting, 
fishing, riding, and living the 
life of the landed gentry. Bar- 
bour holds royal warrants of 
appointment from Queen Eli- 
zabeth II, the duke of Edin- 
burgh, and the prince of 
Wales. Today, Barbour 
Thornproofs are the jackets of 
choice for sorts you would not 
expect to meet in the field, like 
Mick Jagger and Madonna. 
Apparently the century-old, 
all-weather jacket has become 
not only fashionable but 
funky. Americans can find it 
in a handful of stores across 
the country. 

Take note, however. A 
Barbour Thornproof should 
never be worn looking new. 

The Border, 
one of Barbour's 
jackets, a must 
in royal 





e Collectable^^BtlS I 



a man 's scent 

with J 80 


most of them 



"People kick it on the floor or 
tie it on the back of their 
Range Rovers to break it in," 
says the company's general 
manager, Tom Hooven. To 
complete the look, Barbour 
also makes crunchy tweed 
caps, hefty sweaters, and thick 
corduroy trousers — necessities 
for country living, even in the 
city. — Kathleen Beckett-Young 

For a Man 

There is a Nina Ricci tra- 
dition of collaborating 
with contemporary art- 
ists (the Cristal Lalique dou- 
ble-dove bottle for L'Air du 
Temps is an example), which 
Gilles Fuchs, successor to the 
late Robert Ricci, has carried 
forward. But the new Ricci- 
Club, a wonderful amalgam 
of visual and olfactory con- 
trasts, is the first men's fra- 
grance with packaging de- 
signed by an outstanding con- 
temporary artist. 

To create a motif symboliz- 
ing the fragrance, the Ameri- 
can minimalist Sol LeWitt 
produced a dynamic and witty 
image of forceful lines bal- 
anced within a square, in bril- 
liant, chromatic colors against 
a gray background. The scent 
within combines sweet and 
sour, warm and cool, tradi- 
tional and contemporary. 
From the earthy background 
bursts a top note of tangy 
freshness, in a blend of grape- 
fruit, aromatic herbs, and 
spices. The body of the fra- 
grance is a sensual melange of 
sandalwood, rosewood, and 
guaiacum wood. Ricci-Club is 
a scent for the man who holds 
out for the traditional but in a 
contemporary context. 

—Jill Resnick 

S«» luiitcd by Diane Rafferty 












:^& rj 



Impressionist and Modern 
Paintings and Sculpture, Part I 

Auction to be held Wednesday, November 14, 1990 
at 7 p.m. in our galleries at 502 Park Avenue, New 
York, NY 10022. Admission to the sale is by ticket 
only; for reservations call 212/546-1128. Viewing 
begins November 9. For further information contact 
Michael Findlay or Nancy Whyte at 212/546-1170. 
For catalogues telephone 718/784-1480. 

Vincent Van Gogh, I'asc de hlciicts ct coqiiclicols, oil on canvas, 
25% X 19% in. (65.3 x 50.5 cm.). Painted in Auvers, June, 1890. 
Estimate: $12,()0U,UUU-16,U00,()(J(J 

To benefit the Art Acquisition Endowment Funds of the Albright- 
Knox Art Gallery, the Buffalo Museum of Science and the Permanent 
Endowment Fund of the University of Buffalo Foundation, Inc. 


AT 212-980-0015. 




a a .«r a ->. 









Important French and 
Continental Furniture, 
Clocks, Porcelain and 

Auction to be held Thursday, November 1, 1990 
at 10 a.m. in our galleries at 502 Park. Avenue, 
New York, NY 10022. Viewing is October 27 
through October 31. For further information, 
contact William J. Iselin (212/546-1150) or Andrea 
Fiuczynski (212/546-1002). For catalogues telephone 

A fine Louis XV Drinolii-nuniiitcd black lacquer commode, mid-18th 
century, 35 in. (89 cm.) iiigli, .S7 in. (14.5 cm.) wide, 22 in. (56 cm.) 
deep. Estimate: $25(),()()()-3.S(),0()0. 








5of/u' >■///)('»' paifitifnys 

November is a bell- 
wether month 111 the 
annuil auction cycle 
— giving the first serious indi- 
cation of how major markets, 
particularly many of the high- 
stakes markets, such as paint- 
ings and jewelry, may fare in 
the months to come as the 
auction year unfolds. The ma- 
jority of what is on the block 
this month is not great but 
certainly is good enough to 
serve as a leading indicator of 
the quality of what is likely to 
come this season. 

There will be a number of 
noteworthy British pictures 
sales in London. Bonhams 
leads off on the 1st with mod- 
em British and Continental pic- 
tures, mostly just pretty except 
for a few stunners like the 
Glasgow artist Joseph Craw- 
hall's exquisite 1883 watercol- 
or The Duck Pond (estimate: 
i:8(),0(X)-£100,000!). On the 
7th. Sotheby's presents modern 
British and Irish paintings and 
drawings — solid if not spectac- 
ular — by a mixed bag: Win- 
ston Churchill, Duncan Grant, 
L. S. Lowrey, and such Vorti- 
cists as Gaudier-Brzeska and 
Wyndham Lewis. Speaking of 
Grant, a group of topical pic- 
tures IS being sold to benefit 
the Charleston Trust, which 
maintains the house he shared 
with Vanessa Bell. However, 
more eyes are likely to be fo- 
cused on Sir William Orpen's 
delicious nude portrait of his 
mistress Yvonne Aubicq, 
entitled The Disappointing 
Letter (estimate: tl 50,000- 
\:2fK),(HK)). Another, rather 
similar portrait of the robust 
subject brought a record-set- 
ting 131 9, (KM) at Sotheby's 
last June. 

Farther up New Bond 
Street, on the 6th and the 
13th, I'hillips presents modern 
British paintings, drawings, and 
sculpture and fine British and 
Victorian paintings. In both 
sales IIS.O'K) would give you a 
fair shot at landing a work of 
the sort represented by a 
Royal A( ademician's alluring 

A delectabh' van Gogh. Estimate: $12 million to $15 million. 

Absence Makes the Heart Grow 
Fonder, which just manages to 
stay this side of the divide be- 
tween magnificent and maud- 
lin. Phillips's biggest coup this 
month is likely to be the 
tl 00,000 -plus expected in its 
nineteenth-century European 
paintini^s sale, on the 27th, for 
a recently rediscovered early 
work by the (jerman Roman- 
tic painter C'aspar David Frie- 
drich (1774-1840), whose 
originality and exquisite tonal 
virtuosity are at last being 

An extraordinary entry in 
the sale of British paintin<^s at 
Sotheby's on the 14th is John 
(-onstable's The l.oih, almost 
(crlainly the most important 
( '.(>if table ever to appear at 
aiu lioi It ( ould easily turn 
out to I ue of the most ex- 

pensive artworks ever. The 
painting is the fifth of six "six- 
footers" depicting scenes on 
the river Stour, in Suffolk, 
where Constable spent his 
childhood. It is the only one 
still in private hands and in its 
original frame, having been in 
the same family since its pur- 
chase, on the day it was first 
exhibited at the Royal Acade- 
my, 111 1824. The Stour series 
is widely touted as Cx^nstable's 
greatest work. If only as a test 
of the market's sanity, one 
hopes its tlO million-tl.S mil- 
lion presale estimate proves to 
be conservative. 

In New York, ('hristie's, 
too, has a winner. Its fall sale 
of hnpressionisi and modern 
paintiui^s features van (Jogh's 
vivul Vase with Daisies and 
Poppies, painted during the fi- 

nal weeks of the artist's tragic 
life, though nothing about it 
suggests his state of mind. It 
would be a steal at its esti- 
mated price of $12 million- 
Si 5 million, considering the 
stratospheric prices that less 
pleasing van Goghs have 
brought. The Sotheby's Im- 
pressionist and modern art sales 
the 13th and 14th include 
works from celebrity collec- 
tions. The opening session, 
the evening of the 13th, fea- 
tures a number of fine paint- 
ings from the estate of J. K. 
Ohrbach, including works by 
Bonnard, Monet, Renoir, Sis- 
ley, and Vlaminck, all in the 
$1 million-$4 million range. 
The second session will be 
dominated by the hoopla over 
the Impressionist material 
from the collection of the late 
Greta Garbo: three predict- 
able, weak Renoirs and a Bon- 
nard, with estimates from $1.5 
million to $9 million — a real 
stretch for such works. The 
so-so twentieth-century mate- 
rial is being sold the next day 
with a number of interesting 
modern and contemporary 
pieces from the estate of N. L. 
Pines, including works by 
Calder, Chagall, Demuth, 
Dufy, Kline, Miro, Prender- 
gast, and Rouault. The big at- 
traction for the Garbo group- 
ies will be the sale on the 15th, 
of the rest of her estate — early- 
to mideighteenth-century 
French formal furniture and 
furnishings, rare books, deco- 
rative pictures, Savonnerie 
carpets, and Continental, Eng- 
lish, and Chinese ceramics. 
Nothing here will give you a 
clue as to what she did all 
those years, but at least she 
had some pretty pricey furni- 
ture on which to do it. 

The Pines estate will also 
furnish some outstanding en- 
tries to Sotheby's Latin Ameri- 
can art sale, in New York on 
the 19th. Along with the 
(Christie's sessions on the 21st 
and 22nd, it represents the 
best — the Argentine Pettoruti, 
Brazilians DiC'avalcanti and 



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Fortiamari, Chilean Malta, 
Colombian Botero, Mexi- 
can Orozco, and Vene- 
zuelans Poleo and Rcve- 
ron. The Christie's 
contemporary art sale 
on the 7th features 
such stars as de 
Kooning, Fran- 
cis, Johns, Roth- 
ko, Twombly, 
and Warhol and 
solidly represen- 
tative works that 
should sell well — 
if the market con- 
tinues to hold up. 
A big if The top 
lot should be de 
Kooning's 1956 
painting Ji</y, 
one of his ex- 
ploratory "urban 
landscapes," esti- 
mated at $5 million 
to $7 million, 
which seems a tad 
ambitious for a painting that 
will not appeal to everyone. 

The evening of the 15th, 
New York's William Doyle 
Galleries holds its major paint- 
ings sale of the season — modern 
and European paintings and 
sculpture. This will be the usual 
wide-ranging crowd-pleaser, 
with material by such painters 
as Alma-Tadema, Bombois, 
Dufy, John, Katz, and 

Orientalists will have a field 
day this month with five nota- 
ble specialist sales. On the 
13th, Sotheby's Hong Kong 
features elegant fine Chinese ce- 
ramics, of a quality represented 
by the Qianlong meiping and 
cover illustrated here (a mei- 
pirig is a vase for displaying a 
flowering prunus branch). 
The 22nd and 23rd in London, 
Sotheby's holds ^Japanese 
works of art sale with a large 
and fine selection of folding 
screens. On the 27th in Lon- 
don, Sotheby's offers first-rate 
Chinese Export porcehiins and 
works of art, while in New 
York it will sell the C. C. 
Waui^ funily collection of impor- 
tant early Chinese art — among 
other virtuoso material, archa- 
ic bronzes. Tang ceramic 
horses — and the Ko'^er collec- 
tion of important Min(> and Qinjj 
and Korean ceramics. Since im- 
portant Korean material rarely 



A rare vase estimated at 
HK $322,000 40 $450,000. 

is available at auction, the 
pieces featured here will 
■" attract significant 

J5L>, attention. 

'V'"^ The evening of the 

;7- .% 5th, Butterfield & 

iN wAr Butterfield in Los 

Angeles will 
present some 
300 lots of 
property from 
the residences 
of the late Kal- 
ef Alaton, a 
decorator who 
juxtaposed stark 
interiors with 
dramatic ba- 
roque and roco- 
co decorative 
furnishings to 
great effect. The 
high-style English, 
French, and Rus- 
sian furniture, 
bronzes, antiqui- 
ties, carpets, and paintings are 
all quite good if a bit on the 
glitzy side. In San Francisco 
on the 19th, Butterfield will 
hold an encyclopedic sale of 
Oriental rugs and carpets, timed 
to coincide with the Sixth In- 
ternational Conference on 
Oriental Carpets, being held 
in San Francisco from Satur- 
day the 17th. 

In times of trouble the semi- 
annual seasons in Geneva — 
two two-week buying binges, 
in November and again in 
May — have served as a sort of 
bazaar for those wanting to 
cash out or buy into portable 
wealth. The sales also serve as 
a barometer of just how ner- 
vous supposedly knowledge- 
able people really are. The loot 
that Christie's, Phillips, and 
Sotheby's have lined up for 
these midmonth monster 
sales — jewels, jewelry, silver, 
porcelain, watches, vertu — is 
lavish almost beyond dreams. 
A similar abundance will be 
found at the Christie's sales in 
Rome the 28th and 29th: sil- 
ver, watches, important por- 
celain and majolica, important 
jewels (on display in Milan the 
21st and 22nd). Christie's has a 
real head start on this growing 
market, which could become 
one of major importance by 
the end <if the decade. 

— James R. I.yotis 



Breguet, of course, 

Marie Antoinette bought six. Napoleon and Wellington consulted 
theirs at Waterloo. Then, as today, those who shape destiny are (juick 
to pursue that which seems most uncommon. 

For men, the 18K gold Exceritree 
features an off-center dial that 
originated with Breguet in 1812; 

completely hand made, the automatic // ^^^jj-j^^-^. 1775 

movement displays day, date and phases of the moon. 

While for ladies, Breguet offers sapphires, emeralds, or rubies 
in a sea of diamonds and a delicate bracelet of IHK gold mail. 

Breguet, so rarely seen that each is still individually numbered 
on the dial. Even after 200 vears. 

Irliffss ^riifif Jrfcels 

© 1989 For list of selected jewelers and catalog, send $3 to Breguet, 18 i^ast 48tli Street, New York. NY 10017 



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each residence features spaciousness 
and convenience, inherent to 
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Best of all, MERIDIAN includes the 
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MERIDIAN residences repre- 
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Ever changing views are part of 
each MERIDIAN home. To the 
south, colorful sailboats glide by the 
yacht harbor marina. To the west, 
ocean vessels return from the sea 
while a setting sun bathes Point 

MERIDIAN includes a wide 
array of amenities designed 
for the security and convenience of 
those who call MERIDIAN home. 
An impressive drive entry leads to 
the Main Lobby. Within MERIDIAN 
one finds a large secure outdoor 
Plaza in a park setting, fully 

A combination of exciting ocean 
views, a delightful bay front 
and a dynamic urban setting were 
the inspirations for MERIDIAN. 
Within close walking distance are a 
new yacht harbor marina, the 
embarcadero, the arts and theatres. 

baths, Poggenpohl kitchens, Ther- 
mador and Sub-Zero appliances are 
the standard. The homes, which 
range from 1,200 to 3,400 square 
feet, are as distinct and unique as the 
individuals who live here. 

Loma in fiery spectacle. San Diego's 
expanding skyline sparkles both day 
and night. The mountains frame the 
sunrise to the east. Then, coming 
full circle to the south, the Coro- 
nado Islands dot the Pacific horizon. 

equipped Health Clubs, elegant 
Guest Suites and The Meridian 
Room for large scale entertaining. 
And twenty-four hours a day 
MERIDIAN is staffed to quietly pro- 
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fine restaurants, shopping and the 
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Diamond Information Center Promotional Presentation 

The art of being unique 

C i««(i<_A(nU iM 

( ar/ie 


'\\\v. Cartii:h diamonds 

CARril-:H...I()R 140 MARS 

criatimi^ am) achievement 
that it has changed the very 
course ok the jewelers art. 
Generations ok dedicated and 
talented designers, working 
with the norlest ok earth's 
treasures. ha\ e transkormed 
diamonds and precious metals 
into orjects of rare reauty 
^nd kantasy. like poets or 


know the wonder ok dreams 
and the mystery ok desire. 
And like those masters of 


J O A I L I I E R S 
Since 184/ 







Copyright © 1984 Published by Thames and Hudson . Reprinted by permission of the publisher 

hy are diamonds 

so alluring? Ultimately, dia- 
monds are attractive in the same 
way that humans are. A man in 
love sees his beloved as color- 
ful, scintillating, brilliant, 
extraordinarily rare, exotic, 
overwhelmingly and mysteri- 
ously beautiful. A diamond, 
too, has these qualities. It is not 
surprising, therefore, that 
through the ages diamonds have 
been tokens of love and desire. 
A woman who receives a gem 
as a gift knows, instinctively, 
that it becomes a part of her 
mystery, and that its loveliness, 
brilliance and color reflect and 
enhance her own charms. 

Early references to diamonds 
include the remarks of an Indian 

connoisseur of the Gupta period 
(sixth century AD), who said, 
"If a diamond possesses perfect 
qualities, it is to be desired 
above all other jewels." 

The Indians believed that a 
perfectly pure and completely 
white diamond possessed the 
magical ability to divide white 
light into all the colors of the 
spectrum. Only Brahmins were 
allowed to possess pure, color- 
less diamonds. If a diamond had 
even a hint of yellow in it, land- 
owners could purchase it. Very 
yellow stones were allotted to 
the merchants, and darkish dia- 
monds were allocated to work- 
ers and to members of the 
warrior class. Any large, pure 
stones had to be offered first. 


Neckerchief-collar of 
18-K gold and black 
onyx flush-set with 
220 round diamonds. 
Ygal Perlman, 
Los Angeles. 

Wrist piece of black anodise 
and 18-K gold with 28.78 
carats of tapered baguette 
and round diamonds. 
Teo Patrick, Singapore. 

Left: Black acrylic 
disc ring set with 
10.95 carats of 
princess-cut diamonds 
in (I platinum cube. 
Manfred Scitncr, Austria. 

Far left: Intertwined 
choker of 691 channel- 
set baguette diamonds 
with handwovcn 
jewel-toned silk cords. 
Akiko Wakabayashi, '' 

I) I A M N D S 1^^ R K \ K K 

Bracelet of 
platinum, gold 
and slate set 
with 773 round 
Daniela Boccalini, 

Mansa del Re and Bolero "Cat" Biennale de Sculpture, Monte Carlo 

To collect art 

was my childhood fantasy. 

To accomplish 

a New "Vbrk gallery on 51'^ Street 

is a dream come true. 

Now, to assemble the finest outdoor 

exhibit of 20^^" Century sculpture, 

I've reached the point 

of Delirium. ^ 








D 1 A M N I) S V R K \ K K 

however, to the ruler of Gol- 
conda (a region in India famous 
for its diamonds), and thus few 
diamonds of gem quahty were 
brought to Europe before the 
eleventh century. 

Once a mining site was se- 
lected in Golconda, all of the 
workers participated in a reli- 
gious offering. The employer, 
with a party of his relatives and 
friends, would bring a figure in 
stone of the god they worshiped. 

He would place the figure on the 
ground, and each person pros- 
trated himself three times before 
it. The prayers were thought to 
appease the mine spirits for the 
woricers disturbing their under- 
ground kingdom. After this pro- 
pitiation, the workers began 
excavating to a depth of up to 
fourteen feet and washing the 
clay in search of crystals. The 
Golconda mines employed 
nearly 60.000 people: men dug 
the earth; women and children 
carried it away. 

Cultures in every age have re- 
garded diamonds differently. 
The ancient Greeks believed 
that diamonds were splinters of 
stars, fallen to earth. Some even 

said that they were the tears of 
the gods. The Romans valued 
the hardness of diamonds, 
which they believed could break 
iron. The Chinese treasured dia- 
monds for their utilitarian en- 
graving ability. 

Technological Brea kthroughs 

Until the fifteenth century, 
man's knowledge of faceting 
diamonds was imperfect. Con- 
sequently, diamonds were used 
as objets trouves and were com- 

Above: Swirling 18-K gold 
bracelet set with 24.79 
carats of baguette and 
round diamonds. Dickson 
Cheung, Hong Kong. 

Left: Ruffled 18-K gold collar 
shimmering with 121.03 
carats of baguette diamonds. 
David Forman, South Africa. 

Far left: Copper alloy 
earrings accented with 
13 carats of tapered 
baguette -cut diamonds 
and a single round diamond. 
Teruyuki Shibata. Japan. 

monly seen as octahedral crys- 
tals set in rings. Only later, when 
stones were successfully faceted 
and polished, were they sought 
after purely as aesthetic objects. 

The first diamond cutting, as 
we know it today, took place in 
the fourteenth century, probably 
in Europe, but possibly in the 
East. A diamond cutter placed 
the pointed termination of an 
octahedral crystal against a 
turning wheel and ground the 
point down to the girdle of the 
crystal. Viewed from the top, 
stones treated in this manner 
looked rectangular, and the ma- 
neuver came to be known as the 
table cut. This was the first step 
toward releasing a diamond's la- 
tent fire and brilliance. Until the 
time when table-cut diamonds 
could be faceted, in fact, rubies 
and emeralds were considered 
more valuable. As it became 
possible to make diamonds 
more brilliant, however, their 
value rose greatly as compared 
with that of other gems. 

During the Renaissance, ta- 
ble cuts were replaced by rose 
cuts and by the Mazarin cut. In 
the early 1900s, Marcel Tol- 
kowski, a mathematician and 
engineer in Antwerp, devised 
an accurate system for maxi- 
mizing the return of white light 
to the observer's eye (which cre- 
ates brilliance), and the splitting 
of the light into many colors 
(which creates fire), in a round 
brilliant cut. The diamond, for 
centuries regarded as an object 
of magic and sacred beauty, was 
thus subjected to precise scien- 
tific calibration. Consequently, 
diamonds today represent a par- 
adigm of human thought over 





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the past 2,000 years, as well as 
emblemizing the riches of the 

After 1,600 years of dredg- 
ing, the Indian mines were ex- 
hausted. In 1730, just in time, a 
new source of diamonds was 
discovered in Brazil. These 
mines contained only one cen- 
tury's worth of resources, but 
when Brazilian sources began 
to diminish, in 1888, the South 
African gem fields were discov- 
ered. The second half of the 
twentieth century has seen large 
fmds in Botswana and Australia 
as well. 

The use of labor-saving 
heavy machinery, and a series 
of technological break- 
throughs, have transformed the 
business of diamond recovery 
into a capital-intensive industry. 
Two hundred and fifty tons of 
rock must be dug, moved, 
sorted and processed to yield a 
single one-carat gem diamond 
— which, considering that a 
carat weighs only '/142 of an 
ounce, is truly a technological 
tour de force. 

The Rarest of Rare 

Colored diamonds are rare in- 
deed. Perhaps one in 100,000 
diamonds has the deep natural 
color necessary to qualify as a 
"fine, fancy colored diamond." 
With the exception of yellow 
and brown diamonds, which are 
occasionally found among 
rough stones mined in South 
Africa and Australia, the vast 
majority of reds, blues and 
greens have originated in the fa- 
bled mines of India. 

The rarest diamond is the red 
stone; talcs of truly red dia- 

Right: "Speckled Trout Head" pin made from 
18-K white, yellow and black gold 
studded with 67 baguette and round diamonds. 
Jane Parker, Canada. 

Far Right: Fluid circular brooch sparkling with 
186 channel-set princess-cut diamonds. 
Dominique Arpels, France. 

Below: Architecturally inspired cuff paved with 
8-plus carats of tapered and straight 
baguette diamonds. MarekBejm, Texas. 

monds are always secondhand 
accounts. Photographs exist of 
a 0.80-carat red diamond, but 
such stones are exceedingly 

Deep-green or blue diamonds 
are another rarity. The best- 
known blue diamond, the Hope 
Diamond, is often described as 
"sapphire blue," but in the lan- 
guage of the experts it is, in 

fact, "Ceylon sapphire blue." 
Because of the great rarity of 
blue diamonds, even a stone de- 
scribed as light blue, which 
sometimes appears metallic, is 
much sought-after today. 

Green diamonds are some- 
times compared to emeralds, 
but even the largest known ex- 
ample, the 41 -carat Dresden 
Green, is a yellowish apple- 

green. Generally, the purer the 
green, the more desirable is the 

Yellow diamonds can be 
lemon yellow, pure yellow, 
brownish yellow (often called 
Champagne) and orange yellow 
(jonquil). Brown diamonds are 
commoner than yellow. To make 
such stones more appealing, 
merchants describe their var- 
ious shades in gastronomical 
terms; the most prized brown 
diamonds are the coffee 
browns, which show just a hint 
of black. 

Mauve and violet-colored 
stones appear on the market 
from time to time, their delicate 
shades enhanced by gold or 
platinum settings. 

Pink diamonds are also quite 
rare, though not as difficult to 
obtain as reds or pure greens. 

Many of the pink stones which 
fetch the highest prices at auc- 
tion come from Australia's Ar- 
gyle mine. 

Black diamonds are the least 
valuable colored diamonds. In 
Sumatra and other parts of the 
East, they are worn as mourning 
stones, and this practice has 
spread to Portugal, where one 
sometimes sees a black dia- 
mond ring worn as a treasured 
family heirloom. 

Followers or leader. 

Baume & Mercier 



M •<» .« .«. .» ,.'A 





I) I A M N 1) S 1^^ K V] V K K 

Spectacular diamonds can be 
seen today in Iran, where a col- 
lection of gems from the Gol- 
conda mines sits on trays, much 
like chocolates displayed in a 
sweet shop. There are more than 
thirty diamonds of at least 50 
carats each in one Iranian 

In Iran's fabulous former 
royal collection of colored and 
white diamonds and colored 
stones is a magnificent gem, 
considered by many to be the 
finest pink diamond in the 
world, called the Darya-i-Nur, 
or Sea of Light. The history of 
this stone has been traced back 
to the seventeenth century. The 
Darya-i-Nur, together with an- 
other stone weighing 60 carats, 
the Nur-ul-'Ain (Light of the 
Eye), originally formed the 
Great Table diamond of Delhi. 
When the city was sacked by the 
Persians in 1739, the Persian 
Shah carried the stone off, 
along with the rest of the 
Mughal treasure. And in the 
1830s the Great Table was recut, 
yielding the aforementioned two 
specimen stones, which are now 
on display in the former royal 
jewel collections of Iran. 

The Diamond Grading 

Today diamonds are graded 
on a scale established by the 
Gemological Institute of Amer- 
ica in the 1950s. Until then, a 
less specific system was used to 
indicate the quality of individ- 
ual stones. 

The quality of the stone, 
which is composed of pure crys- 
tallized carbon, is based on its 
color, clarity, cutting propor- 
tions and caral weight. Of the 

first three considerations, color 
is the most important. If a dia- 
mond contains more than one 
atom of nitrogen to 100,000 of 
carbon, the stone will have a 
slightly yellowish tint. 
The second-most important 

kowski's proportions in cutting 
stones results in diamonds of the 
utmost brilliance. 

The number of the finest dia- 
monds, D-flawless, in existence 
is minute. One expert estimates 
that no more than 3,000 to 

Circular bracelet featuring thirty-six triangular diamonds 
weighing almost 25 carats. Takashi Hirabayashi, Tokyo. 

parameter in diamond grading is 
clarity. Here, too, the GIA has 
developed a method for separat- 
ing flawless stones from less 
perfect ones. The third measure 
of a stone's quality is the perfec- 
tion ()! 'he cut. The use of Tol- 

4,000 carats (about 1,000 to 
2,000 individual stones), of this 
purity are produced annually. 

Creating an Industry 

Since the late nineteenth cen- 
tury, the DcBecrs company, in 

South Africa, has been a re- 
markable force in the diamond 
world. The company's entire 
production and marketing phi- 
losophy has been geared toward 
stabilizing prices over the long 

Like Indian diamonds, the 
first South African diamonds, 
discovered in the 1880's, were 
of river origin. Small concen- 
trations were found around the 
Orange River, and soon a full- 
fledged diamond rush was un- 
derway. Diamond fever spread 
throughout South Africa, and 
large numbers of prospectors 
came to the area from all over 
the world. 

Miners staked out their 
claims and began digging dia- 
monds within a few feet of each 
other. Diamonds were found on 
the Boer farm of the two De- 
Beer brothers, who then sold 
their property to miners at a 
very high price. 

Cecil Rhodes and Barney 
Bamato were the founders of 
DeBeers. Barnato had jour- 
neyed to South Africa from 
London's East End, originally 
hoping to make his fortune as a 
song-and-dance man, comedian 
and boxer. When this did not 
come about, he began trading in 
ostrich feathers, sugar and 
spices, and also accumulated 
large holdings in different sec- 
tions of the Kimberley area, 
which contained the richest dia- 
mond deposits ever discovered. 
Bamato eventually formed his 
own highly successful mining 
and trading company. 

Cecil Rhodes was an Oxford- 
educated classicist, a cautious, 
taciturn man who went to south- 
ern Africa as much for his 

In a world of change, certain things endure. 



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L) I \ M ^ I) S I' R K \ K R 


i i 

Oversized link bracelet 


and acetyloide with 

54.46 carats of 

round diamonds. 

Setsuko Tsuchiya, Japan. 









When The World Is At Your Feet, 
JuvENiA Is On Your Wrist. 

by Juvenia. 
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Hers with a hah of diartionds. 
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46.86 carats 

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A V I 

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ins © Oavid Wbbb 1990 


health as out of any urge to cre- 
ate an empire. He soon got in- 
volved in mining at Kimberley, 
and perceived the necessity 

uniting the diamond 


mines. Rhodes suggested to 
Barnato that they consolidate 
their enterprises under the 
DeBeers banner, and after sev- 
eral years of negotiation, the 
two men did so. 

In the early 1900s Sir Ernest 
Oppenheimer. a broker for a 
London diamond firm, acquired 
huge mine holdings in south- 
western Africa. These were 
merged with DeBeers, and Sir 
Ernest became the head of the 
company. During the Depres- 
sion, Oppenheimer slowed 
production, thus stabilizing dia- 
mond prices. This in turn led to 
an immense postwar confidence 
in diamonds as a commodity of 
enduring value. 

Under the leadership of 
Harry Oppenheimer and his son 
Nicholas, diamonds have be- 
come a significant worldwide 
business. London, the hub of 
the international diamond in- 
dustry, is home to the Central 
Selling Organization (CSO), 
which facilitates global dia- 
mond distribution. Dealers, cut- 
ters and polishers from New 
York, Antwerp, Israel, India and 
other countries come to London 
to buy rough diann- r ' ■ the 
CSO, knowing the 
here precious raw mau 
they need. 

The diamond mines of mou: 
than twenty countries produce 
more than 98, (XX), (XX) carats of 
diamonds a year and employ 
some l.')0,(XX) people. The most 

prolific of these producers is 
Australia's Argyle mine, fol- 
lowed closely by the production 
of Zaire. Next in line are Bot- 
swana and the Soviet Union; 
South Africa is the world's fifth 
largest producer. Other dia- 
mond-producing nations in- 
clude Namibia, Angola, Brazil, 
Venezuela, Guinea, Sierra 
Leone, Liberia and the Ivory 

A Window Into 
The Invisible World 

Ways of looking at diamonds, 
as well as methods of producing 
them, have changed markedly 
over the years. But for two mil- 
lenia diamonds have exerted 
a powerful allure in virtually 
every culture. 

In India and ancient China, 
the religious concept of the "dia- 
mond body" was what lent the 
stone its allure. The diamond it- 
self was viewed as a symbol of 
the clarity and the purity of the 
Brahma. In India, even the so- 
cial hierarchy was structured ac- 
cording to a diamond-based 
system of aesthetics. In ancient 
Rome, leaders were honored by 
being awarded diamonds — 
though not of gem quality — by 
the emperor. 

In Renaissance Europe, how- 

Top.- Criss-cross bracelet of white 
gold and 47. 70 carats of round 
and radiant-cut diamonds. 
Liselott Bistrom, Italy. 

Bottom: Circle brooch wrapping 
6-plus carats of baguette 
diamonds in .silver with a soft 
sea-green copper patina. 
Beth Ann Judge, New Jersey. 




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I) I A \1 N D S FOR K \ K R 

Gold bracelet accented with 
woven silk cords studded 
with sixty-plus carats 
of round diamonds. Masayo 
Shioya, Japan. 

N T R O D U C 






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1) I \ M N 1) S F R K \ K R 

even the diamond was subser- 
vient to the design of an entire 
piece of jewelr>'. Still. Renais- 
sance princes often kept whole 
ateliers of artisans busy fashion- 
ing diamond jewelry. 

More recently, around the 
turn of the century, diamonds 
were used to effect technologi- 
cal tours de force. Cartier cre- 
ated elaborate pieces with 
intricate settings, in which each 
diamond had to be set sepa- 
rately. Whether viewed from the 
front, sides or back, each piece 
revealed a peerless level of 
craftsmanship that reflected the 
hundreds of hours devoted to its 

Since the 1960's we have 
come, curiously enough, back 
to the Indian view of the dia- 
mond, that is, to appreciate the 
diamond's quality in and of it- 
self. It's likely that this percep- 
tion reflects great wisdom: after 
all, in the words of the Talmud, 
"To understand the invisible 
world, one must carefully study 
the visible." Diamonds, in all 
their breathtaking visual beauty, 
will always be a magical win- 
dow onto the invisible world. D 

Top: White gold and 

platinum collar with 

clusters of round, white and 

jonquil diamonds totaling 

more than 113 carats. 

Graziella Polato, Italy. 

Bottom: Geometric bracelet 

with 545 round and 

square -cut diamonds 

weighing over 116 carats. 

Miyuki Tomoda, Japan. 



D ' E L I A 
Available at these fine jewelry stores: 


Jacqueline Et Cie 

Paini Springs. CA 
Warnock's Fine Jewelry 

Stockton, CA 

( ()NNK( ri( I I 
Lenox .lewelers 

Fairfield. CT 

New Canaan. CT 


(;alt & Bros. 


Congress Jewelers 
Sanibel Isle, FL 

Maier & Berkele 

Atlanta, GA 


Lake Forest Jewelers 

Lake Forest. IL 
Christopher Charles 

Oakhrook Terrace. IL 

J.C. SIpe 

Indianapolis. IN 


The First Place 

Wichita, KS 


Shauna Lund Designs 

Edina. MN 



Jackson. MS 



Coluinbia. MO 
Ladue. MO 



Red Bank, NJ 


(i rant A. Peacock 

New York, NY 


Newstedt Loring Andrews 

Cincinnati. OH 
Potter and Mellen 

Cleveland, OH 


kiiiihairs Jewelers 

Knoxville, TN 


p. K. Slurgill 

Kadlord, VA 


K. .1. Doyle 

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D I A iVl iN D S K K K \ K R 




JL or; 

or all the seductive allure of 
diamonds as loose stones, they 
are at their most exquisite as 
part of an artful design that has 
been specially created to accent 
their brilliance and mystery. 

In recognition of this, the 
DeBeers diamond company in 
1954 inaugurated an American 
diamond jewelry design compe- 
tition, to stimulate innovative 
design and to bring modem dia- 
mond jewelry looks to the 

Within three years, the con- 
test had attained worldwide rec- 
ognition and was known as 
the Diamonds-International 
Awards. The biennial awards, 
referred to as the "Oscars of the 
jewelry industry," are the most 
prestigious honor that jewelry 
designers can receive — and 
with good reason: the Dia- 
monds-International Awards 
challenge designers around the 
world to push the boundaries of 
their imaginations and creativ- 
ity in order to fashion luxurious, 
beautiful, even startling pieces 
of jeweled art. 

Entries for this year's Dia- 
monds-International Awards 
flooded in from around the 
globe. The twenty-seven win- 
ning pieces were picked from 
2,109 entries from thirty-six 
countries, and the winning de- 
signers come from thirteen dif- 
ferent nations, including Japan, 
Bra/.il. Italy, Canada, Singapore 
and the U.S., which had four 

Ayako Yoshida, one of this 

-; ■•'•r-:: •vituv-r*- fr'"-' J;'pan, 

rii.'rids in a 

■.:."■ ■ -let 

Fiery gold collar striped with 

430 round diamonds. 

Noriko Matsumoto, Japan. 

made with a black and red resin- 
coated frame. 

A counterpoint, in materials 
and design, was a bracelet by 
Dutch designer Joe Peperkamp. 
Its links of titanium, yellow 
gold, platinum and zirconium 
hold 360 diamonds, totaling 
nearly 50 carats, on a unique 
hinge that allows the bracelet to 
be worn "straight" on the wrist 
or with its links spread wide like 
peacock feathers. 

Every era has its own style, 

and prevailing standards of 
fashion have found expression 
in the Diamonds-International 
Awards competition since its in- 
ception. Big cocktail rings and 
animal brooches were all the 
rage in the 1950s, and 1960s 
designers took their cue from 
pop art, favoring bright colors, 
plastics and asymetrical set- 
tings. In the 1980s the look was 
streamlined and bold. Design- 
ers created pieces that combined 
diamonds with substances such 

as steel, granite and even meteo- 
rite. This year's award-winning 
designs reflect the sensibilities 
of the 1990s: they combine 
strength with gentle grace, sub- 
tlety with boldness. 

For instance, a cuff of plati- 
num and gold, paved with slate 
and diamonds, by Milan's Dan- 
iela Boccalini, takes these hard 
materials and integrates them 
into a fluid shape of great sen- 
suality. Akiko Wakabayashi of 
California created a choker that 
intertwines handwoven jewel- 
colored silk cords with three 
rows of 691 channel-set dia- 
mond baguettes. The icy bril- 
liance of the white diamonds 
contrasts with the warm earth 
tones of the silken cord in a cre- 
ation as strong as it is delicate. 

Cultural influences also play 
a part in each designer's work. 
Award winners from Asia often 
employ colored silk cords, rice 
paper, lacquers and resins. In 
the work of U.S. designers, rub- 
ber, plastics and titanium are 
often found. Italian pieces are 
frequently soft and curving, and 
French and German designs 
feature geometric, precise dia- 
mond creations. 

Despite the wide variety of 
their cultural points of reference 
and the tremendous range of 
materials they use, the 1990 
Diamonds-International Awards 
winners all share a single pas- 
sion: to delve into the diamond's 
brilliance and unleash its full, 
fiery potential. The 1990 Dia- 
monds-International Awards 
winners take elements born of 
the earth and of man's ingenu- 
ity, and combine them in daz- 
zlingly original works of art. D 



Sotheby's Presents: 
[impressionist and 
Modern Paintings 
VND Sculpture 

rhe Collection of 
erome K. Ohrbach 

Luction: Tuesday, November 13 at 7 pm* 
,ale code 6099 

mpressionist Art, Part I 

iiuction: Tuesday, November 13 at 7 pm* 
iale code 6094 

rapressionist Art, Part II 

iiuction: Wednesday, November 14 at 2 pm 
iale code 6096 

Property from the Estate 
)f Ned L. Pines 

Luction: Wednesday, November 14 at 2 pm 
iale code 6097 

rhe Greta Garbo Collection 

Luction: Thursday, November 15 at 2 pm* 
;ale code 6098 

nquiriesrJohnTancock, (212) 606-7360. 
lotheby's, 1334 York Avenue, 
^ew York, NY 10021. 

Lxhibitions open Friday, November 9. 

fo order illustrated catalogues with a 

redit card, call (800) 447-6843. 

'lease include sale code with your order. 

Ticket necessary for admission. 

The World's Leading 
Auction House 



Pierre Bonnard, U Vestibule, 1927, signed, oil on canvas, 39 14 by 23 % in. (99.9 bv .'»9.3 cm.). 
Properly fVoni The Collection of Jerome K. Ohibacb. Auction estimate: $2.()()().()0()-3,000,000. 

© SoilK-hys. Inc. 1990 

John L. Marion, principal am lionccr. #524728 






Sensational singer; elegant actor; 
cozy designer; horseman with a mission; dancer with a message 


Early in the 1980s, a 
young Texan so- 
prano living in Italy 
had the uneasy feehng 
that she had gone too far. 
too fast. In 1978. she had 
sung the grueling part of 
Constanze in Mozart's 
Die Etitfiihmnj^ aus dent 
Seratl at Milan's fabled La 
Scala with a mere three 
years of professional ex- 
perience behind her. The 
lack of seasoning told. On 
the second night, the ner- 
vous tension made her 
physically ill. "To start at 
the top. as I did," Leila 
Cuberli remarks today. 
"is murder." 

Staying there can be 
even worse. Two and a 
half years after the La 
Scala debut. Cuberli had 
yet to find an artistic iden- 
tity that could sustain her 
initial success. Then, 
while preparing for her 
first Semiramide, the grand 
opera seria of Gioacchino 
Rossini (1792-1868). she 
found it. She learned the 
long, taxing part of the 
wicked Babylonian queen 
in a little more than a 
week, with startling ease. 
"I felt." says this daughter 
of an El Paso minister, "as 
if Rossini had written the 
part for me. Semiramis is 
mine." And Semiramis is 
the role that brings her to 
New York this month for 
a splashy new production 
at the Metropolitan 
Opera, marking her belated 
house debut. 

Cubcrli's career belongs to 
the third stage of the great 
Rossini renaissance that began 
in 1950 when Maria C'allas, 
appearing in that composer's 
// Turco m Italia in Rome, 
proved that his exacting de- 
mands for exquisitely smooth 
breath control, expressive 
shadings of tcmp'^ and abso- 
lute clarity in dizzymg colora- 
tura were no' is many at the 
time suppfi tiK t 1 A.-rtyri- 


tive but a vehicle for truth. 
Joan Sutherland ushered in 
stage two with her Semiramis 
at La Scala in 1962, her aston- 
ishing vocal freedom revealing 
the music in all its sheer sen- 
sual glory. 

Stage three began in the 
summer of 1975, when the 
Italian musicologist and critic 
Rodolfo C'clletti organized a 
I c! canto competition in the 
to\ '>f i'eschiera del (iarda. 
Tl' ipelition pointed the 

way for an exciting new gen- 
eration of Rossini specialists — 
including the bass Samuel Ra- 
mey and the tenor C>hris Mer- 
ritt (Cuberli's colleagues in the 
Met Semiramide) as well as the 
soprano June Anderson (who 
takes over the role of Semi- 
ramis at the Met in Decem- 
ber). And the composer has a 
festival of his own, in his na- 
tive Pesaro, on the Adriatic 
Sea, where crowds gather eac h 
Slimmer to hear these new 

singers, along with such 
veterans as Marilyn Home 
and Montserrat Caballe, 
dust off forgotten master- 

When Cuberli entered 
her first Peschiera competi- 
tion, Celletti found her "so 
shy, closed, and taciturn 
that one had difficulty un- 
derstanding how and why 
she chose to pursue the sen- 
sational career of a prima 
donna." But about her 
voice and artistry he had no 
doubt: "Rapid, arduous, 
precise, and seemingly end- 
less cadenzas unravel with 
the fluent definition of a 
high-precision instru- 
ment. . . . An occasional 
languid patina, or a way of 
giving an edge to a flourish 
or a roulade — these uncover 
what Rossini defined as the 
secret of his coloratura, the 
'hidden accents.'" To Cu- 
berli's own surprise, she 
shared first prize with Mar- 
tine Dupuy, the French 
mezzo, who has since be- 
come one of her favorite 

Meanwhile, Cuberli has 
grown as both a dramatic 
and a musical artist. In a 
^ rare production of Mozart's 
s early Lucio Silla, the chal- 
g lenging young director Pa- 
> trice Chereau helped her 
c transform herself into a hal- 
< lucinatory phantom, her 
I agonized body trailing 
I across the ground, express- 
i ing a yearning for death even 
z as she sang arias of terrifying 
virtuosity. The late Herbert 
von Karajan tested her limits 
another way while recording 
Beethoven's Missa Solemnis. 
"His hands hardly moved," 
she recalls. "His eyes were 
fixed on mine, and by the 
sheer strength of his look, he 
would pull the best out of me. 
And my Ciod, to sing that mu- 
sic pianissimo — it is difficult/' 
Cuberli's soprano, as she is 
perfectly well aware, is not 
one of those large instruments 
Met audiences tend to favor. 
But volume is not the only 



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way to fill a house. Says Dan- 
iel Barenboim. the conductor 
with whom she is recording a 
series of prima donna roles in 
Mozart operas tor the Erato 
label, "Leila has a voice of 
such incredible intensity, for 
me she is one of the very tew 
artists who could do almost 
anything." But he cautions 
that her success at the Met will 
depend on whether or not the 
conductor gives her "the right 

Michel Glotz, the Paris- 
based power broker who until 
recently managed her career 
but grew exasperated at her 
unwillingness to accept en- 
gagements under less than op- 
timal conditions, pays Cuberli 
a perhaps unintentional com- 
pliment: "She's more like a 
prima donna of thirty years 
ago than a contemporary 
diva. ' Cuberli considers her 
circumspection a matter of 
survival. "Onstage," she says, 
"I never have the time to feel 
pleasure in the physical, sen- 
sual sense of the word. I have 

to He like a computer, to think 
of everything at once. My 
pleasure comes from control- 
ling perfectly the situation, 
my voice, my gestures — trom 
being the boss. You have to 
make too many sacrifices in 
order to be in second-rate pro- 
ductions. If the work takes too 
much and gives you too little, 
why go on? I'd rather raise 
horses in Montana." 
— Mark Hunter and 

Use Bloch-Morhange 

5^ Mark Hunter's Le Prince 
de Paris: Jacques Lang and Lise 
Bloch-Morhange's Vies de Diva 
were published last month. 


In the 1989 movie Say Any- 
thing, he wears a billowing 
tan topcoat and a pair of 
hightops and makes them 
seem princely. There is a 
courtly formality to his walk. 
As he and his date (lone Skye) 
cross a parking lot, he spies a 
broken bottle on the pavement 



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and. gingerly flickmg it aside 
with his sneaker, escorts her 
safely past it. 

Of the brat-pack generation 
of actors. John Cusack is the 
most poetic. There is a wisttul 
elegance about him. When he 
talks, his words tumble out 
like Jelly Roll arpeggios, his 
tonsils working overtime just 
to keep up with his racing 
thoughts. His distinctive talent 
should make him compelling 
to watch as the con artist, op- 
posite Anjelica Huston, in 
Stephen Frears's The Grifiers, 
which opens this month, and 
as an ambitious politico in 
Herbert Ross's True Colors, 
due out later this year. 

Cusack. the son of an actor 
and filmmaker from Chicago, 
started out early, at the age of 
seventeen — he is now twenty- 
four — following in the foot- 
steps of his older sister Joan. 
He made his hrst impression 
as the mouth-breathing sub- 
geek in John Hughes's Sixteen 
Candles (1984). and since then 
he has starred in routine teen- 
sploitation films that 
had much less to offer 
than he did. 

But if those pic- 
tures were crass and 
brainless, Cusack 
never was. Even un- 
der the most compro- 
mising circum- 
stances, he held on to 
his dignity, serene in 
the assurance that 
better roles were in 
his future. Indeed, the 
skies turned brighter 
in 1985, when he 
played a college 
freshman in Rob 
Reiner's The Sure 
Tiling. Starring oppo- 
site Daphne Zuniga, 
he was still the kind 
of sprouting adult 
who chugged milk 
straight out of the 
carton, and his eccen- 
tric, postadolcsccnt 
goofiness was irresis- 
tible. Later, the roles 
he played had a 
greater gravity. He 
gave a poignant sim- 
plicity to the charac- 
ter of Buck Weaver, 
the Chicago Wl)if< 

Sox third baseman mjohn 
Sayles's E{^lit Men Out. hi Ro- 
land Joffe's Fat Man and Little 
Boy, his dance routine, a 
jukey solo tapped out for his 
girlfriend (Laura Dern) in 
golden sunlight, is the movie's 
blissful high point. 

What Cusack does better 
than anyone else is capture the 
in-between moment in grow- 
ing up when the emerging 
adult and the kid play cat and 
mouse. He is a master ot play- 
ing characters on the teasing 
cusp of becoming. 

— Hal Hinson 

&^ Hal Hinson is the film critic 
for the Washington Post. 


Tessa Kennedy is a pret- 
ty woman who looks 
as it she had just 
dropped her children off at 
nursery school. It is hard to 
believe that she started work- 
ing for the London designer 
David Mlinaric {Cotnioisseur, 
December 1987) twenty-five 

years ago. hi 1985 she set up 
on her own. She has designed 
a house for Richard Burton 
and a yacht for Niarchos; she 
is now working on a Gothic 
mansion for George Harrison. 
She is a romantic. In Gstaad 
she has designed an indoor 
swimming pool lit by 500, OOO 
tiny lights. But her fantasy is 
backed by the experience for 
her to know exactly what can 
be done and how to do it. 

Lately she has redesigned a 
number of suites at Claridge's. 
On the day I was to go with 
her to see them. King Con- 
stantine of Greece was giving 
a ball for his fiftieth birthday, 
and they were all full. Clar- 
idge's is traditionally the hotel 
in London where deposed 
royalty and foreign dignitaries 
stay. Used to autocratic de- 
mands, the concierge says that' 
their new designer has made 
his job much easier. "People 
used to ask for a certain room, 
and nothing else would do. 
Now they say, 'Anything by 
Tessa Kennedy.' 

• X.KAI'II < tl I I SSA Kl NNI DY liV liAVII) MON l(.( )M. 

The two tartan suites are 
particular favorites. Both are 
carpeted in Kennedy tartan; 
the bigger has a stag's head 
over the fireplace, an antler 
chandelier, and tartan curtains; 
the smaller, Scottish paintings 
and a frieze of thistles on walls 
painted to simulate wood. 
There is a royal suite with a 
specially woven, rich, trellis- 
patterned carpet and curtains 
of a lush mixture of paisley 
linen and rust-and-dark-blue 
taffeta. And there are three 
suites where the original art 
deco features have been em- 
phasized, the curves of the 
mirrors echoed in the new bed 
heads, and the old light fix- 
tures set in plaster columns 
that look of the period. All the 
suites have soft, inviting sofas 
and easy chairs. 

Where in the beginning the 
hotel asked for detailed plans 
of her designs, it now gives 
Tessa Kennedy a free hand. 
Work has just been completed 
on a Renaissance room, where 
the walls are being covered in 
canvas that an artist has 
painted to look like 
stamped leather; and 
two rooms are being 
transformed into luxu- 
rious boxes — one Bie- 
dermeier, one Regency — 
where doors, beds, 
walls, and cupboards are 
being made in gleaming 
wood to give a yachtlike 

The special charm of 
her rooms at Claridge's 
lies in the fact that she 
has shopped for each one 
as if she were shopping 
for herself. The display 
^ cabinet in the royal suite 
S contains an eclectic col- 
;;; lection of china, glass, 
5 and silver and is topped 
S by a mismatched group 
^ ot blue-and-whitejars; 
z the paintings arc Impres- 
I sionists she bought at a 
> sale of fakes. She made a 
5 collage tor one of the 
I tartan rooms of old 
Z Scottish prints and some 
I Royal Stewart silk. 
< Propped on tables are 
i silver photograph 
» frames often containing 
photographs of one of 



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her own five children. 
These rooms have none of the 
deadening anonymity of the 
usual hotel suite. Tessa Ken- 
nedy "s remarkable touch 
makes you feel as if you were 
staying in a very grand but 
much loved house. Or palace. 
— Mary McDoujiall 

5^ Mary McDougall is a contri- 
butitiii editor o/Connoisseur. 


To most people, the 
United States Eques- 
trian Team should be, 
well, a team. To the horsey 
set. though, it is their sport's 
ruling body. Most notably, it 
finances and selects the teams 
to represent the United States 
in world competitions in four 
disciplines — combined driv- 
ing, dressage, show jumping, 
and eventing. 

The USET's new president 
is Finn Caspersen, an energetic 
forty-nine-year-old with the 
sharp, determined look of a 
man who usually gets his way. 





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He has his work cut out for 
him. He must raise money, 
oversee the committees that 
rule on the four equestrian 
sports, and generally raise the 
public awareness of the sports. 

Caspersen is well suited to 
the job. A passionate horse- 
man, he has already done 
much to make the difficult and 
expensive sport of four-in- 
hand driving more popular; 
his team, driven by Bill Long, 
is the best in the nation. But 
his strongest suit is that he is a 
proven leader. The CEO of 
Beneficial Corporation, a lead- 
ing consumer-finance compa- 
ny, and a member of the 
boards of many nonprofit in- 

stitutions, he knows how to 
motivate people: "Show them 
the importance of what they 
are doing and allow them to 
take the credit." How does he 
run the USET? "I delegate 
very significantly and give in- 
dividuals the room to succeed 
or fail." 

His immediate goal is sim- 
ple; "to have a balanced bud- 
get by 1991." With that 
achieved, there will be more 
opportunities to compete in- 
ternationally, which will give 
the United States teams a 
sharper edge in the tough in- 
ternational arena. At the 
World Equestrian Games in 
Stockholm last July, even the 


show-jumping team came in a 
disappointing fourth behind 
strong teams from West Ger- 
many, Great Britain, and 
France. But Caspersen is un- 
fazed: "We not only have the 
same talent and training as the 
Europeans; we have the ability 
to improve dramatically be- 
fore the 1992 Olympics." In 
his low-key way he is saying 
that the USET has no excuse 
for failure. Finn Caspersen, 
characteristically, is putting 
himself on the line. 

— Mary Ann Flynn 

^^ Mary Ann Flynn is writing 
a book about training and show- 
ing h.iinters. 


In the dances of Bill 
T. Jones, art and pol- 
itics have always 
been partners. Black, 
gay, and the tenth of 
twelve children born to 
migrant workers, the 
artistic director of Bill 
T. Jones/Arnie Zane and 
Company thrives on 

"Whenever I start 
talking about my work, 
I end up talking about 
my life," says Jones, 
whose longtime collabo- 
rator and lover, Arnie 
■ Zane, died two years 
ago. Zane (short, sin- 
ewy, white) and Jones 
(tall, elegant) made an 
unlikely pair, and in ear- 
ly duets they accen- 
tuated their sharply con- 
trasting qualities of 
movement. The dance 
company they founded 
in 1982 is known not 
only for its hot-wired 
athleticism but for the 
diverse physiques of its 

"When our seventeen- 
year relationship ended, 
I suddenly needed to de- 
fine who I was," says 
Jones. "I'd always been 
at odds with my own 
history, so I started ask- 
ing myself c|uestions." process prompt- 

ed Last Supper at Uncle Tom 's 
Cabin. Featuring Jones, his 
twelve-member troupe, and 
music by Julius Hemphill, a 
founder of the World Saxo- 
phone Quartet, the piece takes 
off from Harriet Beecher 
Stowe's novel and Leonardo's 
painting in an effort to tackle 
such topics as racism, censor- 
ship, and sexual conflict. 

Having once been labeled 
an Uncle Tom, Jones was anx- 
ious to reevaluate "this politi- 
cally incorrect person I'd been 
accused of being." But he also 
saw a need to look further: 
"The work can't just be about 
me and my struggle. It has to 
engage the public and its fears 
of blacks, homosexuals, dis- 
ease, and death." 

En route to its premiere, 
this month at the Brooklyn 
Academy of Music's Next 
Wave Festival, Last Supper has 
already stirred bitter contro- 
versy. Its final image is a stage 
full of naked bodies, offering, 
in Jones's view, a hopeful 
promise of a more tolerant 
world. During workshops at 
the University of Minnesota, 
however, the school discour- 
aged students from appearing 
nude as part of a course. Jones 
was chagrined when most 
went along. 

The idea for Last Supper 
came from Arnie Zane, who 
jokingly proposed it as he lay 
in a hospital bed thinking of 
Stowe's Eliza on the ice floe 
leaping to freedom and con- 
templating who would attend 
his "last supper." "Then Ar- 
nie died," says Jones, "and I 
was left with this outrageous 
title." Interweaving fragments 
of spoken text with dance, 
Jones has drawn his stage pic- 
tures from a rich array of 
sources: sporting events, min- 
strel shows, paintings of saints 
in Venetian churches, and ear- 
ly American black dances. 

"I don't want people to 
have any doubts about how I 
feel or what I stand for," says 
Jones. "It's important that 
they know it's a black voice 
and that it speaks for the uni- 
versal." — Diane Solway 

5^ Diane Solway has written on 
dance for many publications. 


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By Thomas H o v i n ci 

Krakow, all but lost to Western eyes for over two Krakowian Jews died, is a scant fifty-four kilome- 

generations, is ripe for rediscovery. No passionate ters away — yet the beauty of the medieval and 

artlover can afford to miss it. Poland's third-largest Renaissance heritage is undiminished. Now un- 

city, always in the path of armies, Krakow has had a dergoing extensive restoration, Krakow pos- 

turbulent history. The seat of ancient warrior sesses architectural marvels — Wawel Castle, the 

kings, razed by the Tatars in the 
thirteenth century, rose to un- 
equaled splendor in the four- 
teenth century as the royal capital 
of art, learning, and commerce, 
only to see its fortunes fall at the 
dawn of the seventeenth century, 
when the monarchy moved to 

"Goethe slept here. " Krakow ahoiiiidi 
with funis like this plaque. 

Jagiellonian University, the 
church of Saint Mary — to rival 
the most glorious in Europe, 
not to mention Rynek Glowny, 
one of the most singular and 
charming town squares in Eu- 
rope. And a half dozen of the 
city's artistic treasures occupy a 

Warsaw. Then came centuries of religious and pinnacle of perfection where ranking simply be- 

political wars, plague, death, and famine — a verita- comes a meaningless exercise. 

ble Armageddon — before a return to grandeur in Unlike Florence, say, or Rome, where tlie sheer 

the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. quantity of magnificent art treasures can become 

More-recent history has been, once again, bru- overwhelming, Krakow is manageable. The best 

tal — Auschwitz and Birkenau, where thousands of the city has to offer takes second place to nothing 

Fhotcm;raimis by N i c; t) l a s 13 k u a n t 

^tart with Leonardo da Vinci's finest work 



Si. Amie's Church f/JiVowict-i the splendor 
and exuberance of the late Polish baroque. 









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else on earth. The rest has its graceful, 
lower-key fascination. What more civ- 
ilized pleasure can be imagined than 
wandering amid such plenty in search of 
private discovery? 

But first, the peaks. Two of them are 
to be found in the Czartoryski Museum, 
at the end of Sw. Jana Street, adjacent to 
the imposing baroque Piarist church. 
The museum building mimics Dutch 
domestic architecture. Objets d'art — 
medieval reliquaries, fme Italian majoli- 
ca, banners, flags, and one Turkish tent 
captured in battle — are housed on the 
ground floor, with paintings on the sec- 
ond. The Czartoryski family gathered together a pleasing 
array of Flemish, Dutch, and German portraits. There is a 
female portrait formerly thought to be a Lucas Cranach of 
Martin Luther's wife. No longer accepted as such, she 
remains a stunning miage of pinched-lipped probity. Some 
worthy Italian pictures of the late Renaissance also merit 
attention. But the fame of the collection rests squarely on two 
pieces; Rembrandt's finest landscape and Leonardo da Vinci's 
finest work in any genre. They are worth a trip to the ends of 
the earth. 

The Rembrandt, painted in 1638, is small, measuring only 
18'/4 by 24Vh inches. It is an oil on wood, some of which is 
starting to show through the thin layer of glazes. In deep shad- 
ows that fall from a great oak, almost exactly at the center of 

The Chamber of Deputies at Wawel Castle 
(lower left), with its stunniti^ carved, painted 
ceilinq^ (top left). Other Krakow attractions, 
clockwise from top ri^ht: the sassy putti at St. 
Anne's Church; the Clothiers Hall, on Rynek 
Glowny (Market Square), the center of city 
life; and the peerless Leonardo Lady with an 

Ermine (1483-85), in the Czartoryski 
Museum, ivorth a trip to the end of the earth. 

the painting, a naked man on muleback 
is being brought to someone near the 
tree; the subject is the Good Samaritan. 
But what accounts for the spiritual 
power of this work are not the biblical 
overtones but the divine, almost hereti- 
cal, beauty and power of nature itself. A 
storm boiling inside gunmetal gray 
clouds seems about to immerse the 
landscape yet presents no threat to the 
radiance of the sun that shines through 
upon a distant village. 

The Leonardo is the enchanting and 
mysterious Lady ivith an Ermine (1483- 
85), painted probably during the same 
period as The Vir^^in of the Rocks and once the high point of 
what may have been the single finest collection of paintings 
ever assembled — that of Emperor Rudolf II (see "Prague: A 
Basement Full of Masterpieces," Cotinoisseur, August 1990). 
Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski bought it in Italy at the end of 
the eighteenth century. Some scholars believe the enchanting 
young woman to be Cecilia Gallerani, thought to have been 
the mistress of Ludovico il Moro at his court in Milan. 

In the 1950s, when the painting was about to be cleaned, it 
was X-rayed. Experts wondered what they would find 
underneath the jet black background, which was patently of a 
later date than the portrait. Some expected to find some detail 
of an interior, perhaps a window, perhaps with a landscape in 
the distance. As the full examination showed, Leonardo had 


emhnndt's most moving landscape is here. 



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indeed chosen a solid background — 
perhaps to show that he could conjure 
up an almost flamboyant humanity and 
vivacity against its bloodless neutrality. 
(The examination also revealed his 
choice of color to have been dark blue 
rather than black, but the overpainting 
has been merely cleaned, not removed.) 
Although the beautiful young woman is 
serenity itself, the twisting, muscular 
creature seems powerful enough to 
strike out and maim anyone who draws 
too near his mistress — or possibly even 
his mistress herself 

The colors seem at first glance to be 
muted but soon begin to blaze. The combination of unreality 
and stark naturalism — that feeling of purity and incipient vio- 
lence, that yin-yang of beauty and the beast — makes me sus- 
pect that there is more to this painting than a portrait of a 
gorgeous young woman rendered with an unparalleled tech- 
nique. It would not surprise me at all to learn that she is Pop- 
paea, the wife of Nero, whose tranquil visage veiled a host ot 
evils, or perhaps a witch. Enigmatic, lovely, unforgettable, 
this represents Leonardo at his most powerful. 

One of the least-known periods of art history is Cernian 
late Gothic, from around 1450 to 1510. In American 
museums, mere fragments exist, hi Germany itself much has 
been destroyed, not only in this century's wars but also dur- 
ing the baroque and rococo periods. But mostly the art ot the 

Varied treasure (clockwise from bottom ri<^lit}: 

Veit Stoss's hi^h altar at St. Mary's; Wawel 

Cathedral; Landscape with Three Bridges 

(cig^liteenth century, artist unkno:i'ii) and 

Rembrandt's Landscape with the Good 

Samaritan, both in the Czartoryski Museum; 

a Franciscan convent restored; Watcel Castle's 

inner courtyard; Turkish tents won in battle 

in I6H3, also at the C^zartoryski Museum. 

period languishes under our prejudices. 
German sculptors of the period covered 
their carved figures with glossy paint 
and gilding so thick it looks like gold 
plating. The manner is so much at odds 
with what we think proper sculpture 
should be — the pure marble, ungar- 
nished, as in the sculpture of the Italian 
Renaissance — that without an act of will 
we can barely even sec it. 

From written descriptions we know 
of dozens of huge wood, painted and 
gilded biblical tableaux that pilgrims by 
the thousands traveled from all over 

Europe to see. Few of these grandiose 
altarpieces survive. Tilman Riemenschneider's vast creation 
in the Herrgottskirche, near the German town of Oeglingen. 
is one. Another, no less riveting, by Michael Pacher, is in the 
church ot St. Wolfgang, near Salzbiug. But the largest, finest, 
and most dramatic of all — even in the days when such w iirks 
abounded — is the high altar in the church of St Mary, in Mar- 
ket Square in Krakow, carved by the master Veit Sttiss 
between 1477 and 1489. 

Each day at noon as a nun c^pens the wings ot the altar, an 
organ sounds the joyous moment. With its exteriiM- wings 
carved in low relief showing scenes from the lite of C'hrist, the 
lofty machine, some thirty-six feet tall, is apt to take one's 
breath away. But then tew people are prepared for the awe- 

(Coiitiiiiicd on poji^c 176) 

Oo is the most grandiose altarpiece on earth. 




G O E 


a he world's greatest male ballet dancer has hit 
his forties and has a bad knee. What does he do 
next? Start a new dance project. "I thought," 
says Mikhail Baryshnikov,the dancer in ques- 
tion, "'there is a couple of years left, for fun." 
Cither ballet stars in his predicament have 
found themselves a big ballet company to run, but he had 
already run one. By 1989, he had spent nine, hard years direct- 
ing American Ballet Theatre. When he quit, it was to get away 
from all that. Indeed, he went straight to Brussels to fulfill a 
prior commitment to appear in a new modern-dance piece by 
Mark Morris, who emerged in the eighties as America's most 
important young choreographer. Morris, age thirty-four, 
had created a beautiful work for ABT in 1988 at Baryshni- 
kov's behest, and by the time Baryshnikov showed up in 
Brussels, where Mor- 
ris's company is now 
based, the two men 
were not just artistic as- 
sociates. They were 

Actually, Baryshni- 
kov fell into a whole cir- 
cle of friends. Along 
with Morris, there were 
Morris's veteran danc- 
ers and his charismatic, 
cigar-smoking man- 
ager, Barry Alterman. 
In this circle, Baryshni- 
kov saw the germ of a 
new dance troupe. He 
could afford to finance a 
modest-size touring 
group, and another 
close friend, the paper- 
manufacturing magnate and philanthropist Howard Oilman, 
stood ready with rehearsal facilities on White Oak Plantation, 
his foundation's 7,50()-acrc estate in Florida. "So I asked Mark 
to come up with a situation, how we want to work." 

The situation Morris came up with was Baryshnikov plus 
three other men and four women. In the future, they might 
perform pieces by other choreographers, but for now (and, 
according to Baryshnikov, for as long as Morris is available) it 
is Morris's show. This first season, they will perform two 
older Morris works, Ten Suj^i^estions and Goin^^ Away Party, 
and two new ones — a group piece, Motorcade, to Saint-Saens's 
Septet and a smaller piece, perhaps a male trio — made special- 
ly for what is now, in honor of Howard Oilman's generosity, 
called the White Oak Dance Project. They will open in Bos- 
ton with a single, gain i-crformance on October 24 and then 
tour the Midwest and the South for four weeks, making 
Baryshnil<'> i obably the first ballet star in history to cap his 
career by starnn:' up ,i uuxli rii-d;j,ice troupe. 

MoRKis cavts Baryshnikov i he mcwes for Ten Suggestions. 

At White Oak during the rehearsal period, Baryshnikov 
looks serenely happy. His knee is acting up — one of the most 
important knees in the world — but he seems untroubled. Of 
course. White Oak is the kind of place to make one feel that 
way. Dotted with air-conditioned gazebos, it has a lake and a 
river, a tennis court, assorted swimming pools and hot tubs, 
and a golf course. It has a wildlife preserve housing fifty-eight 
different varieties of endangered species — gerenuk, white 
Siberian tiger, dama gazelle, reticulated giraffe. It has various 
lodges and glass-walled guest houses, all connected by red 
paths of scented pine chips. It has a huge, well-equipped dance 
studio. In the midst of this paradise — in the pool room of the 
main lodge, to be exact — Baryshnikov sits with his knee 
propped up and his big, dusty dog Tim at his side. "Jesus," he 
says, "I should have done this eight years ago." 

His memories of 
American Ballet The- 
atre are bitter, but he 
feels that ABT's prob- 
lems are shared by all 
large ballet companies. 
And he has thought 
hard about the reasons. 
"They create a lot of 
beauty but also a very 
monstrous attitude to- 
ward dance — very neg- 
ative juices. Because 
I there is so much pres- 
> sure — from the box of- 

1 fice to the reviews to the 
^ sponsors — all that 

2 bloody circle, which 
5 breeds the most horrify- 
ing qualities in people. 
It is pretty much a rotten 

system, from the inside out and the bottom up." 

The White Oak Dance Project reverses that system. It is 
small. Furthermore, the people in it are not young dancers 
jockeying for position and killing themselves with Tab-and- 
banana diets but seasoned performers, many with big reputa- 
tions. Jamie Bishton, twenty-nine, of ABT, and Denise Pons, 
thirty-one, of Boston Ballet, are the babies of the group and 
the only ones under contract to other companies. The remain- 
der, including Peggy Baker, Rob Besserer, Nancy Colahan, 
Kate Johnson, and William Pizzuto, are older — the troupe's 
average age is thirty-six — and for orthopedic or philosophical 
reasons have left the companies in which, for the most part, 
they were stars. So they are mature artists, less interested now 
in advancement than in art and specifically, at this moment, 
the art of Mark Morris. "We all admire Mark's work," says 
Baryshnikov, "and we'd rather do that than anything else. 
That's the thread that unites us." 
Another thread is friendship. Most of these people have 


Joan A c o o i i i a 





worked together in the past or wanted to. The New York 
dance world is Hke an Appalachian village; its tribes overlap, 
interbreed. No sooner does anybody get ajob than he calls his 
friends from his last job. From day one, the White Oak danc- 
ers — many of them veterans of the Lar Lubovitch and Hannah 
Kahn troupes — have all been friends, or friends of friends. 
Asked why he joined the group, Jamie Bishton answered, 
"For love of the people who were doing it." 

There were other reasons to join. It is a well-fnianced pro- 
ject, for one thing. ("The chartered plane didn't hurt," says 
Besserer.) It is also a democratic one. Yes, Baryshnikov will 
do the show's one solo number. Ten Siig^^estioiis, but in the 
other pieces, as in so much of Mark Morris's work, the 
emphasis is on the group and the individuals therein, with 
each one presented as a distinct, interesting human being. 
"What Mark wants," 
Nancy Colahan says, 
"is for you to be as hon- 
est in your performance 
as possible. So you can 
free up." They do. And 
since, in addition, they 
were trained in different 
companies and were in 
fact chosen by Morris for 
their strength as indi- 
viduals, they make a re- 
markable assortment. 
To see them moving 
downstage single-file, 
as they do in the new 
Saint-Saens piece, is a 
little like watching the 
line in front of Noah's 
ark. There is Kate John- 
son, with her fleet feet 
and canted runs, her heritage from eight years with the Faul 
Taylor company. There is Baryshnikov, with his pure, Kirov 
breeding. There is Besserer, six foot four, the Gentle (iiant. 
("I am the world's largest, oldest modern dancer, " he says. As 
It happens, he is only forty.) There is Denise Pons, the long- 
lined American ballet dancer. By the end of the piece, you teel 
you know each of them. 

Aside from the pleasure of being asked to be themselves, 
the dancers seem to delight simply in the high quality of Mor- 
ris's work. Prior to the White Oak project, Kate Johnson had 
just retired from the Taylor company. "I felt burnt-out," she 
says. "I had started not being able to fmd places to explore 
dancing anymore. But this has been a tremendous rejuvena- 
tion. Now I think I still have something to say m this art form. 
Now I want to dance a little longer." They all seem to feel 
nourished by Morris's work. "It's as if he's always feeding 
you," Denise Pons explains. "And you want to be with him, 
because you want to eat." 

What is so nourishing about it? Different dancers mention 
different things — how logical the work is, how complex, 

For Lovh and moni-.y i iik i)ANc:tRS(;hi uuii 1 1 d on .\/( ) /< >;.■< \/i; 

how dancey — but all of them mention one thing, the musical- 
ity of Morris's choreography: the close fit of the steps to the 
music; their rich, elastic relation to the rhythm. "That's really 
the meaning of his work, rhythmic perfection," says Peter 
Wing Healey, the troupe's rehearsal director. "He's created 
this world out of musical perfection." For William Pizzuto, 
the beauty of Morris's musicality is in the bond it creates with 
the audience: "In a dance concert, the only thing that really 
connects the performers and the audience is the music. And 
so, because Mark's choreography is always in the framework 
of the music, the audience and the dancers are never discon- 
nected. The tie is never broken." 

The dancers also love the wit of Morris's choreography, its 
modern, uncornylook. In Motorcade, for example, Baryshni- 
kov and Kate Johnson have a duet, at the end of which you 

might expect him to lift 
her and carry her off- 
stage. Instead, a differ- 
ent man comes in and 
carries her offstage. 
Then another m a n 
comes in and carries Ba- 
ryshnikov offstage. It is 
a heavenly maneuver, 
and typical of Morris's 
brand of profundity, 
where pathos is so often 
balanced against hu- 
mor, the suspension of 
disbelief against the 
reassertion of artifice. 
The duet was full of 
plangent feeling, but 
now it is finished, and 
the movers have come. 
"It's like, 'C^kay, your 
Morris explains to me after 
rehearsal. He cackles, and pops another Heineken. It is not 
only his choreography that is witty; he is too. Indeed, he is 
probably the funniest man in dance today. The dancers love 
this; they feel that it lightens their work. Actually, it is one 
with the work. Both are products of this brain's endless fresh- 
ness and fecundity, its love of play. Morris is a young 
genius — that rare thing — and at this moment a happy one. He 
is making dances, the one thing he seems to like to do, and tor 
artists whom he honors and who honor him. 

Why, 1 ask him, did he choose the Saint-Saens Septet for his 
big group piece? Full of flourishes — fanfares on the trumpet, 
runs on the piano — the score has a kind of innocent pompos- 
ity, a late-nineteenth-century self-satisfaction. "But that's 
why I wanted it," Morris says, "because it is pompous. For 
this group of people and for this sort of show — in other 
words, for something that's really, really, really impor- 
tant — it's perfect. It's an announcement. TA-l^AH!"n 

2^ Joan Acocella i> o dance critic wlio lives in New "i'ork. 


e is over — it s time to go. 







unTutored indulgence more than anything else 


nc of the Victorian transformation. . . - The furniture 
produc s of the time were rhapsodies m wood mvolvmg 
Confused Greek forms, Turkish opulence, Venetian and 
Horentine extravagance, Napoleonic Empire with Egyp- 
tian motifs and Louis XV, to say nothmg of . . . tads . . . 
bv the later (1870s) manufacturers of turmture. 
Vorty years after the publication of this mdictment, Vic- 
torian design IS still regarded as somethmg of an exotic. 
Georgian rLams the aesthetic touchstone. But change is 
definitely in the air. 

"Five or ten years ago the market 
for Victorian furniture was minus- 
cule," says William J. Iselin, the 
vice-president in charge of European 
furniture at Christie's New York. 
"Today it is becoming increasingly 
sophisticated and developed." And 
that means rising prices: two years 
ago, a set of eight latc-Victorian ma- 
hogany dining chairs by the London 
firm of Edwards ik Roberts sold at 
Christie's for $93,500, over three 
times the estimate. 

The growing interest in Victorian 

One of six oak 

chairs, ca. 1H6(). 

objects reflects a change in the way collectors buy George 
Lew the director of Blairman's, one of the first London 
delle'rs to trade m nineteenth-century architect-designed 
furn ture observes, "People used to buy thmgs pnmari y 
because tkey were pretty. But the new generation is much 
more mtellectually mvolved in collectmg; they re mter 
more possible to satisfy in nineteenth-century furniture 

^'ce;::^S^F:i^enth-century ol^ects represent the 
aee of eleglnce, Victorian represents the age of exuberant 
eTf-confidence. But beneath the outward fo-^^^l^l 
manv Victorian thmgs is an endearing, almost childhke 
Snative spirit expressed m the application of ornament 
for Tts own 'sake, much of it inappropriate in eigh- 
teenth-century terms. Examples of the 
fmest work fairly revel in their own 
magnificence: the brilliantly grained 
woods and figured veneers; the riotous 
ornament— carved, applied, painted, 
gilt, inlaid; the bold sizes, shapes, 
colors, and textures. Combmed, they 
yield an undeniable drama that fires the 
imagination. If your taste runs to Shak- 

Octa^^onal English 
oak tabic, made 
cnouiid 1840; the 
fireplace surround is 
set with ('(ir/y-fn^c"- 
ticth-ccntury tiles. 

i)HC)T(x;uAi>ns by len jenshel 





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A double writing 

desk, ca 
lamps, o 

1900; a 

Scottish I ^rts attd 
Crafts ^rr 


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■fi(;urhi) vhni;i:rs. 

'ft • 





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"^ EiiglulrGoaiu . 
desky f^oujc (hairs, .. 

:^ lamp; Moms 

drapes; Arts and 
Crafts rug. 



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er. or eightccnth-ccntury Connecti- 
cut simplicity, high-style Victorian 
will come as a shock. Sometimes 
overall shape seems sacrificed to de- 
tail — a chair may become the me- 
dium for the decoration rather than 
the other way around. You have to 
look closely at Victorian pieces be- 
cause you never know what intricate 
wonders you will fmd — from a gar- 
den of roses carved on the crest of an 
armchair to allegories of the four 
seasons painted on the panels of a 
cabinet to the voyages of Ulysses 
chased on a silver tray. 

It is no wonder that Herve Aaron, 
one of several dealers who have put 
their professional faith behind the 
contmued growth ot the Victorian 

market, observes, "Current collectors of Victorian tend to be 
artistic themselves." 

Aaron — who directs the New York branch of Didier 
Aaron. Parisian specialists in eighteenth-century French fur- 
niture — has mounted pioneering exhibitions of Biedermeier 
and American Victorian furniture, hi his show this month, 
"Memories and Visions: Historic Revivals and Modernism" 
(November 8 through December 1), Aaron, in collaboration 
with the London gallery Ciancimino, Ltd., ventures into 
English revival furniture, in a style that has attracted the inter- 
est of American museum curators but is largely unexplored 
by American collectors. Two works stand out: a Gothic-revi- 
val oak side table after a design bv A. 
W . N . Pugin ( 1 8 1 2-52) and a day bed 
in the classical-revival mode once 
owned by the poet Tennyson. Prices 
range from S5,000 to $7, ()()(), for a 
pair of chairs, to a possible SI 00,000, 
for a set ot dining-room furniture 
designed by Sir Robert Lorimer. 

What emerges most strongly 
from the show is that the term "Vic- 
torian" covers a wide variety of 
overlapping revival styles. The ex- 
hibition includes representative 
pieces of Gothic and Renaissance re- 
vivals, neoclassical, Arts and Crafts, 
late-Victorian modern Gothic, and 
even a few examples of pericnl 
avant-garde. If these numerous re- 
vival styles are daunting to today's 
layman, Victorian critics too were 

Benson tea set, tiay: Kiidei sandwich serret 

Oak (hair. (a. Jfi40. 

troubled by the profusion of histori- 
cal styles and by the thought that 
their age lacked a clearly identifiable 
style of its own. 

Yet the Victorians do not repre- 
sent an isolated movement in his- 
tory. One hears too many tour 
guides in nineteenth-century house 
museums refer to them as if they had 
landed en masse from another planet 
in 1837 and vanished in 1901, leav- 
ing behind a lot of carved rosewood 
and button tufting. The Victorian 
period, in fact, was part of a contin- 
uous development from the eigh- 
teenth century through our own 
• time. Gothic revival, rococo revi- 
val, Renaissance revival, and the 
various other styles borrowed ele- 
ments from one another and served as departure points for 
designers, manufacturers, and merchants to whom the past 
was a gushing fount of picturesque fancy. 

Undeniably, Pugin, Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, and other 
nineteenth-century arbiters of taste and design shared an 
overwhelming revival mentality. They and their public were 
beguiled by a perception of the past that was colored by a 
wealth of archaeological discovery and by the sense of unease 
that accompanied life in the sooty industrial age. 

But the eclectic spirit we identify with Victorian decorative 
arts was by no means exclusive to the nineteenth century. In 
his book Hi^^h Victorian Dai^in, Simon Jervis, former deputy 
curator of the department of furniture and woodwork at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, notes: "The passionate anc 
exclusive advocacy of Gothic by Pugin and Ruskin is a mirroi 
image of earlier propaganda in favor of Grecian art. The con- 
trary notion of the inter- 
changeability of styles was 
put into practice by Robert 
Adam and Sir John Soane 
. . . long before mid- 
Victorian pattern-books and 
architectural manuals codi- 
fied it." 

Gothic revival is the eas- 
iest Victorian style to isolate 
because its decorative ele- 
ments — pointed arches, tre- 
foils and quatrefoils, carved 
spires and leafy crockets — 
are so recognizable. Begin- 
ning in the mideighteenth Pn\iin design, ca. I H60. 

I'ahle after a 


Tennyson's daybed, ca. i860. 

century, Gothic was 
seen as a romantic alter- 
native to the cool for- 
mality of Robert 
Adam's classicism — it- 
self founded on looking 
backward in time. The 
style is playful and occa- 
sionally uses architec- 
tural motifs to create 
pieces of furniture that 
resemble miniature 
ruins. For example, the typical Gothic-revival chair back is 
based on a pointed arch, often with crockets and fmials carved 
or applied on the crest rail. If the back is not upholstered, the 
space is most often treated as a window, with carved or 
molded mullions. Oak is a frequent medium, and the impli- 
cations of imagined terror in the moonlit surroundings of a 
crumbling abbey are part of the fun. 

Though we tend to identify the earliest stage of the Gothic 
revival with Horace Walpole's Strawberry Hill, earlier mon- 
uments to the spirit of Gothic revivalism include Wren's Tom 
Tower, at Christ Church, Oxford (1681-82), and Hawks- 
moor's Westminster Abbey towers (1734-45). Moreover, the 
Gothic sensibility was fostered not just by architecture but by 
hterature. Such books as Walpole's own Castle ofOtranto, 
Matthew G. Lewis's The Monk, and Sir Walter Scott's Wav- 
erley novels brought the taste for carved oak and leaded glass 
into the Victorian era. 

Pugin, who has been called "the most influential English 
furniture designer who ever lived," was a passionate cham- 
pion of Victorian Gothicism, both as a designer and as an 
architect. Yet though Pugin and other Gothicists, like Wil- 
liam Burges and J. G. Crace, regarded Gothic as "the only 
correct expression of the faith, wants, styles, and climate of 
our country," rococo revival was the far more typical style 
between 1830 and 1860. Indeed, it is what usually comes to 
mind at the mention of the word "Victorian." 

With roots in the French Louis XIV and Louis XV styles, 
rococo-revival furniture was sparked in the France of King 
Louis-Philippe, who had been placed on the throne by the 
revolution of July 1830 and was eager 
to foster an identity with the ancien 
regime. In England, eighteenth-century 
French pieces had been acquired by 
George IV and a few aristocratic collec- 
tors after the French Revolution, and 
during the 1820s and 1830s rococo was 
considered the most elite of all styles. 

Rococo revival makes lavish use of 
botanical ornament, scrollwork, and 
cabriole legs, but where the authentic 
eighteenth-century pieces show re- 
straint in their C and S curves, Victorian 
pieces bulge with serpentine abandon. 
American collectors know the style best 
through the work of John Henry Belter 

Gothic-revival oak 
dresser. With its tre- 
foils and leafy crock- 
ets, the style is easily 

English Gothic- 
revival oak table, 
ca. 1860. 

and the brothers Meeks, whose furni- 
ture is valued for its exceptionally intri- 
cate carving in laminated rosewood. 

By 1860, rococo-revival design had 
lost considerable ground to the style 
known as Renaissance, which also capi- 
talized on naturalistic carving, but in a 
more architectural framework. It was 
well under way by the end of the 1840s, and in 1851 several 
sophisticated pieces were displayed at London's Great Exhi- 
bition. The most celebrated was an immense sideboard by the 
French cabinetmaker Henri Fourdinois, who had been 
influenced by the monumental forms and virtuoso cajving of 
sixteenth-century Italy. One can understand why it created a 
public sensation: behind a heavy, carved ledge supported by 
six carved hounds rises a veritable altarpiece, about fifteen feet 
high, glorifying the pleasures of dining. Four carved figures 
representing tea, coffee, wine, and dessert flank a central 
painted panel depicting a fruit-laden urn. Other culinary 
designs are rendered on panels carved in high relief, including 
a central group of slaughtered game. Putti in hunting garb 
peer down from the lofty cornice, and a seated goddess of 
plenty occupies the central position on a plinth before the 
leafy, bow-shaped crest. 

The Renaissance revival spav\ ned a number of exotic sub- 
styles, among them nco-Grcc, in which palmette and Greek- 
key motifs, cameo medallions and light-colored woods 

(Continued on pa^e 177) 








F I 

Author with his 
friends, South 

Georj^ia Island. 


IT IS 5:30 A.M. WHEN 
























Los Angeles 














Gentoo penguin: 
both male and 
female share 
chick raising. 









^ -O ^ TIERR.'\ 

J' "^ 

PENINSULA \ '^ "X " 










t t 





Society l-xpedi- 

WHEN ROALD „oM.s'.worid 


1 discoverer enters 

Panuiise Biiy- 


Overleaf: Which 
SAULT ON THE creatures are the 

silly ones: Homo 



sapiens in red 
parkas or hing 

penguins dressed 

LAND FOR ESKIMO to the bills? 



rs?<- -^ '."i^-' 



% k 


L '*€:. 

'-mxr^ji Tl i'".?. 




-rt" i 





Elephant sdil 

wallows, off 

South Georfiia 


Antarctic Jiir 

seal, once cauiiht 

for its coat, 

now protected. 

Weddell seal 

basks, after a 


lunch dive. 

dogs. I made sure 
to get a shipboard 
adapter for my 
laptop computer. 
It would seem 
that I have to get 
up. This is likely 
to be the only time 
in my life that I get 
to set foot on the 
southernmost tip 
of South America. 
Even Magellan 
never landed on 
Cape Horn. I rise 
from bed and put 
on long under- 
wear, rubber 
boots, rain pants, 
parka; I don my 
life preserver andjom my fellow tourists in the landing 
craft. These are Zodiacs, the inflatable rubber boats 
Jacques Cousteau uses in his many television specials. 
The ship has a small fleet of them that takes passengers 
ashore. The operative term for this sort of cruise is "ex- 
pedition travel," as distinct from mere travel. The dif- 
ference is in the destination — Antarctica instead of Flor- 
ence or Paris; in the Zodiacs, for beachside landings, 
which one seldom sees on the Seine; and in the spirit of 
discovery— scientists and naturalists lecture and guide 
our walks among the seals and penguins. 

The beach at Cape Horn is rocky and slippery, and the 
first creatures to greet the landing party are not penguins 
but dogs, kept by the Chileans who man a weather sta- 
tion here. There is a creaky wooden staircase to aid in 
the climbing of a steep slope. At the top I pause to look 
south. There is nothing but 600 miles of seasickness 
between me and Antarctica. As I move off into high tus- 
sock grass, I can smell the Magellanic penguins and see 
them at a distance, furtive creatures that live in burrows. 
I hear them braying, which is why they are often called 

jackass penguins. Somehow, this is not what I had in 
mind. We return to the ship and set sail for Antarctica. 
We are headed into the Southern Ocean, crossing the 
Drake Passage to the Antarctic Peninsula. This ocean 
girds the southernmost continent like a moat around an 
ice castle. It is fitting protection for Antarctica, with 
winds and storms as fierce as on any ocean on earth. It is 
also a kind of mixing bowl for the world's other great 
oceans. In it the warm waters of the Atlantic. Pacific, 
and Indian oceans meet the cold waters of Antarctica. 
But the Southern Ocean is not only cold; it is rich as 
well. Its waters have plentiful nutrients, abundant 
plankton and algae, and billions of tons of shrimplike 
krill, which feed on these small organisms. Everything 
else in the ocean eats the krill, or one another — fish, 
seals, penguins, whales, and sea birds. It is a simple sys- 
tem but a successful one. The population of sea birds in 
the Southern Ocean, including penguins, has been esti- 
mated at 200 million. 

At the center of the ocean lies Antarctica, the 'Xast 
Continent. " It is the Moby-Dick of geography, with its 
great white ice, more than five million square miles of it. 
The lowest temperature recorded there, —129.3 degrees 
Fahrenheit, without the windchill, is the lowest temper- 
ature ever recorded on earth. Eighty to 90 percent of the 
world's freshwater is held frozen over Antarctica in a 
permanent ice sheet that is, in places, more than two 
miles thick. The weight of this ice is such that it 
depresses the surface of the globe, putting a dimple in 
the shape of the earth. The Antarctic ice sheet, all built 
up of snow that falls and accumulates and is com- 
pressed, began to form some twenty million years ago, 
but it moves, always flowing outward and breaking off 
into the sea. The ice now in the Antarctic ice sheet rep- 
resents the accumulation of about 700,000 years. On 
Antarctic shores, glaciers, rivers of ice, run in slow 
motion. And huge, flat-topped chunks break off the 
permanent Antarctic ice shelves to form what are called 
tabular icebergs. One in 1987 was bigger than Rhode 
Island — small for a state but one giant iceberg. 

Until recently only explorers, scientists, and their 
support personnel were able to go to 
Antarctica. The early years of this century 
were the heyday of exploration, when the 
race for the South Pole took place. In 1911- 
12, both Robert Falcon Scott and Roald 
Amundsen led expeditions in a competi- 
tion to reach the South Pole first. Amund- 
sen won. Scott, who was second and who 
died on the way back, taking four of his 
men with him, was nonetheless acclaimed 
as a hero. He died nobly. And Amundsen 
was not, after all, a gentleman. He and his 
team ate their sled dogs. 

Antarctica is now dominated not by 
adventurers but by scientists. There are 
3,.S()0 researchers and support personnel 
stationed there during the austral summer. 
Ironically, it was the continent's pristine 
condition that lured biologists, meteorol- 




ogists, and geologists to study this last unspoiled facet of 
the natural world. But today, because of them, the 
Antarctic has a growing waste-disposal problem, with 
garbage dumps, old fuel drums, and abandoned ma- 
chinery. And since 1965 tour ships have been going to 
the far South. As many as 3,000 tourists a year visit the 
Antarctic, mostly on cruises to the peninsula, whose 
western shore makes up the warmest part of the Antarc- 
tic (usually defined as the area south of sixty degrees 
south), with summer temperatures usually hovering 
around freezing; researchers call it the Banana Belt. This 
is where we are headed. 

It takes two days to cross the Drake. Lashed by mod- 
erate gale winds of more than thirty miles per hour, the 
ship pitches and rolls. This is considered a relatively 
mild crossing. I stand on the stern looking at the 
waves — twenty feet high is my guess — and enjoy 
myself enormously. Our first landing is at Nelson 
Island, in the archipelago of the South Shetlands, just off 
the Antarctic Peninsula. The welcome is unceremo- 
nious. Four chinstrap penguins stand on a snowbank 
just above a gravelly beach cut by meltwater streams. A 
gentoo penguin shambles by, with ragged feathers. He 
is molting, and his tuxedo is not in good shape. He looks 
like a man-about-to wn down on his luck. Farther inland 
from the beach the mossy turf is half-frozen, and the 
crust breaks as we walk over it. There is no visible grass; 
there are no trees or other vegetation — just mossy hum- 
mocks and jagged rocks with penguins on them. Bro- 
ken stone is sprinkled on the moss like shaved or crum- 
bled chocolate. Farther south, deeper into the Antarctic, 
the moss will be all but gone. The only color will be 
from algae living in the ice and snow and reddish-brown 
lichens coloring the rock faces. Stone and ice will have 
taken over. 

Two elements characteristic of the Antarctic are most 
striking here: the harshness of the landscape and the pro- 
found indifference of most of the animal life. Elephant 
seals wallow in the surf, ignoring our passage. Weddell 
seals, with big, liquid eyes, follow the passing rcd-par- 
kaed tourists with the most desultory curiosity. Because 
of the cold, dry air almost nothing rots in the Antarctic, 
and everywhere there is the detritus of nature — skele- 
tons, bits of bone, a dried seal carcass, parts of penguin 
skulls. A skeleton of a bird lies next to a piece of rusty 
wire, a remnant of some human activity. The smell of 
penguin guano, something like rotten fish and ammo- 
nia, is overwhelming. 

Penguins are one great attraction of Antarctica, but 
the birds come as a shock to most people. Our image of 
the penguin as ersatz person, silly, amusing, and genteel 
(because of the formal dress), is quite different from the 
reality. Standing in a colony of thousands of penguins is 
like standing in a colony of thousands of gulls. There is 
the noise. The smell. The guano. 

One of the biggest penguin colonies is at Deception 
Island, a horseshoe-shaped volcanic island whose land- 
scape ranges from sheer, cliff-carving icebergs to broad 
beaches darkened with ash. Phalanxes of porpoising 
penguins escort the Zodiacs toward shore. The birds are 

Elephaiu seals 
are supremely 
itidifferent to 

headed home after feeding at sea. On land, chinstrap 
penguins are gathered in the tens of thousands. Feathers 
from molting birds fly everywhere. The penguins are, 
indeed, comical as they waddle around, sometimes slip- 
ping and falling. But in many ways the colony is grim. 
In clear meltwater rivulets float bloody carcasses of 
killed and eaten penguins. A skua, a large brown gull- 
like bird that preys on young penguins, is eating a pen- 
guin chick with a deformed bill. Another penguin is sit- 
ting, idiotically, on a nest built in a streambed. The egg 
has no chance of hatching. 

Antarctica is an object lesson in loving nature, the les- 
son being that nature does not love us back. It is neutral, 
impassive, unconcerned with the fates of cither pen- 
guins or tourists. We live, if we are penguins, at the 
mercy of our ability to catch krill or, if we are tourists, at 
the mercy of our tour. Fortunately the one I am on is 
highly evolved, providing both ship's doctor and a fine 
selection of Chilean wines. 

At each landing, among penguins or glaciers or 
research stations (one of which has a full-fledged gift 
shop selling 
stamps, pins, 
ashtrays — the 
usual Antarctic 
the scientists and 
naturalists on 
board who serve 
as lecturers and 
guides shepherd 
those who want 
a narrated tour. 
souls do wander 
off on their own 
to com m u n e 
with creatures 
and landscapes in 
private. But if 
you go off, you 
are always afraid 
(Continued on 
pane 182) 

:^^ .;'\-\ 




^r > 

albatross chicks: 
at fiill i^roii'lh they 
have an ei\^hl- 
Joot u'iinispaii. 



An insider's guide to the Paris flea markets 


$100: an Empire-style chair in 
sad state, at the Puces de Vanves. 

$3,600: Austriati fireplace, at D. 
Eisenstein, Marche Paul Bert. 

$4,000: mahc^any Empire secre- 
tary, at D. de Store, Marche Paul Bert. 


$240 each: mortar-and-pestle sets, 
at D Eisenstein. 

S500: seated woman ($360 for 
the other oil), at the Puces de Vanues. 

$50,000: sculpture by Cazaubon, 
at K. I'erniere, Marche Serpette. 





The most fantastic collection of stores on earth. 

The first thing you have to know about the 
Paris flea market is that there is more than 
one. When you go, however, take a cab first 
to the most famous, Le Marche aux Puces, 
at Saint-Ouen; it is very worth visiting if 
you want to find treasures at bargain prices. 
(I will tell you about the others later.) 

Rumor has it that someone bought a little 
wood carving at "Les Puces" that turned 
out to be a lost Gauguin worth one thousand 
times the purchase price. Dealers and other 
regulars of the flea market tell that story 
over and over again because it proves that 
the market is still Ali Baba's cave. You 
might remember, though, that 3,500 deal- 
^, ; , J . n ers operate at Saint-Ouen, 

I he markets dot Pans ^ ' 

ami environs like fleas that they porc ovcr their 
on a dole's belly. warcs, aud that the goods 

are seen by other experts before you 
get so much as a look. In other words, the 
odds for your hitting the jackpot are long. 
Very long. 

Only a small 
part of Les Puces 
is a real flea mar- 
ket in the classic 
sense — meaning, 
outdoor stalls full 
of bric-a-brac and 
Some parts are as 
exclusive and ex- 
pensive as the 
most upscale Left Bank antiques store; the 
prices start at Fr 500 (about $100) and esca- 
late rapidly. Other booths sell tempting 

$400 to $900: celluloid or porce- 
lain dolls, at the Puces de Wmves. 

45?!' ST.-OUEN 

Bfi-nm;,^ LES PUCES „ ,„ 

AMERICAINES ' """""' NaUm ^\ 









One dealer here is the trendy designer's first stop. 

junk at high prices or disguised new stuff at 
so-so prices. Watch out. 

You also have to have a sense of the place. 
Les Puces is part of a city and can seem a bit 
bewildering. At first glance, indeed, you 
might think the flea market holds no prom- 
ise at all. You will see sidewalk vendors on 
the corner of A venue Michelet and Rue Jean- 
Henri Fabre, selling new, cheap clothing 
from Taiwan, cheap bedding, plastic lug- 
gage, and bogus African sculpture. But once 
you know how to find your way — it takes 
time and a good map (see page 141) — you 
will be in the heart of the most fantastic 
collection of stores in the world. 

And you will meet generally unknown 
experts who influence the taste of dealers in 
London, New York, and points west. 
Christian Sapet, a gentleman in his forties who once thought 
of becoming an art teacher, has been at Saint-Ouen for twenty 
years. He is so highly thought of that his shop is often the first 
stop for Manhattan dealers and decorators. His specialty is the 
decorative arts of the turn of the century (and art deco). Sapet 
is credited with having reintroduced dealers to the furniture of 
the 1930s and to Italian decorative arts of the late forties. 

Sapet has French, Belgian, American, and Austrian pieces, 
among others, and a lot of them are signed by the likes ofjosef 
Hoffman and Gustav Stickley. Two years ago, he bought and 
renovated an exquisite house a few yards from his store. It is 
small but airy and beautifully furnished. He says that he could 
have opened a store in the antiques district of Paris but loves 

$1 ,600: Empire clock, Galerie de 
I'Epoque, Marche Paul Bert. 

you make everybody else happy," he says, 
"but I'm very happy right here." 

110 Years in the Making 

The knowledgeable, worldly Christian Sa- 
pet hardly resembles those who founded the 
flea market. In the late nineteenth century, 
there were 30,000 ragpickers in Paris, rum- 
maging through the garbage. Pierre La- 
rousse wrote at that time in the Grand Dic- 
tionnaire Uniuersel, "With the aid of a hook 
he picks up all the objects that can still have 
some use and throws them in his bag." No 
item escaped the ragpickers' attention; they 
also gathered old papers, corks, bones, nails, 
broken glass, old shoes, dead cats and dogs, 
sardine cans, and human hair. 

Each turned his finds over to a master rag- 
picker, who employed several separators. 
They found a place for everything; there 
were 450 kinds of fabric, for example, from 
silk handkerchiefs to cotton pillowcases. 
Next, the stuff was sold to a wholesaler, 
who would in turn sell to individual mar- 
kets. Old papers and rags were used in the 
manufacture of cardboard and paper; bro- 
ken glass was melted to make new glass; 
bones went into the manufacture of glue; 
human hair became wigs; nails were sold as scrap metal; good 
leather from old shoes was saved and sold to shoemakers, 
while the heels were knocked off and sold as firewood. Sar- 

At Levy Alban's 
stand, in the Marche 
Paul Bert, a pair of 
Italian Empire-style 
chairs goes for 
$9,000; an Indian 
statue, for $4,000. 

Saint-Ouen. "In Paris, you wear a suit and tie and all that and dine cans made cheap toys, like tiny toy soldiers. 

Christian Sapet at home with his fmds, all for sale 

Sapit's assistant in his irowdvd shop, Man he l\nil licrl 



At Serpette, you catch the heady aroma of 

In 1884. the prcfct Eugene Poubelle 
signed an ordinance that required every 
building in Paris to have a garbage can 
with a lid. (His name now means gar- 
bage can in French.) Dumping of gar- 
bage on the street or in empty lots was 
forbidden. Instead, municipal garbage 
haulers would pick it up. Poubellc's 
drastic action was enacted to prevent 
outbreaks of cholera, but for the rag- 
pickers it was worse than a plague. They 
rose in anger, arguing that several 
industries depended on their trade. In a 
compromise, the legislators gave the 
ragpickers the right to empty the gar- 
bage cans, take anything they deemed 
resalable, and return the rest of the con- 
tents to the can for the city to collect. 

In order to avoid further harassment 
(and taxation), the ragpickers decided to 
go beyond the city limits. They picked 
Saint-Ouen, a httle town of 20,000 
souls, just a few hundred meters from 
the Porte de Clignancourt, on the 
northern edge of Paris. The town was 
considered to be out in the country at 
that time. Many Parisian famihes would 
ride out on weekends to stroll around or 
relax at the Picolo or the Trois Canons 
and taste the excellent, local red wine. 

The ragpickers chose an adjacent 
empty field that was then part of the 

military zone surrounding Paris. They discovered that they 
could sell their goods there without sharing their profits with 
intermediaries or paying taxes (taxes were exacted only at the 
gates — partes — of Paris to incoming merchandise; the painter 
Douanier Rousseau was a customs inspector at one of the 
gates). As they spread out their daily finds, crowds of curious 
citizens gathered and a brisk commerce was established. 
Besides the usual raw materials, customers saw everything 
that the Parisians threw away: old toys, broken furniture, 
broken dishes, broken lamps, unmatched candlesticks, 
books, silverware, and, of course, old clothes, some crawling 
with fleas (puces); hence the name flea market. 

The Golden Age 

During the 1920s, the Saint-Ouen Marche aux Puces gained 
worldwide fame as stories proliferated about fabulous finds. 
One tale was of lost drawings by Rubens; another, etchings 

^^^^ by Goya; a third, water- 
$UX): a Russian m^ \ ^-ojors by Manet. There 

f^eneral's coat, with W^S ^^ ^ ^tory about a lucky 

insi)^ma, at H.S.C. ^^^^MiWI^ ^^^^^ ^^^ purchased a 
Collections, '^""'''"'^MHPM^^ vhole lot of student 
Vernaison. .^Hi^m IH^ drawings signed 

" P . Ruiz," 

V hich turned 

o u to be 

Two havens: the (garden at 

Chez Marie (82 Rue des Rosicrs) and a 

f^ood bistro (76 Rue des Rosiers). 


1 ( a s s r s 

sketchbook. A Fragonard is said to have 
changed hands for twenty francs. Paint- 
ings by such masters as Corot, Courbet, 
Renoir, and Toulouse-Lautrec pur- 
portedly went for a song. 

The merchants of the flea market 
were then still basically junk dealers, 
former ragpickers who had made good. 
They knew little about art or furniture, 
recognizing the Louis XV style as valu- 
able while scanting others, like Charles 
X or Napoleon III. They suspected that 
Sevres porcelain or Lalique glass was 
important but watched in wonder while 
collectors snapped up walking sticks, 
Revolutionary pottery, obsolete cam- 
eras, old posters, model cars, and chil- 
dren's books. As the flea market became 
sophisticated, taking on the atmosphere 
of a real antiques fair, small specialist 
dealerships appeared along the main 
street m that part of Saint-Ouen, the 
Rue des Rosiers. The market lost its 
innocence, and the equivalents of the 
old ragpickers were driven out to other 
spots on the outskirts of Paris, where 
real flea markets still exist. 

The Biggest Antiques Market 

Nowadays 2,000 antiques dealers work 
from permanent stands in twelve sepa- 
rate markets. Another 1,000 dealers 
work from the backs of cars or display their wares on card- 
board boxes and card tables called Barnums. Dozens of sub- 
sidiary businesses flourish thanks to the Marche; the benefits 
trickle down to truckers, restaurant workers, and taxi drivers. 
An army of restorers works behind the scenes, cleaning paint- 
ings, refinishing furniture, fixing porcelain, toys, frames, 
clocks, and chandeliers, and recasting fixtures and decora- 
tions out of brass and bronze. No one, including the minister 
of finance, knows for sure the annual volume of sales. It might 
be $700 million. Seventy percent of the merchandise is 
exported to the United States, Japan, and Western Europe. 
Les Puces covers some seventy-five acres, or 7 percent of 
the total area of the town of Saint-Ouen, which administers 
all daily functions, from parking to street cleaning. In return, 
the dealers pay more than $20 million in local taxes. Paulette 
Fost, the town's Communist mayor, is caught between the 
dealers, who provide revenues and employment, and the local 
citizens, who complain bitterly about the noise and the gar- 
bage. Madame Fost has declared war on illegal parking and 
has sworn to chase the "sauuages" out of the area. 

Many dealers have been here for two generations or more. 
Rents generally range from $600 to $1,200 a month. Long- 
term leases are cherished, and some dealers will hold on to a 
stand although they have moved most, or all, of their opera- 
tions to a store on the Left Bank. Leases have been known to 
change hands for as much as $2()0,()0(). 

Dealers crisscross the countryside looking for rummage 


discovery — objects fresh from private attics. 

sales and village fairs to buy their goods. They also buy at the 
best-kept secret in the profession: the six estate-auction 
houses in Paris. Some buy from individuals, and a few, 
abroad. Friday mornings they display their finds to the pro- 
fession — dealers from Paris and elsewhere. This is when the 
best stuff changes hands, sometimes several times. The public 
gets to fight for the estimated 100,000 pieces left over on Sat- 
urday, Sunday, and Monday. It is not unusual to see Pierre 
Cardin, Bernard Buffet, the dealer Barry Friedman, the deco- 
rator Pierre Scapula, and movie stars like Catherine Deneuve 
and Isabelle Adjani rummaging around. 

The prices are generally 20 percent lower than in Paris. And 

if you bargain, you might shave off up to another 30 percent, 
especially toward the end of the weekend, when most dealers 
would like to get rid of everything. 

An 1 880 law requires dealers to register every purchase that 
they have made. It is meant to prevent the sale of stolen goods, 
but it does nothing to prevent the sale of copies and of fraud- 
ulent pieces. More than one dealer I have met has admitted to 
spending the night beating a pine table with a heavy bicycle 
chain to add decades to its age. If you want to avoid getting 
taken, you must not only ask a lot of questions but familiarize 
yourself with the special language of the Marche: 

/ don't know. This is the ultimate giveaway because dealers 

The Other Flea Markets 

We get up at the crack of dawn and find a sleepy taxi driver to take us 
to what seems to be the end of Paris. The area around the flea market, 
at the Porte de Vanves, is one of empty, nondescript neighborhoods. 
Modest apartment buildings, some with window boxes full of ger- 
aniums, face the Lycee Francois Villon on Avenue Marc Sangnicr. A 
few yards farther, in the shadows of the chestnut trees, the first vans, 
still smoking from the auto routes, empty their bellies onto the side- 
walk. Furniture, cooking utensils, silverware, dishes, dolls, medals, 
pens, toys, clocks, and everything else you can imagine line both 
sides of the street for the next six hundred yards. 

This is a real flea market, the equivalent of a dusty attic full of junk 
and memories. No fancy dealers buy here; only a lot of housewives. 

ization (and neat records) and considered the dealers "terrorists." 

Today, licensed dealers sell their wares from stands and tables 
while the unlicensed ones dodge constant police dragnets. A leader 
of a group called the Association for the Defense of Free Flea Markets 
has complained: "The mayor has decided to eliminate us. They want 
to make Paris a clean town. Like Geneva. A dead town." 

The police reaction — paranoia — is linked directly to the meteoric 
rise in robberies. If the merchants cannot be controlled, they reason, 
who is to vouch for the origins of the merchandise? The free-market- 
ers argue that the most valuable stuff never sees the light of day any- 
way, a theory backed by a spokesman for the Brigade for the Sup- 
pression of Banditry. A few years ago an unknowing dealer tried to 

students, a few drunks, and some English tourists. There is a lot of sell all the clocks from the baron de Rothschild's Chateau de Ver- 
excitement in the air because everyone is willing to make a deal. The rieres, though they were recognized and recorded before they were 
prices are low, from a few francs to $200 at most. An art deco room dispersed. The clocks had disappeared during a house moving. 

divider with a funny pattern of biplanes costs 
about $150. Lovely brass picture frames 
from the turn of the century start at $20, and 
a set of nineteenth-century woodblocks 
with farm animals on one side and letters on 
the other costs less than $40. Everyone 
seems to go away with at least one prized 
possession. A grown man with a legless ted- 
dy bear clutched against his chest looks as it 
he has just been reunited with a long-lost 
best friend. 

As the photographer on this story, Fritz 
von der Schulenburg, wanders off to take 
pictures of a display of porcelain dolls, I 
volunteer to watch over his camera equip- 
ment. Immediately, I become the object of a 
great deal of attention because the cameras 
look as if they are being displayed for sale. I 
discourage a lot of people as they inquire 
about prices, but one Tunisian man becomes 
so insistent that I give serious thought to sell- 
ing him the cameras and going back to the hotel to sleep till noon 

At the Puces dc Vanves, raiipickcrs' offeriiif^s 

are choice. These holts of fitie fabrics raiij^e in 

price from $100 to $.500. 

Here is some basic information: The flea 
market of Vanves is open Saturdays and 
Sundays from dawn to noon. The best deals 
are to be made early in the morning. 

Kremlin-Bicctre is open on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays from 8:00 A.M. till noon. Tues- 
day is postcards day. 

Montreuil is open Saturdays, Sundays, 
and Mondays from 6:30 A.M. to 1:00 P.M. 
There are a thousand registered merchants 
and more than 600 unlicensed saut>a<ies. You 
are likely to find anything you want here, 
including used cars. 

Beauvau-Aligre is open every day except 
Monday, from 9:00 A.M. to 1:00 I'.M. This 
is a small (thirty merchants) market but 
easygoing in comparison with Montreuil. 
The most notable store is the Coiffeur-Bro- 
canteur, where you can spend hours sifting 
through a mountain of bric-a-brac. 

Tuesdays and Fridays, Belleville is a gath- 
ering of Caribbean, African, and Arab dealers. They sell food, cloth- 

A guide to flea markets and secondhand stores warns, "In this ing, records, luggage, and stereo equipment, 
picturesque jungle, hack yourself a passage with a machete." The Les Puces Americaines is open on Saturdays from 2:00 I'.M. to 5:(X) 

authorities have long tried to regulate the boisterous flea markets, P.M. in the basement of the American Church, 65 Quai d'Orsay. 
but to no avail. Even the German occupation could not end their The Forum des Halles, near the much visited Pompidou Center, is 

activities. The Germans were deeply confused by the lack of organ- open every day except Sunday from 1 1 :00 A.M. to 7:00 P.M. 



Here, truly, is the biggest cache of treasures. 

Clockwise jrom 
lower left: Bearded 
man ($4,000); Rus- 
sian gentleman 
($560); damaged 
canvas of Apollo 
and friends 
($3,000); ballerina 
($5,600); and a 
naive painting from 
ilir late eighteenth 
century ($1 , 0(H)) 



Clockwise from up- 
per left: Pastel of 
Oscar II of Sweden 
($3,000); relij^ious 
painting ($400); 
naive painting of 
youtig man ($700); 
nude ($700); ship- 
wreck near Bor- 
deaux ($860). 

\mmw'^ * * 



Dealers at Paul Bert always produce surprises. 

know everything. It really means. "I 
know, but if I told you. you'd walk 

It's been restored. To this you must 
always ask. "How much?" because it 
can mean that the piece has in fact been 
cloned from a single nail, or at best a leg. 
"Restored" also means that parts may 
have been added, and in the case ot 
Empire furniture, new bronze decora- 
tions may have been tacked on. 

It's signed. Yes, but by whom? Not all 
signatures are worth as much as 

It's a twentieth-century piece. It is prob- 
ably brand-new. 

It's bronze. The cruelest of all hoaxes. 
People assume that the world stopped 
making bronze objects centuries ago. 

but in fact most of the bronze objects at the Marche are 

It belonged to Marie- Antoinette. No, it didn't. 

It's very old; I've had it for at least twenty years myself. It's 
twenty years old at most. 

/ have several people interested in it. I can't get rid of it. 

The Heart OF THE Market 

The Rue des Rosiers runs the length of the Puces. First on the 
right comes the oldest submarket, the Marche Vernaison, 
opened in 1918. Some of the stores have forty-year-old leases, 
with rents so low that the owners can sell new furniture at 
prices well below those in Paris. Dealers here specialize in art 
deco knickknacks. uniforms, paintings, and porcelain. 

The next big submarket is the elegant Marche Biron, where 
nothing is cheap, although many things are worth trying to 
dig up the money for. If you like old dolls, try Alice and Luc 
Levannier, at stand 50. Jeanne Moufflet, at stand 137, has an 
exquisite choice of old posters, starting at $200. A few steps 
up the street, the smaller Marche Cambo is rich in Napoleon 
III objects and furniture, starting around S400. 

On the left side of the Rue des Rosiers, the Marche Malik, 
opened in the 1920s, is where the best deals are to be found for 
secondhand clothes. At the corner of Ruejules Valles and Rue 
Paul Bert, clandestine meetings between dealers take place at 
five o'clock on Friday mornings. Outsiders are sometimes 
invited to look through the trucks and car trunks full of mer- 
chandise. Some of the things are hot. 

As you approach the center of the flea market and enter the 
Marche Serpettc, you begin to catch the musty aroma of fresh 
discoveries, pieces that have been languishing unappreciated 
for decades in some fourteen-room apartment or country 
house. Serpettc is notjust a wonderful market but an arbiter of 
taste. The furniture of the 1950s and 1960s first became fash- 
ionable here, and there are always strange pieces — a one-of- 
a-kind art deco sculpture or an art nouveau screen. 

The most exciting submarket is Paul Bert. It has the young- 
est dealers, who are the most active at fmding things. Just 
when everybody thought that there was nothing left to be 
discovered, they came up with 19.30s steel furniture and Ital- 

S2,b00: oil the sofa, a Napoleon III giltwood 
ciirving, at Urbitt, Marche Paul Bert. 

ian styles of the 1940s and 1950s: steel 
lamps with long snouts, lacquered 
room dividers, strange pottery. And 
this year, they produced another sur- 
prise: religious paintings. Eerie can- 
vases of asexual saints in wooden pos- 
tures, left to rot in cellars, suddenly 
became fashionable. One fellow who 
did a whole apartment with the likes of 
the Virgin Mary and Saint Anthony 
landed a six-page homage in a leading 
decorating magazine. 

The turnover at Paul Bert is tremen- 
dous. Some stands literally empty out 
by Sunday afternoon, and the owners 
close shop. You will find them around 
the corner at the bar of Le Grand Coin 
(76 Rue des Rosiers) shooting the breeze 
with the owners, Thierry and Chantal, 
or they will have a long lunch at Chez Louisette (130 Avenue 
Michelet), a happy, noisy place known for its Belle Epoque 
decor, or the tiny Chope des Puces (122 Rue des Rosiers). 

Buy the Painting, Not the Artist 

Here is a hot tip for you. The lady at the Galerie Centrale, at 
Marche Vernaison, sells paintings, sculptures, and objets 
d'art. Some paintings are exquisite but by unknowns, and she 
has trouble selling them. "People, especially the Japanese, 
want a signature," she says. "That's all they care for. You 
could sell them an empty canvas if it had a famous signature. " 
Here is the biggest cache of cheap treasures in the Marche aux 
Puces. And it is right out in the open. 

If you can accept that there are no more Degases and Mo- 
nets to be had, and that even if there were, they would cost 
more than the GNP of Tonga, you may discover paintings by 
unknowns. France has had thousands of great and at least very 
competent painters: Sunday painters, students, and minor 
artists who never quite made it, perhaps because they were 
behind the times. Chances are no- 
body can identify their signatures, 
but so what? For less than a thou- 
sand dollars you can find land- 
scapes, portraits, still lifes, and 
studies for larger paintings. Some 
dealers specialize in watercolor 
studies for wallpapers and fabrics, 
and sometimes they come up with 
studies for fans or set designs for 
the theater. 

Look around. At Serpette, try 
Jean-Rene Delaye (stand 17, aisle 
5) and Anne-Marie Lemaire (stand 
5, aisle 4). At Paul Bert, visit Alain 
Mazet (stand 253, aisle 5) for a 
mini-Salon of Sunday painters. 
You may find a portrait of some- 
body who looks like an ancestor, 
or a landscape or watercolor that 
suits you to a tee. D 

To get to the marche at 
Saint-Ouen, take the Metro, 
a bus, or a ta.xi to the Porte 
de Clignancourt. The least- 
interesting areas are colored 
yellow, but as you delve fur- 
ther in the green and purple 
areas, you begin to discover 
u'onderfiil things. The best is 
at (he heart of the market 
(red, orange), where you 
lose all track of lime and 
place, surrounded by myriad 
possible treasures. 



The Flea Market at Saint-Ouen 


oil might think 
that, as the great 
home of wine, 
France would also 
be the great home 
of wine bars. But 
they are relatively- 

few and far between. In Paris, one of 
the best is in fact owned and run by 
Englishmen. Called Willi's Wine 
Bar, it sits snugly behind the Palais 
Royal and offers a new selection of 
wines by the glass every week. 
Served at a well-seasoned wooden 
bar, they might range from a white 
Crozes-Hermitage 1989 at eighteen francs a glass to a Saint- 
Julien (Chateau Moulin de la Rose) 1986 at thirty-nine francs. 
But they also include champagnes and ports, as well as Span- 
ish, Italian, Australian, and California wines. 

Beyond the bar, at a few tables set under a high, beamed 
ceiling, the attentive waiters and waitresses at Willi's (mostly 
young British wine enthusiasts) will help you choose lunch or 
dinner from an attractive and inventive menu prepared by 
French chefs. Willi's specializes in Rhone Valley wines, and 
the intensely rich, red Cornas (Auguste Clape) 1984 we drank 
with our calf's liver cooked in raspberry vinegar was a revela- 
tion as to how finely balanced these very full-bodied wines 
can be. With its easy elegance and friendly atmosphere, Willi's 
is a natural home away from home for any visitor whose 
knowledge of wine is not backed up by basic French. 

The language of wine reigns supreme at the quintessentially 
French Caves Solignac, a charming bistro a vins tucked away in 
an anonymous back street in the fourteenth arrondissement. 


Its patron, Jean Franc^ois Bancat, is a 
one-man band, darting with admira- 
ble agility from bar to table to kitch- 
en, suggesting a wine, taking an 
order, and then tending the delicious 
potatoes sauteed with garlic that he 
will be serving with a delicately 
roasted duck's breast. He is a walking 
encyclopedia on wine, particularly 
since he buys directly from the grow- 
ers, whom he visits regularly and 
describes as old friends. One of M. 
Baneat's merits is that he discovers 
and champions wines that would 
otherwise remain the secret of some 
far-flung province. Wines from the Jura and Savoie may stand 
alongside more august and expensive Burgundies and Bor- 
deaux on a wine hst with a heartening number of interesting 
bottles at under a hundred francs apiece. While choosing our 
dinner, we drank a deliciously fresh and fruity Cheverny 
white, which comes at a very reasonable sixty francs a bottle. 
A robust Bergerac accompanied the duck, and a glass of des- 
sert wine — a Coteaux du Layon — gave a new meaning to our 
Alsatian-style pineapple tarte. Everything down to the can- 
died grapefruit peel served with the coffee is prepared in per- 
son by the indefatigable pcjrrafz, whose eight small tables are 
now often booked in advance. But success is unlikely to affect 
M. Baneat's priorities: "If anyone else touched the garlic pota- 
toes, my customers would never forgive me." D 

WilH's Wine Bar, 13 Rue des Petits Champs; 
Les Caves Solignac, 9 Rue Decres; 

5«» Michael Henry is a resident of Paris. 

Wine Tasters Choice 

Two wine bars in Paris 


Right: At Willis 

Wine Bar, in the Rue 

DES Petits Champs, 


Royal, an ima(;ina- 
tive selection of 



Opposite: Jean 
Fuancc:)IS Baneatisa 

ING garlic: POTATOES, 

A I EI icnous 





How Tom Fazio designs ^qo If courses everyone can enjoy 

Suppose someone were to design a nuiseuni — tonn 
not following funetion — so that visitors would 
have to stand on tiie ineline of a spiral to view the 
wtirks of art. Preposterous? Well, that very 
approaeh has been applied to the designing ot the 
most beautiful new gt>lf eoiuses of the past twenty- 
five years. All too many of them require unneeessary hard- 
ships — shot after shot that the average player simply is 
unable to make. 

But now the golf business has entered the pragmatic 199()s, 
and "plavability" is emerging as the new buzzword in design. 
This means the industry is catching up to Tom Fazio, with 
whom playability has been a trademark for almost thirty 
years. Fazio does build exceedingly difficult golf courses, if 
that is what the owner wants, such as Butler National, outside 
Chicago, or Palmetto Dunes, on Hilton Head Island, South 
Carolina. Even so, some of his most famous layouts are 
showcases for playability, such as Wild Dunes, in South Car- 

olina, the Vintage C'liib, near Palm Springs, and Barton 
Oeek, in Austin, Te.xas. 

Ben Crenshaw, the most serious golf historian among the 
professionals, an unabashed traditionalist, and a budding 
designer himself, says of Fazio, "He's one of the best because 
he's got a pragmatic, no-nonsense type of design. The man 
has no ego. He puts golf and the playini^ of golf on a pedestal. " 
Indeed, Tom Fazio is about as self-effacing as a man can be 
who owns a twin-engine turboprop Culfstream C'ommander 
and employs a full-time pilot tc:) fly it. His office in Hender- 
sonville. North Carolina, in the foothills of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains, is not even identified on the outside. 

Ideally, neither is a Fazio creation. If there is a golf course he 
does not like, it is one full of signature features. No mandato- 
ry island greens for him, please; no double greens, grass 
bunkers, retaining walls constructed of railroad ties; no 100- 
yard-long waste areas. A Fazio design might feature any or all 
of these items (with the exception of the island green), or none 



'^ -i 


w ^! 1 1 . 


\ • . 



at all. He is adamant when he says, "I want uniqueness and 
variety. I tell my staff not to think like they've thought before. 
Eliminate the standard jargon from their vocabulary." 

Fazio layouts are invariably dramatic to the eye. full of sub- 
tle inventiveness, marked by carefully cievised bunkers and 
swales and the iconoclastic, perhaps even witty, placement of 
an isolated hazard or tree; but playing-wise, what you see is 
what you get: the challenge of a fair round of golf no matter 
what the level of skill brought to the first tee. 

This idea of playability is not new. As Oenshaw points 
out, historic St. Andrews, m Scotland, is eminently playable, 
as are most of the original Scottish courses. Most of the tradi- 
tional old courses in America are playable, too; tough but 
playable. But then the demographics and economics of golf 
began changing in the late 195()s and, with them, golf-course 
design. New players flooded into the game, and there were 
not enough courses. Land developers and resort owners 
geared up for the boom and competed to attract members and 
guests. Courses became more ostentatious; waterfalls became 
de rigueur for hotels and golf courses alike. 

The frenzied scramble for instant greatness resulted in 
courses with eighteen drop-dead, gorgeous golf holes, each 

suitable for pictures in the sales 
brochures. As the old-time de- 
signer Charles Blair Maccionald 
put it, "the thirst tor novelty" got 
out of hand. Some new courses 
had the artificial look and feel of 
theme parks. A hole might feature 
a pond stocked with alligators or a 
triple-tiered green guarded by a 

Fazio agrees with Macdonald's 

Uphill work: the ci}>hlh 

hoh' at Chanipioti Hills, 

in Hciidcrsont'Hlc, .\orth 

Caroliihi. The spcctamlar 

terrain did not make lor 

a course with playability , 

so Fazio had to rescnlpt it. 

assessment, and he believes 
most modern courses are 
too difficult, but he also 
doubts whether the classic 
old layouts — Muirfield, in 
Scotland, say. t)r Winged 
Foot, north ot New York 
C-ity — would be accepted it 
they were built 1 1) d a y : 
"Someone would say, 
'That's a new course? You 
built that?' " 

Old courses have a certain 
patina, ot course, but with a 
tew revereci exceptions, 
such as Fine Valley or Peb- 
ble Beach, they do not have 
the glitz that owners — and 
golfers — apparently desire 
in a new layout. The cle- 
mand tor the "dramatic 
championship golf" touted by the advertisements probably is 
not going to change, but at least more players are now won- 
dering whether playability also comes with the greens tee. 

One of Tom Fazio's finest and most acclaimed layouts is at the 
Barton Creek Country Club, in the hill country of central 
Texas, just west ot Austin. Crenshaw's home course is Bar- 
ton Creek, where he is currently building an additional eigh- 
teen holes on land much less rugged than Fazio's terrain. 

"Tom did a great job on his tough, tough terrain," Cren- 
shaw states. "The course expresses the hill country very 
well. " Barton Oeek has won all sorts of "ten best" desiiina- 

"It //((( are ihv hazards?" 1 oni 
hazio asks. Their placement 
determines a course's playability. 


.^%-' - ^ 



^^^ ^^;. 

Fazio cati pick atid choose from dozens of offers for his services. 

tions. but it also exemplifies Fazio-style playability. Scraped 
and blasted out of rocky hillsides covered with scrub oaks, 
cedar, and other hardy trees, laced with creeks and ravines, 
enveloped in six inches of dirt hauled onto the premises at a 
cost of SSOO.OOO, Barton Creek is spectacular enough to 
attract the annual Legends of Golf tournament but is very 
playable for the mid- and high-handicap golfer too. 

That is what the owners of Barton Oeck wanted, because 
the club is also a conference center and resort. It thus reflects 
the booming game of golf today, in which there are 2.5 mil- 
lion first-time golfers, who do not hit the ball nearly so far or 
so straight as Ben Crenshaw or the senior tour pros compet- 
ing in the Legends. Thus, Fazio's challenge at Barton Creek, 
as at most of his courses, was the designing and building of 
one golf course for players of radically different abilities. 

Rule number one: Keep to a minimum the number of cross- 
hazards, such as lakes, streams, ravines, or bunkers that 
require flying the ball over them, with no alternative route 

available. Fazio usually routes 
fairways parallel to water. His de- 
signs are sometimes criticized for 
having too few hero hazards. He 

Furthermore, streams or lakes 
will usually be encountered on the 
left side of a Fazio fairway, for the 
simple reason that most average- 

Fazio can dcsi^^ti very dif- 
ficult holes, lilic the par-5 
fourth at Wade Hampton, 
hi North Carolina. But 
usually he avoids 
penalizing tee shots. 

handicap, right-handed golfers fade or slice the ball to the 
right. Let the water endanger the low-handicapper's right- 
to-left draw instead. The same design strategy dictates that 
more bunkers will be placed on the left than on the right. At 
Barton Creek, only a couple of fairways feature right-hand 
bunkers, and none have water on that side, while almost half 
the holes have serious danger on the left. And if that consider- 
ation is not enough for the high-handicappcr, many fairways 
at Barton Creek are subtly canted from right to left, thus help- 
ing the sliced ball stay on the short grass. 

Most Fazio greens will have an opening through which the 
ball may be rolled, and this opening will usually be on the 
golfer's right — once again, because weaker players will be 
approaching the green from the right, or their ball will be 
slicing or fading to the right as it approaches the target. "Tom 
pays particular attention to the entrance to the greens," says 
Ben Crenshaw, "and that's the key to equitable play. If golf- 
ers can't reach a par-four in two shots, don't cut them off too 
many times." 

Fazio cuts them off four times at Barton Creek, with stun- 
ning, rock-faced creek beds protecting those greens. After all, 
if a course is too simple it is not fun, either. Fazio's playability 
does not mean easy, just as it does not mean that a course 
should be short. It means that golfers of all calibers are pro- 
vided the same range of emotions as the scratch golfer. Alas, 
this roller coaster includes the dismay after the good shot that 
falls just short. 

"Where are the hazards?" Fazio asks, sternly. "TelHng me 
how many sand traps there are on a course, or how many 
ponds, tells me nothing. Where are they? That's what deter- 
mines playability." 

If Barton Creek is spectacular, what is the word to describe 
Champion Hills, the new Fazio layout under construction in 
his hometown of Hendersonville? This wooded, mountain- 
ous tract with great views has too much of everything: too 
many elevation changes, too many deep ravines, too many 
rock outcroppings. "Whew!" Fazio thought to himself when 
he first surveyed the site. This land had to be softened, he 
knew. Some of the ravines had to be filled, the sharp grades 
smoothed out, but it could be done, and within budget. 

A couple of years after those initial surveys and doubts at 
Champion Hills, he spins his four-wheel drive along the rut- 

ted fairway cuts. "Wait till you see 
this!" he exclaims time and again, 
praising the views, explaining the 
shaping of this fairway, the place- 
ment of this green and that bunk- 
er — of each fairway, each green, 
and each bunker. 
The tenth hole, a dogleg par-4, 

Hnrd i'iioii\;li lo test the 
pros hut fun for the average 
pLiycr — that is Barton 
Creek (Country Chib, near 
Austin, I'exas. This is the 
M'ell-i^uarded ninth ^lreen. 

is a particular favorite. According 
to the routing plan, the hole had to be here, with the tee facing 
a ravine directly in front and a massive hill beyond. That ra- 
vine would scare high-handicappers; long-hitters would sail 
right over it. The only solution, Fazio found, was to lower the 
hill and level out its steep right-to-left incline, use that dirt to 

(Continued on page 184) 




•■ ■'-■ w 


ffiCTE».kVa^'q;.t: -'.-!aSjpiiS«|ir-- ^ 

Philippe Laquerriere: never aspired to seciiij^ his 
name written on a calico selvage. 

The view through 
the windows at 22 
Rue Jacob, in Par- 
is, is reminiscent 
of a nineteenth- 
century shadow 
box in which a 
perfected and in- 
viting f o r m o f 
domesticity has 
survived. A grace- 
f u 1 1 y unmade 
sleigh bed beneath 
a cascade of quilts, 
a ceramic spotted 
dog crouching by an upholstered canape, a dummy swathed in 
a rose print occupy a suite of rooms from which the inhabi- 
tants appear to have only momentarily withdrawn. This is 
Comoglio a Paris, neither a designers' showroom — all are 
welcome — nor the average fabric outlet with wide-ranging 
prices and wares. After eighteen months' existence, Como- 
glio boasts thirty-odd patterns precisely copied after French 
textiles of the past two centuries, or, as the owner, Philippe 
Laquerriere, puts it, "reeditions of historical documents." 

Occupying what was once the residence of the British 
ambassador under Louis XVI, and more recently the shop of 
Cocteau's favorite decorator. Monsieur Comoglio, Laquer- 
riere's boutique remains an address for the happy few — those 
happy to be shown what is historically correct and those few- 
able to fork out S60 to SI 80 for a meter of stuff. 

Laquerriere is by avocation an antiques dealer, whose laby- 
rinthine Quai Voltaire shop, Thenadey, is crammed with the 

most unusual, 
even eccentric, as- 
sortment of ohjets 
and furniture on 
the Left Bank. A 
fastidious buyer, 
Laquerriere does 
not frequent the 
salerooms ( ' ' I 
don't like to deal 
in things that have 
already been seen 
around") or pur- 
chase from private 
owners ("I don't 
like getting mixed 

An armchair covered with a loilc de Marseille 
printed with little palm trees. 

up in personal dramas"). Fellow antiquaircs are the source of 
most of his acquisitions; a fine eye allows him to discern the 
secret virtues of pieces ignored by others. 

For a long time, Laquerriere collected whatever ancient 
scraps caught his fancy in a characteristically gentlemanlike 
fashion, but with no immediate business scheme in mind. "L 
for one, never particularly aspired to see my name writ on a 
calico selvage," he sniffs. But an encounter with his partner- 
to-be, Bertrand Leray, whose family has been in textiles for 
generations, changed all that. Leray provided Laquerriere 
with technical know-how and an inside track in the closed 
circles of an industry that in France still operates as a craft. 

Comoglio's prints — on cotton, cotton and linen, or cotton 
and viscose, occasionally moireed — are based mainly on 
fresh, simple toile dejouy-csque motifs that give them their 
names, such as "Ananas" (pineapples), "Palmiers" (palm 
trees), or "Perro- 
quets" (parrots). 
Although the "Pa- 
pillons" (butter- 
flies) pattern in- 
cludes eighteen 
tints, there is only 
one version: La- 
querriere main- 
tains that it would 
be i n a u t h e n t i c , 
even fraudulent, 
to produce chro- 
matic variants that 
did not exist a cen- 
tury ago merely as a service to decorators. He has compro- 
mised by printing some models on different, but not too dif- 
ferent, grounds, such as the yellow or white of "Roses 
Anciennes." Simplified versions of elaborate patterns are also 
available, because, for example, "it would be amusing to do a 
canopy in 'Papillons' and have the bedspread beneath without 
them," explains Laquerriere, envisaging a little visual joke. 

Stardust has rubbed off on many of Comoglio's fabrics. It 
does give one a thrill to realize that one has just chosen the 
selfsame pattern Monsieur de Beaumarchais used for his 
salon; and what of "Petit Mouton," "published" in honor of 
Chateau Mouton with Philippine de Rothschild's very own 
blessing (in dusty red or sepia)? Laquerriere's typically under- 
stated catchphrase to describe the Comoglio look is merely 
"la honiic proi'iticc fran(;aisc" — proper French provincial. D 

^^ Ann Hcadinq_ton is a writer who lives in Paris. 

A Pioi'eii(al fabric desii^ned around 1780. 

The Real Stpff 

B y A fill H c a d i u ^j t o u P h o f o ij r a p h s h y N i c o I a <: B r n a ii t 


Comoglio sells fabrics in the choicest antique patterns 

Ahoi'i', left: Library 
shelves loaded with doc- 
uineiitarY prints; rii^ht: 
a little room at 
Conwj^lio with fabric- 
covered walls. 
Below, left: In the 
frame, a i^rape pattern, ^ 
"Petit Motiton, " made 
for Moulon Rothschild; 
rii^ht: bolts of eii^h- 
teenth-century fabric. 


By Peter C. Jones 

They said there were no new images. They said photography 
was dead. They cranked out exhibits consisting of other 
people's photographs signed by someone else, scraps of torn- 
up emulsion glued to kraft paper, transparencies mounted in 
blocks of clear plastic. It was more interesting to read about 
than to look at, and they called it Art. 

They, of course, are the contemporary-art mavens of Man- 
hattan's avant-garde district of SoHo. EdwynnHouk, of Chi- 
cago, the nation's premier photography ciealer, speaks only 
too truly when he says, "So often pho- 
tographers get their graduate degree, get 
their gimmick, get their book, get their 
one-man show, and then — nothing. Be- 
cause there was never any thought behind 
their work in the first place." But idols 
are falling, solid values coming back. 

Quietly, but in growing numbers, 
photographers have been rediscovering 
the roots of their medium, going back to 
the straightforward nineteenth-century 
traditions of Julia Margaret Cameron, 
Nadar, and Timothy O'Sullivan.What is 
emerging is a new aesthetic, a new for- 
malism. No gimmicks here. No endless 


more shooting 

f.'X)SI:Nti(:Kl.()()SIMIUII, \')H?>. Hi.IIINDSaII Y MANNSHNISMIDI'K iuiusaki 


rows of interchangeable gray rectangles 
in identical silver frames. No easy recipe 
("Hit the streets; click, click, click; send it 
to the lab; hang it on the wall"). The tri- 
pod is back, along with the large-format 
camera and slow emulsions. And the best 
results are something we were told we 
would never see again: new images — a 
little cool by comparison with the hot 
stuff of the last twenty years but imbued 
with a new weight and permanence. 
These pictures, in a word, are ahotit some- 
thing. In a word, they arc pictures. 

Ihey satisfy a hunger long ignored, 
and for that good reason they are selling 
as thegimcrackery never did. Says Houk, 
whose stock-in-tr.ule has been the vin- 
tage prints of I*. ml Strand, Man Uay, 

( ( )NN()iSSI.UI< 

9om the hip. Tripods and large-format cameras are hack. 

Casdy Cu-.ARirn li, \')m. 

Another sctNt; fuom 

Manns i'uivate DOMbsi ic duamas. 

^^^^^^^^^^^Hb ,« j^B^ ^^^^^1 



I w ^1 



\'h.ii I Hi t )()\;/\(, (.'; k/c.s, 
1")X'>. Mann s wii ni knkss 






he new formalists' pictures satisfy a hunger long ignored. 

Andre Kertesz, "Those immersed in the mediinn can see the 
importance of the photographs of Garry Winogrand and Lee 
Friedlander, but for people collecting contemporary photog- 
raphy today, their pictures seem likejust another dreary batch 
of gray photographs from the social school. A separate dis- 
tinct market for contemporary photographs has been created, 
apart from those who collect the traditional masters." On 
these pages, Co«/;o/«n/r presents samples of the work of six of 
these leading new formalists. 


can't photograph any time when it isn't hot," says Sally 
Mann, who in the blistering Virginia summer photo- 
graphs her children. ("What else," she asks, "is a mother 
to do?") She shows them with their friends, often wearing 
little or no clothing. The images take time to mature: behind 
the finished pictures are mental sketches, written notes, and 
many discarded preliminary photographs. She spends days in 
her sweltering darkroom, adding and removing elements and 
then shooting and reshooting until everything is right. 

She shoots at the farm she inherited from her father, only 
twenty minutes from their home in Lexington. The rustic 
screen box of a cabin by a horseshoe bend m the river is now 
the theater for her private domestic dramas. "I'm not sure," 
she says, "I can photograph anywhere but here." 

Her pictures are as beautiful as they are disturbing. "Sally 
Mann brought in her portfolio and we bought her work 
immediately," says Maria Morris Hambourg, curator for 
photographs at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Her care- 
fully crafted, thought-provoking images demand .ittcntion. 
Sally Mann's photographs are made, not taken." 

Mann's book Al Twelve (Aperture), about girls on ilu 
brink of womanhood, has attracted niiKli .Ktcntion, hut the 


photographs that collectors want most are the ones of her 
own children. Eighty-nine were sold during her exhibition at 
the Edwynn Houk Gallery last spring before Mann called a 
halt. "I haven't even begun to make these prints, and my gar- 
den needs weeding. " Her exhibition prints, 20 by 24 inches in 
editions of twenty-five, start at $1,500 but will escalate to 
$1 5,000 as the editions sell out. (The most recent print ofjessie 
A<^e Five sold for $8,000.) Mann also offers 8-by- 10-inch con- 
tact prints in an edition of twenty-five and has reserved the 
right to print a further edition of twenty-five 16-by-2()-inch 
prints. With rare candor, Mann supplies complete informa- 
tion on the editions on the back of each print. Her work is also 
sold through the Tartt Gallery, in Washington, D.C. 

I want to impart the sensation of a body being surrounded 
in water, " says Sally Gall. "A human body in water seems 
so sensual." Her exhibition in 1988 at Houston's Contem- 
porary Arts Museum at the time of the biennial FotoFest 
astonished the assembled cognoscenti. "As a girl among dark, 
flooded rocks walked into a pool of light," says the Rhode 
Island School of Design graduate, remembering the first of 
the bathing pictures that have made her reputation, "the 
water seemed to change substance. A transformation took 
place, buoying her up, as if levitating her out of the water." 
Now Gall travels throughout South America, Europe, and 
the United States for images ot bathers, watery landscapes, 
and gardens. Sold through New 

York's Lieberman& Saul Gallery ■'"' S''''.^'^''" '""">' 
and Houston's Texas (;allery, //on/ «.s David McDi umoi i 
(iall's prints, in editions of twen- and I'liiu Mc (ioiu.iis 
ty, are $7.50 (U) by 20 inches) and Vk iokian i-asik iil 
S'A50 (20 by 24 inches). a< iuaii y dams io 19K9, 



At a time when "appropriation" in art means signing 
copies of other people's property, Oavid McDermott 
and VctcT McGough are appropriationists of their 
own sort, adopting the fashions of the Victorian age as well as 
its cameras and subject matter. Nineteenth-century dandies, 
they shun electricity and get around in a Model T. "Living in 
the past," explams McDermott, "lets you see the present 

First noted for their paintings, they have recently devoted 
their attention to cyanotype and palladium photographs shot 
with an antique view camera. They give fictitious nineteenth- 
century dates to their portraits, still hfes, and fanciful peeks at 
"new" machinery. At first glance, their pictures look just like 
those of the venerable William Henry Fox Talbot and Julia 
Margaret Cameron. Sometimes a hint of most un-Victorian 
humor gives the game away, and few examples from the peri- 
od are in such fine condition, but often even a sophisticated 
viewer could be taken in. McDermott and McGough limit 
their editions to three 8-by-lO-inch or ll-by-14-inch prints, 
available at the Robert Miller Gallery, in New York, and at 
San Francisco's Fraenkel Gallery, at $3,500. 

Richard Misrach looks to the desert for metaphors of all 
environmental catastrophes. With a nod to Dante and 
Ezra Pound, he calls his work-in-progress Desert Can- 
tos, of which eleven sections have appeared in eleven years. 
His subjects range from the burning California desert to the 
poisoned Salton Sea. In these he finds not only terror but, 
against all odds, the beauty the Romantics knew as the sub- 
lime. "His ability to keep each canto coherent requires a level 
of thinking that few artists can sustain," says Anne Tucker, 
the curator of photography at the Museum of Fine Arts, 
in Houston. 

The desert fires were man-made agricultural burns that 
went out of control or outright arson. Misrach found smoke 
plumes virtually every day. "As the alfalfa fields catch fire," 

he says, "there is a dramatic rush, almost like an explosion; 
then the thick smoke rises like a nuclear cloud. " No people are 
seen in his records of these disasters, yet they convey, with 
hair-raising immediacy, the threat of universal extinction. 

This fall, Johns Hopkins University Press will publish Bra- 
vo 20: The Bomhiti'^ of the American West, Misrach's latest canto 
(a traveling exhibition, organized by Ellen Manchester of the 
Friends of Photography, opens this fall in Las Vegas). The 
photographs were taken on a forty-six-square-mile tract of 
public land near Reno that the navy took over in 1944 and 
bombed illegally from 1952 until it was halted by protesters in 
1985. The bombing, since resumed, will continue at least 
through 2001, but during the hiatus Misrach ventured into 
"this most beautiful and horrific landscape of unexploded 
bombs, craters, and shrapnel stretching as far as the eye can 
see" for his most political work to date. With Swiftian sar- 
casm, he has modestly proposed turning Bravo 20 into a 
national park — "America's first environmental memorial." 

Misrach's work is represented by San Francisco's Fraenkel 
Gallery, the Jan Kesner Gallery, in Los Angeles, and Robert 
Mann, in New York. His Ektacolor prints from his first 
book. Desert Cantos (University of New Mexico Press), are in 
editions of twenty-five 20-by-24-inch prints, seven 30-by- 
40-inch prints, and three 40-by-50-inch prints. Prices origi- 
nally ranged from $1,000 to $3,200, but they are higher now. 
A mammoth 40-by-50-inch print o{ Diving Board, the Salton 
Sea 1983 recently sold for $7,500. 

Joel Sternfeld shoots people and their pets. Homo sapiens in 
his habitats, and habitats Homo sapiens has abandoned. 
His pictures of Americans in the landscape are — without 
reaching for effect — every bit as eerie as "Twin Peaks." 
"American Prospects," an exhibition organized by Anne 
Tucker, of Houston, traveled widely and was lavishly pub- 
lished by Times Books. The pictures are unnervingly airtight, 

(Continued on page 185) 

oel Stern/eld's America is as eerie as any of Twin Peaks" 

iJANIKyjUh: KlCMAKt) MiSKAf K ■, lillA\/() 20 li()MMN<, 

Between anc ii ni and modi hnJoi.i Si (.hnhmd's as 

Yl I I IN II I I ID I I Al IAN I ANI)S( AIM ( )l \')H'). 



Lois CONNEK LU(.(.M)1<)I( I V-l IVI I'()L:NI)S0I I'llOlO 

EQUiPMFNT TO China and liuoncii i hac k idiom a i io 

s( iNisiiKi liiDDiiA, Li Sii w. S/.kih \\. rw; 
(LEI 1). AND f/r.iM. .S'// 1.\, A\iiri. 1W5. 




re neck- 
ties the 

wave of a revolu- 
tion in men's fash- 
ion? Suddenly 
even the most 
dressers are kick- 
ing up their heels, 
discarding bland 
for bold color and 
buoyant pattern. 
Hermes, Chanel, 
and other top 
makers are spicing 
up their tradition- 
al "powder" ties. 
Where will it 
all lead? 

— Nancy Having 

Photc^c.raphs by 
Lor EN Hammer 

Left, above: 
Dun ford Wood's 
hand-painted silk 
tie for Paul Smith, 
about $95. Below: 
Silk twill from 
Chanel, $100. Ri_^ht: 
From Georffina 
I'on Etzdorj] silk 
jacquard, $80-$85. 


L t 

/ ) 

' 9f^ - 


"Apples, " a silk 
twill by Brian 
Buhb, $62.50. 

Black OH white: 
an eye chart in silk 
jacqaard, by 
Nicole Miller, 
about S55. 


Opposite (left 
to rii^ht): Hermes's 
••Doves," $95. 
Two by Tiiniiey 
l-owler, $7()-$75. 
Brian Biibb's 
"Star Dot" and 
"l\iny Dot, " 






^ A 



Dessert, especially around 
the holidays, has an ele- 
ment of taboo — of plea- 
sure mixed with prohibi- 
tion. Our mdulgence in 
sublime confections of 
cream, egg yolks, and 
sugar, ot hne chocolate, sweet butter, and 
nuts, is accompanied by a subtle but ever pres- 
ent guilt. Eating a creme briilee takes courage, 
a leap of abandon in the face of our knowledge 
of Its legions of calories. And the matchless 
satisfaction of a decadent ice cream brino;s 
with it twinges of remorse, for there will be 
hell to pay tomorrow. 

For years I asked myself the questions 
'"How do you achieve the effect of those for- 
bidden ingredients — the density, richness, 
and intensity — in some other, low-calorie 
way? What other media would provide the 
same texture?"" After much experimentation 
and the artful manipulation of the chemistry 
ot dessert making. I came up with worthy 
low-calorie alternatives without any loss 6t 
flavor or lowering of standards. I still use the 
best ingredients, including the normally for- 
bidden likes of cream, sugar, and chocolate, 
only injudicious amounts. 

The three holiday desserts that follow are at 
once sensuous, elegant, and immensely satis- 
fying, yet all contain fewer than half the calo- 
ries of their traditional counterparts. There is 
the divine Chocolate Chestnut Trutfle. dense 

and perfumed with cognac, to enjoy with cof- 
fee at the end of the meal; Espresso Creme 
Brulee, which defies the scrutiny of the most 
ardent food purist who thinks nothing less 
than a full cream-and-egg-yolk custard will 
do; and Mango Ice Cream, with the exotic fla- 
vor of ripe mangoes and cream. These holi- 
day desserts offer the rarest of gifts: pure 
indulgence without guilt or apology. 

Espresso Creme Brulee 

At last count, a serving of creme brulee 
weighed in at an extraordinary 570 calorics. 
This lightened version gives the illusion of 
richness at fewer than half the calories. Fresh- 
ly ground espresso and a vanilla bean infused 
in the hot milk, with a small amount of cream 
added, lend the dish an intense cottee flavor 
and a silky texture associated with full cream 

' 4 cup plus 2 tablespoons (packed) dark 

brown sugar 
2' : cups milk 
'2 cup freshly ground espresso beans 

1 vanilla bean, split 

2 whole eggs 

3 egg yolks 

'^4 cup plus 2 tablespoons granulated sugar 
'/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons heavy cream 

Preheat the oven to 200°. Spread the brown 
sugar on a baking sheet and bake until dry, 
about 12 minutes. Let the sugar cool slightlv; 

Ip Yours elf 

Three sumptuous holiday desserts 
with fewer calories 

By Sally Schneider 
Photi\^rapU by Michael Gei<^er 


then press through a sieve 
into a small bowl and set 
aside. Set the oven at 3(H)°. 

in a medium saucepan, 
bring the milk to a boil over 
moderately high heat. Re- 
move from the heat and stir 
in the espresso and the va- 
nilla bean. Cover and let 
steep for Id minutes. 

Line a fine sieve with a 
double thickness of damp- 
ened paper towel or cheese- 
cloth and set over a bowl. 
Remove the vanilla bean 
and slowly pour the milk 
through the strainer, stirring 
up the coffee grounds with 
a wooden spoon so that the 
milk will filter through. 
Fold the edges of the towel 
over the coffee grounds and 
press to extract all the milk. 
Scrape the seeds from the 
vanilla bean into the milk. 

In a medium bowl, stir 
together the whole eggs, 
egg yolks, granulated sugar, 
and cream until blended. 
Stir in the infused milk and 
strain the mixture into a 
pitcher or large measuring 
cup. Skim any bubbles from 
the surface. 

Place six '''2-cup ramekins 
in a baking pan and fill with 
the custard. Place the baking 
pan in the oven and pour in 
enough warm water to reach 
halfway up the sides of the 
ramekins. Cover the rame- 
kins loosely with foil and 
bake for 1 hour or until the 
custards are firm around the 
edges; they may still wobble 
in the center but will set 
when chilled. 

Remove the ramekins 
from the water bath and let 
cool. Cover and refrigerate 
until cold, at least 3 hours. 
(The custards may be pre- 
pared to this point up to two 
days ahead. Cover with plas- 
tic and refrigerate. If mois- 
ture collects on top, blot 
with paper towels before 

Preheat the broiler. Set 
the ramekins on a baking 
sheet. Sprinkle 1 tablespoon 
of the reserved brown sugar 
over the top of each custard 
in an even 1 tyer. Broil the 

custards as close to the heat 
as possible, watching close- 
ly, until the sugar is carame- 
lized, 30 seconds to 2 min- 
utes. Let cool and serve im- 
mediately. You may refrig- 
erate the crcme brulce un- 
covered, for up to 3 hours. 

Chestnut Truffles 

Silky, rich, and unctuous, 
these truffles are made with a 
base of pureed chestnuts 
rather than the usual quanti- 
ties of butter and egg yolk. 
Chestnuts are essentially a 
finely textured starch, closer 
to potatoes than to nuts, as 
they arc very low in fat. 
Their flavor combines beau- 
tifully with chocolate and 
cognac, lending a subtle spi- 
ciness. Either bottled peeled 
chestnuts or canned chestnut 
puree works well, obviating 
the tedious work of peeling 
chestnuts. (Both varieties are 
produced by Minerve and 
are available at most special- 
ty food stores.) They are 
cooked in milk until very 
tender and then pureed with 
melted chocolate and Karo 
-s^ru£, which provide the 
silkinesslhaT^iigJoriat butter 
and egg yolk used to. ~ ~ 

'/4 pound (18 to 29) peeled 
whole roasted chestnuts 
(see note) 

'/2 cup water 

'^2 cup milk 

'A^ vanilla bean, split 

2'/2 ounces semisweet choco- 
late, coarsely chopped, 
preferably an imported 
chocolate, such as Calle- 

1 tablespoon light corn syrup 

2 to 3 teaspoons cognac or 


pinch of salt 

1 tablespoon plus 2 tea- 
spoons cocoa powder 

In a small, heavy saucepan, 
combine the chestnuts and 
water. Clover and simmer 
over very low heat until the 
w;'ter is evaporated but the 
chestnuts arc still moist, 
about LS minutes. 

S' in the tnilk. S( ripe the 

seeds from the vanilla bean 
into the mixture and add the 
bean. Cover and simmer 
over very low heat until the 
chestnuts are very tender and 
the milk has reduced slight- 
ly, about 15 minutes. Re- 
move the pan from the heat, 
stir in the chocolate, cover, 
and set aside to melt, stirring 
occasionally, until the choco- 
late is creamy, about 3 to 4 

In a food processor, com- 
bine the chocolate/chestnut 
mixture and the corn syrup; 
process, scraping down the 
sides occasionally, until the 
mixture is perfectly smooth, 
about 2 minutes. Add the co- 
gnac to taste and the salt, and 
process for 1 minute longer. 
Transfer the chocolate chest- 
nut truffle mixture to a 
bowl, cover, and refrigerate 
until firm, about 2 hours. ^ 

Place the cocoa powder in 
a medium bowl. Scoop up 2 
teaspoonfuls of the truffle 
mixture and roll it into a 
rough ball with your fingers. 
Repeat with the remaining 
truffle mixture. Working 
with a few at a time, toss the 
truffles in the bowl of cocoa. 
Transfer them to a plate as 
they are finished; then sift 
any remaining cocoa over 
them. (The truffles will keep 
refrigerated for several 
weeks in a tightly sealed con- 
tainer. If the truffles absorb 
the cocoa, sift more over 
them prior to serving.) 
Makes about 20. 

Note: If peeled whole chest- 
nuts are not available, 
canned unsweetened chest- 
nut puree may be substi- 
tuted. The truffles will have 
a slightly softer texture. In a 
small, heavy saucepan, com- 
bine '/2 cup (4 ounces) chest- 
nut puree and 6 tablespoons 
milk. Add the vanilla scrap- 
ings and bean and proceed 
with the recipe. 

Mango Ice Cream 

Ripe mangoes, like peaches 
and papaya, have a creamy, 
satiny texture that, when pu- 
reed, provides the smooth- 

ness that quantities of cream 
and egg y oiks normally 
achieve. In this quickly made 
ice cream, the fruit chunks are 
frozen and then pureed in a 
food processor with a small 
amount of cream and some 
buttermilk, resulting in a rich, 
flavortul ice cream. It is best 
made just prior to serving. 

3 medium ripe mangoes (12 

ounces each), peeled 
3 tablespoons heavy cream 
"^ cup buttermilk 
2 tablespoons fresh lime juice 
1 tablespoon superfine sugar 

Using a thin, sharp knife, slice 
the fruit (the riper, the better) 
from the sides of the mango 
pits and scrape off any re- 
maining flesh. Cut the fruit 
into '^4- to '/2-inch dice. (You 
should have 4'/2 cups of fruit.) 
Spread the mango pieces on a 
nonstick baking sheet and 
freeze for 1 hour or longer. 

Break apart the frozen 
pieces of fruit and place them 
in a food processor. Process 
until the consistency resem- 
bles that of coarse meal, stop- 
ping frequently to scrape 
dowai the sides. (If the fruit is 
too hard to process, allow it to 
soften for a minute or two 
before continuing.) 

Add the heavy cream, but- 
termilk, limejuice, and sugar. 
Process, scraping down the 
sides of the bowl frequently, 
to a creamy puree the consis- 
tency of medium-soft ice 
cream. (It does not have to be 
completely smooth; a few 
chunks of fruit add a nice tex- 
ture.) Serve at once or transfer 
to a serving bowl, cover, and 
treeze until ready to serve. If 
the ice cream becomes frozen 
solid, place it in the refrigera- 
tor for about 30 minutes to 
soften. Makes 4 serviti'^s. 

Note: This recipe works well 
using peaches, papaya, and 
kiwi. Substitute 2'/4 pounds 
ripe fruit for the mangoes. D 

^^ Sally Schneider's The Art 
of Low-C^alorie (booking will 
he published by Stewart, Tabori 
& (Jhauj^ this fall. 



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75, fg Saim-Honoie 75008 - I'ari.s - Tel. : ( I ) 47 42 31 94 
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Meeting of six top antique dealers, specialized in French 1 7th 

and 18th century Furniture, Objets d'Art and Great Masters. 

Their skills and professional experience give collectors every 

guarantee of QUALITY and AUTHENTICITY. 









Quirkiticss and perfection (^ivc ship tuodels value 

By Laura Cerwinske 

Ever since the (irceks 
plied the wine dark sea, 
nautical mcidels have 
been symbols of power and 
trade. As representations ot 
regional niantime economies, 
they illustrate world trading 
patterns; as objects ot beauty, 
they eloquently express the 
fantasies ot individual sailors 
and modelers and the aspira- 
tions ot whole civilizations. 

The art of ship modeling ac- 
tually began with the exact, 
small-scale replicas of their 
sailing and rowing boats that 
the Egyptians made tor votive 
purposes. In the millennia fol- 

A Napoleonic prisoner-of-war 
ship, its robust fi<^iirchcad above . 

lowing, the Romans made ter- 
ra-cotta naval replicas simply 
as decoration. During the Na- 
poleonic Wars, French prison- 
ers of war passed their years of 
captivity by carving models 
from soup bones and atter 
their release often went on to 
build ship models profession- 
ally. Known as prisoner-of- 
war models, these ivory ships 
are highly prized by collec- 
tors. The most ingenious and 
the best-restored range in 
price from $5(),()()() to 

Rarer than these are admi-, 
ralty mc^dels, which represent 

the height of the ship-model- 
ing art. Dating tVom the late 
seventeenth century, they 
were built as presentation 
pieces for British, French, or 
Dutch atlmiralties when con- 
struction oi a new vessel was 
being considered. Made of ex- 
otic hardwoods, truit woods, 
and Continental boxwood, 
they were exquisitely detailed, 
otten with moldings and carv- 
ings in place and with their 
framework open to view. An 
admiralty model in good con- 
dition today can cost hundreds 
of thousands of dollars. Such 
antique models can be found 


Photograph by Francesco StavuUo 

ll ll What's going to happen to the Cosmo 
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stronger than it is today - and has never been in better hands than those of Helen Guriey Brown, who took over a Hearst 

magazine called Cosmopolitan 25 years ago and turned it into one of the most vitally alive magazines of our time. The key 

to editorial greatness is no secret. It is a great editor. That is our heritage. That is our commitment. 

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^m /4 diorama, First 
I Catch of the 
Season, fcwi/f m 
195J by the HiU- 
tnan brothers of 
New Bedford, one i 
of the greatest of 
whaling ports. 

In the whalini' hark, 
hu^y little painted ieamen. 

at the major New York auc- 
tion houses, at the Richard A. 
Bourne auction house, on 
Cape Cod, as well as at the 
two shops listed below (on 
page 167). 

The art of ship-model mak- 
ing is also represented in the 
work of contemporary crafts- 
men. Although only two gal- 
leries in the country commis- 
sion models (the American 
Maritime Model Ciallery, in 
Salem, Massachusetts, and the 
Mystic Maritime Ciallery, in 
Mystic, Clonnecticut), there 
irc many maritime artists 
l)iiilding custom models. Most 
arc diligent about working in 
accor ' mcc with guidelines set 
forth ■> Michael W.ill ,.iid 

the Mystic Seaport Museum. 

A contemporary model's 
quality is determined by its 
adherence to these guidelines, 
fidelity to the prototype, and 
the skill of the artist. "The 
name of the model maker has 
become an important factor," 
explains Martin Hillsgrove, 
the ship-model specialist at the 
Mystic Maritime Gallery, "be- 
cause each artist has not only 
his own style but also a partic- 
ular period of interest. He's in- 
vesting his knowledge of the 
subject along with anywhere 
from several months' to sev- 
eral years' worth of work." In 
fact, the gallery at Mystic is 
under commission to build an 
admiralty-style model of the 

USS Confederacy , which could 
take up to five years to com- 
plete. "To give you an exam- 
ple of our reverence for au- 
thenticity, our model makers 
waited for results of an under- 
water archaeology expedition 
in order to clarify hull-con- 
struction practices of the peri- 
od. Records of these ships are 
sketchy, and wc felt these 
findings offered the most con- 
crete evidence of the original 

Contemporary ship models, 
commissioned from master ar- 
tisans, are built from a ship's 
original architectural plans, 
whenever possible, in plank- 
on-frame or solid-hull fashion. 
They are classified according 







T> V 

I>^ G 

to the following guidelines: 
Class A models are completely 
handmade except for chains 
and belaying pins (although 
some modelers do make their 
■own); in Class B models all 
the major components are 
made by hand, and some parts 
are fabricated commercially. 
Classes C and D include kit 
models. Classifications are 
also broken down into such 

categories as full model, half 
model, waterline, cross sec- 
tion, steamship, and others. A 
model might thus be described 
as a Class A, full model of a 
sailing warship. Only by care- 
fully describing models in this 
way and then evaluating the 
reputation of the builder, level 
of craftsmanship, fidelity to 
the original, age, and overall 
size can one assess value. D 

Where to 

See Ship Models 

Mariner's Museum 

Newport News, Virginia 
Naval Museum 

Washington, D.C. 
Peabody Museum 

Salem, Massachusetts 
Museum of the City of 

New York 

New York, New York 

An admiralty 
model: a twenty-gun 
brig of the cruiser 
class, ca. 1805; 
plank-on-jrame , 
Jully rigged. Detail 
shows capstan, 
wheel, deck gear, 
guns, and fittings. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 
(Egyptian model vessels) 
New York, New York 

Museum of Yachting 
Newport, Rhode Island 

Herreshoff Museum 
Bristol, Rhode Island 

Hart Nautical Galleries 
MIT Museum 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

San Francisco Maritime Mu- 
San Francisco, California 

Museum of Science and Industry 
Chicago, Illinois 

Shops Selling Museum- 
Quality Ship Models 

American Marine Model 


Salem, Massachusetts 
Mystic Maritime Gallery 
Mystic Seaport Museum 

Mystic, Connecticut 

&4^ Laura Cerwinske is the author 
of most recently, Russian Imperial 
Style (Prentice Hall f'.ditions). 



An ojjheat way to hox-ojjice success 

By Frazier Moore 


Masters of boutique 
cinema on a flea- 
market budget, the 
producer Ismail Merchant and 
the director James Ivory had 
contented themselves, film af- 
ter film, with a select audience 
and modest receipts. But sud- 
denly these longtime partners 
were the toast of shopping- 
mall multiplexes across the 
land as their gentle Edwardian 
comedy of manners A Room 
with a View proceeded to rake 
in S65 million, reams of criti- 
cal raves, three Academy 
Awards, even a best-selling 
sound-track album. It was all 
quite unexpected. 

That was four years ago. 
With this month's release of 
Mr. and Mrs. Bridge, history 
could repeat itself. 

Not that the material, on 
the surface, is any more sensa- 
tional. Set in Kansas City, 
Missouri, Mr. and Mrs. Bridge 
is about a circa 1930s couple 
choking on midwestern self- 
restraint. He is an upright but 
uptight attorney; she, his 
compliant wife, a woman so 
uncosmopolitan that, when 
faced with a Chinese fortune 
cookie, she eats the whole 
thing, fortune and all. Based 
on two companion novels by 
Evan S. Connell, the film is 
almost pointillistic in struc- 
ture, more portrait than sto- 
ry — sometimes funny, some- 
times painful. C^h, and the 
stars are Paul Newman and 
Joanne Woodward, a real-life 
Mr. and Mrs. 

Their name recognition 
could certainly help. Four 
years after Room, the "Mer- 
chant Ivory" imprint still 
draws a blank with most 
moviegoers, but life goes on. 
After more than a quarter cen- 
tury, the very independent 
Merchant Ivory Productions 
keeps makiii!.' movies — mov- 
ies tli;it aspire to be (and usual- 
ly arc) smart, polite, hand- 
some, and worldly I he 

Merchant (right) and Ivory. Below 
Room with a View. 

worldly part comes from 
Merchant Ivory's incurable 
wanderlust. Place plays an im- 
portant role in the partners' 
films, places like Florence and 
Paris, Gulmarg, Jodhpur — and 
now the American heartland. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bridge is Mer- 
chant Ivory's third film since 
A Room with a View. Like 
Room, the partners' follow-up 
act also was based on E. M. 
Forster. But Maurice (1987) 
was drawn from a more dicey 
source — Forster's posthu- 
mously published novel about 
a homosexual affair. Compas- 
sionate and romantic, the film 
was well regarded but still a 
specialty item; reverting to 
Merchant Ivory's fiscal tradi- 
tion, it made a profit, but just 
a small one. Then, last year, 
Slaves of New York was 
greeted with a Bronx cheer by 
the critics and swiftly sought 
refuge in vi(l( o stores. Is 

Mr. and Mrs. 
Bridge a bid 
for another 
big payoff? 

On loca- 
tion, it does 
not look that 

One thing that clearly has 
not changed over the years is 
the partners' Odd Couple dy- 
namic. Consider Merchant: 
round, jolly, and utterly dis- 
arming, in his herringbone 
blazer and tassel loafers the an- 
tithesis of anyone's image of a 
producer. Ivory, by contrast, 
is lean and solemn-faced, his 
dry wit usually kept under 
cover. Merchant is a bravura 
deal maker, always on the run 
and in the thick of things. Ivo- 
ry views the action from arm's 
length, focusing sharply on 
what works for his camera. 

Merchant (who pronounces 
his first name IS.S-mile, al- 

though cheerfully answering 
to any number of variations) 
was born fifty-three years ago 
in Bombay but left that bus- 
tling film metropolis to study 
business administration at 
New York University and 
scheme how to get into the 
movies via Hollywood. Dis- 
playing his typical moxie, he 
made a short film (which 
would go on to be nominated 
for an Academy Award and 
shown at the Cannes Film Fes- 
tival) using the equipment and 
supplies at the Manhattan ad- 
vertising agency where he 
worked — and then, to drum 
up interest in his film on the 
West Coast, penned his own, 
glowing press clips. 

Ivory, sixty- 
two, grew up 
in Klamath 
Falls, Oregon, 
but had his first 
brush with the 
world of mov- 
when, as a 
youngster, he 
was taken to 
the sound stage 
of Hollywood's 
Studios, a client 
of his father's 
'~ ^ - ' lumber compa- 
ny. He studied film at the 
University of Southern Cali- 
fornia and spent time in India, 
where he worked on two doc- 
umentaries. In 1961 he met 
Merchant, who by chance was 
at a New York screening of 
one of Ivory's films. The two 
budding filmmakers found 
they had a lot in common — 
not least, a love for India and a 
longing to make films there in 
English for the international 
market. In no time they were 
on location in Delhi to shoot 
their first feature, which came 
in at the grand sum of 
$12.S, ()()(). 

Nearly two dozen films and 



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three decades later, they are in 
Kansas City. One fine Octo- 
ber day. in a large 1907 colo- 
nial-reNnval house on a com- 
fortable street m the city's 
Mission Hills distria. Ivory is 
directing a scene with New- 
man and Woodward. Almost 
disappearing into the clutter ot 
crew and equipment. Ivory 
watches, expressionless, one 
arm wrapped around his mid- 
dle, the other cupping his 
chin. Then, after emitting a 
barely audible "Cutl'" he asks 
his actors. "You want to do 
one more?" 

"The creative language is 
different with Jim." confides 
Woodward, in pearls and fin- 
ger waves. "After takes. Jim 
says a lot to me. 'Don't sigh." 
What the hell does that mean? 
But if he dcesti't say anything. 
I know that I've done some- 
thing he finds interesting." 

"He knows immediately 
when something isn't right," 
says Newman, looking sover- 
eign in Mr. Bridge's silk-dam- 
ask bathrobe. "Jim has a small 
bat." Newman goes on. 
tongue in cheek, "and when 
he sees something 
he doesn't like he 
cuffs me heavily 
about the ears with 
it. So then I attack 
the scene from a 
different direc- 

Behind the cam- 
eras are many 
regulars — notably 
the onematogra- 
pher Tony Pierce- 
Roberts and Rich- | 
ard Robbins. who t 
notches his ninth 
Merchant Ivory film as com- 
poser. Also behind the scenes 
is the most senior member of 
Merchant Ivory's extended 
family (and winner of one of 
Room's Oscars), the screen- 
writer Ruth Frawcr Jhabvala. 

Born in C^olognc. she fled 
for London with her family in 
1939; she moved in 1951 to 
Delhi, where she began a dis- 
tinguished career as a writer 
An early fan was Merchant, 
who commissioned her to 
turn one of her novels into her 
first screenplay. Merchant 
Ivory's inaugural film, Thi 


Around the world with Merchant 
Ivory (counterclockwise Jroni bot- 
tom left): Jennifer Kendal in Bom- 
bay Talkie (1970): Bernadette 
Peters in Slaves of New York 
11989); Mr. and Mrs \ewman 
in Mr. and Mrs. Bridge. 

Householder, took a tender 
look at a newly married Indian 

Today the sixty-three-year- 
< ' ' " ' . .ila remains highly 
li but almost invisible. 

She has written most of the 
Merchant Ivory screenplays 
vcn as she modestly hangs 

back trom the filmmaking 
frenzy — but not far from Mer- 
chant and Ivory. Since leaving 
India for Manhattan in 1975. 
she has lived and worked in an 
East Fifties studio apartment — 
one floor above their flat. 

What emerges in the script 
Jhabvala wrote for Mr. and 
Mrs. Bridg^e is faithful not only 
to the novels that inspired it 
but also to a recurrent Mer- 
chant Ivory theme: the threat 
of the exotic. Ironically, the 
parochial Kansas City of a few 
decades ago becomes exotic in 
the extreme for Walter and In- 
dia Bridge, who hnd lite 
around them ever more per- 

Not only hasjhabvala done 

an elegant adaptation of Con- 
nell's books, but now the au- 
thor himself is on hand for any 
needed rewrites. Such care for 
words runs counter to most 
moviemaking practice and has 
contributed to Merchant Ivo- 
ry's "literary " aura. But no 
less important is the look, 
aglow in its precision and ide- 

Maybe to a fault. Some crit- 
ics insist that, apart from the 
fancy footwork and the high 
tone, nothing really happens in 
a Merchant Ivory film. Ivory 
has heard this objection be- 
fore, and It does not change a 
thing. When asked the greatest 
challenge to making Mr. and 
Mrs. Bridge, Ivory thinks a 
moment and then says with 
noble candor. "It's having a 
film without a plot." 

"I'm happiest when there is 
a story that gives us some 
structure." he adds quickly. "I 
feel more confident. But 
maybe story isu 7 my first con- 
cern. Sometimes I'd prefer to 
make a film about 
chancy material 
because of peculiar 
situations in it. or 
characters that I've 
never observed be- 
fore, or ideas that 
come out of it. 
Those might be 
more interesting 
than the story." 
With Merchant 

~ : i running interfer- 

-'2 ence. Ivory con- 
tinues to enjoy (as 
he always has) the luxury of 
initiating whatever project 
captures his fancy, or Mer- 
chant's, or Jhabvala's. At a 
time when Hollywood studio 
routinely cough up S20 mil- 
lion to S4() million per picture 
Merchant Ivory brought in th 
beautifully appointed Room 
with a I 'tew for a paltry S3 mi 
lion. Merchant Ivory clings t( 
its principles: keep costs low 
and you won't have much to 
lose. At S7.8 million, Mr. am 
Mrs. Bridge is their most ex- 
pensive film to date, thejum 
being explained by the pres- 
ence of Paul Newman. But t 
ture projects are expected to 
fall back into the comfortab! 
S5 million range. 


Of course, whether a movie 
costs $5 million or $50 mil- 
lion, someone has to find the 
bucks to finance it. Such a task 
falls to Ismail Merchant, who 
is a genius at soliciting freebies 
(stick around for the closing 
credits) and also at finding the 
right sort of investors. He 
never promises them a gold 
mine. Nor is that what they 
are after. Instead, he says, they 
want a little fun. "It is a thrill 
to invest in Merchant Ivory," 
Merchant explains, wearing a 
broad smile. "People want to 
have a thrill." 

Merchant Ivory has had of- 
fers. "They came to us — and I 
mean every studio — with big 
budgets and totally inappro- 
priate material," Ivory says, 
recalling the post-i^oom rush. 
"Finally I was offered Rox- 
anne, with Steve Martin. I've 
always admired Steve Martin. 
But I have this terrible preju- 
dice against false noses. I 
thought, I just can't do it." 

Nor would he go into the 
Roman-numeral business. 
"We'd have to resurrect E.M. 
Forster," was Merchant's 
amused "No" when the com- 
pany was approached to make 
A Room with a View, Part II. 

"It is a gift to us by God 
that we have little money to 
play about," says Merchant, 
sitting in the cluttered produc- 
tion office, a few blocks from 
the "Brirge" house. He seems 
anything but put off by the 
skeptical look on his inter- 
viewer's face. Chuckling now, 
he says, "Sometimes people 
doubt whether I'm telling the 
truth. So they repeat the ques- 
tions, and they get more or 
less the same answers." 

With lots of studio money, 
he "would have more of a 
cushy life," he admits. "I 
would have less of an adven- 
ture. But who wants that? / 
don't want that." The attitude 
seems to be catching. Thanks 
to Merchant Ivory's reputa- 
tion as a class act, many crew 
members reportedly sign on 
for less pay than they could 
get on a Hollywood feature. 
So, oftentimes, do the actors. 
At the height of his Superman 
popularity, Christopher Reeve 
accepted a bargain-basement 

$100,000 to star in The Bosto- 
nians (1984). Likewise, Lee 
Remick appeared in The Euro- 
peans (1979) at what must have 
been a drastically reduced fee, 
inasmuch as the film's entire 
budget was $750,000. 

What Merchant seems to 
want, above all else, is the 
thrill of the chase. 

"Ismail, I wish you 
wouldn't drive so fast," Ivory 
is scolding Merchant late that 
evening as they push through 
the rain. They are on their 
way from screening dailies, 
back to their rented house a 
few miles south. "The road is 
slick and you aren't familiar 
with the streets." 

At the wheel, the ever 
buoyant Merchant reacts with 
pronounced bewilderment at 
his partner's doubts, even as 
he comes to a dead end and 
has to make a U-turn. No, 
nothing has changed. For 
Merchant it is a blessing that 
money is scarce. For Ivory it is 
a blessing there is no story. 
On they drive, two artists 
hell-bent on making the mov- 
ies they want to make — and 
still getting away with it. D 

^^ Frazier Moore is a free- 
lance writer in New York. 

Vanessa Red- 
grave as the 
predatory Olive 
Chancellor in 
Merchant Ivo- 
ry's The Bos- 
tonians (1984). 


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Worshiping wood; rethinking a classic 

Zanine's Barra da Tijuca house, in Rio de Janeiro (1971 ). Architecture was his inevitable path. 

To celebrate the seven- 
tieth birthday of the 
Brazihan architect Jose 
Zanine Caldas, a festschrift 
was pubhshed, Zanine — Feel- 
inj^ and Doin^. It is also a cata- 
log for the first exhibition out- 
side his own country of a self- 
taught sculptor, furniture 
maker, and architect. The re- 
markable assemblage of slabs 
of wood from the Brazilian 
forests, sculptures, furniture, 
and photographs of his archi- 
tecture was a hit in Paris dur- 
ing last year's two-month run 
at the Musce des Arts Dccora- 
tifs during the Festival d'Au- 

The seeds of this exhibition 


^ ^ 


Zannic vahics old elements found in 
Rio's antiques shops. 

were planted when the late 
Michel Guy, the director gen- 
eral of the festival, visiting in 
Brazil, came across the simple 
but eloquent buildings of this 
professor of architecture from 
the University of Brasilia. 
Zanine's response to Brazil's 
housing crisis had been to 
create prototype houses out of 
leftover building materials that 
the poor could build them- 
selves, following the vernacu- 
lar traditions of 500 years of 
Brazilian building in native 
woods. These Zanine had 
painstakingly rediscovered for 
himself, ignoring all the hectic 
activities of contemporary 
construction in concrete. 

His buildings do not look 
different. Instead, they jeei dif- 
ferent — freer, more essential 
ind romantic than those of 
my other lirazilian architect. 
1 hey get their character from 
the wood they are built of 

Zanine delights in using 
slender pillars to tarry massive 
beams, or vice versa. The 
wooden supports of his roofs 
are always beautifully detailed; 

just looking at them gives sen- 
suous pleasure. Zanine knows 
that because wood is a primi- 
tive material it has great emo- 
tional power. It humanizes big 
buildings and lends dignity to 
small ones. In some chapels he 
designed in the far countryside 
of Brazil, he evokes the com- 
fort and mystery of the forest, 
using pillars as big as tree 

Zanine's ideas can be traced 
back to his happy childhood. 
"I grew up," he once wrote, 
"between the river and the 
sea, lit by the old Belmonte 
lighthouse, in shady yards 
under fruit trees, in the calm, 
immense Brazil which 
watched two world wars from 
a distance." 

"There were huge forests 
around Belmonte, enormous 
trees, always green, which the 
farmers, in their avidity to 
plant more Swiss chocolate, 
hewed and burned. Cattle 
grazed . . . among the debris 
of the immemorial forests." 
But Zanine learned a great les- 
son — "that wood has two 

lives: the first as trees; the sec- 
ond as tables and chairs, beds 
and cupboards, floors and 
brooms, bowls and ladles, 
houses and sheds, cribs and 
coffins." It was in wood's sec- 
ond life — "generated by the 
human hand and spirit" — that 
he was to find fulfillment. 

"Mankind's first protec- 
tion," he explains, "was the 
bonfire. Man's shelters contin- 
ued to be built with earth and 
wood. Belmontc's lath and 
adobe houses were roofed 
with baked-clay tiles made in 
kilns heated by charcoal. The 
city was being built and re- 
built, for many years, without 
architects. The foremen knew 
their trade. They erected the 
church, my grandfather's 
house — dignified, robust, 
long-lasting buildings." Za- 
nine found the same gospel of 
continuity wherever he went 
in the world. "There they 
were, building shelters for 
their antique cultures when I 
visited them in Africa." The 
same in China. 

Oscar Niemeyer, who 
created Brasilia, remembers 
Zanine as "an old comrade" 
whom he knew in Brasilia 
around the 1950s, engaged 
with decoration and scale 
models. "Many years later, I 
visited a house he had built at 

A bedroom in the Barra da Tijuca 
house: pleasant, hariitonious. 



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Barra da Tijuca. He was no 
longer the Zaninc I had 
known but an architect, capa- 
ble of creating spaces and con- 
trasts with his craftsman's 
wooden houses. Zanine is a 
happy example of a self-taught 
man. His school was life itself 
and architecture his natural 
and inevitable path.'" 

Today, however. Zanine 
has exiled himself and his 
agency DAM (the Center for 
the Development of Applica- 
tions of Brazilian Wood) from 
Brazil, setting up shop in a 
small village fifty miles out- 
side Paris. Not a single Brazil- 
ian newspaper or magazine re- 
viewed his Pans exhibition. 
He has fought the depredators 
of his native forests so fiercely 
that they have responded with 
a total media blackout. "It 
takes three to four hundred 
hectares of rain forest to raise 

one cow three years for ham- 
burger." he says grimly. 

Zanine's life's work is yet 
another, and most eloquent, 
plea for the preservation of 
what remains of the once 
seemingly infinite rain forest. 
— Patrick D. Hazard 

^•» Patrick D. Hazard writes 
about design, architecture, and ur- 
ban ism. 

For millennia, women in 
villages from Central 
Asia to Eastern Europe 
and North Africa have prac- 
ticed the flat-weaving tech- 
niques that create kilims. Little 
has changed in all that time, 
but now a new force has ap- 
peared on the scene. Belkis 
Balpinar, a scholar, writer, 
and curator of ancient Turkish 
carpets, has turned her design 
talents to the production of 

I hr iirlri with our of her kilims — shrouJIikr, with the patuui ofai; 

Beikis Balpinar reinterprets tradi- 
tional kilim structure and form. 

contemporary kilims, stretch- 
ing the techniques of the me- 
dium to their limits. Collee- 
tors of fine old carpets are 
buying her kilims as quickly as 
she can produce them. 

It was in the course of her 
historical studies that she dis- 
covered the women who now 
execute her designs. They 
were living in Istanbul much 
as they had once lived in Ana- 
tolian villages, weaving kilims 
for their own domestic or reli- 
gious uses. At first Balpinar 
asked them to reproduce old 
kilims, but the results were 
wooden. Trained at one time 
as a textile designer, she found 
herself doodling new motifs 
and patterns, which she then 
translated into cartoons for the 
village women to follow. 

The first rugs were charac- 
terized by bold, angular 
stripes emphasizing the struc- 
tural aspects of the weaving 
technique, such as the "lazy 
lines," those diagonals that 
make things easier for the 
weaver and the rug more at- 
tractive. As she learned the id- 
iosyncrasies of her weavers, 
she began taking chances. One 
weaver — Balpinar calls her 
"the silly one" — who makes 
lots of mistakes doing tradi- 
tional kilims works on Balpi- 
nar's freest designs. Round 
shapes are the most difficult to 
produce because in what is 
(ailed slit or weft tapestry 
weave, a skein of one color is 
uiterlocked with another. 

The newest rugs, with 


curves and subtleties of shad- 
ing unknown in traditional 
kilims, are Balpinar's best. She 
handles color — her "brush- 
strokes," as she calls them — 
better than she did at first. As 
she watches her design emerge 
from the loom, she makes 
variations as it proceeds — a 
process she compares to musi- 
cal improvisation. Nothing is 
unalterable. She likes manipu- 
lating forms, standing tradi- 
tional motifs on their heads, 
distorting them, adding new 
ideas, sometimes mixing pile 
with kilim, breaking rules, 
though never the basic rules of 
the kilim's structure. She can 
make radical changes if she 
wants even after the rug is off 
the loom, having a master re- 
storer rip out and reweave sec- 
tions, sometimes huge, that 
displease her. 

What began as an interest- 
ing diversion has turned into a 
successful small industry, 
good for the weavers as well 
as the designer. The highest 
accolade comes from serious 
collectors of antique carpets 
and kilims. In Istanbul, visi- 
tors to her studio buy them 
two or three at a time. Cur- 
rently they are priced at $5,000 
to $20,000. 

Between November 15 and 
November 30 the Turquoise 
Gallery, 132 East Sixty-first 
Street, New York City 
(phone: 212-759-6424), will 
display at least twenty of Bal- 
pinar's varied tapestries. She 
herself will leave Istanbul to 
attend the Sixth International 
Conference on Oriental Car- j 
pets, in San Francisco (phone: 
415-956-1011). There, she wil 
deliver a paper on the contro 
versy raised in the book The 
Goddess from Anatolia, in 
which she and two fellow ex 
perts, James Mellaart and UdcJ 
Hirsch, claim that certain ki- 
lim patterns formerly though 
to have been brought to Ana- 
tolia by Turkic nomads from 
Central Asia were actually na 
tive to the area. For further ii 
formation about Belkis Balpij 
nar, contact Barbara Schmit:' 
220 Madison Avenue, New 
York, NY 10016; (212)213- 
9049. —Nancy Hov 



















/ 3 IN( HES A/ODEL 82 





M 3 INCHI S. MODEl ««. 







PItiladolphia- Pittsburgh • Honolulu 

K R ^ K (.-> \X ' S T U I A s U R E s 
(Coiiiiiiuiii fivtn /><J\'c / /7j 

some scale and majesty ot the mteritir! 

In fii;ures nine feet tall, we see enacted 
the drama of the last moments ot the lite 
ot' the Virgin. She kneels in the tore- 
ground, head bowed as death quietly 
comes. Surrounding her are the Apos- 
tles, some gently supporting her, others 
lamenting. The whole altarpiece stands 
upon the scene of the Tree of Jesse; and 
Its climax is to be seen at the very top, 
where the Virgin sits in heaven between 
Christ and Jehovah. 

These immense, energetic icons are 
almost supernatural legends of humani- 
ty. The intensity in their faces verges on 
the grotesque. The painted or heavily 
gilded draperies fairly clash through the 
air like bolts of colored lightning, pos- 
sessing an energy and lite independent 
of the figures they clothe. Truly nothing 
like this startling conception — radiant, 
monumental — exists anyplace else in 
the world. (No wonder Hermann 
Goring. Hitler's Rcichsmarschall and 
grand-style art thief, coveted the altar 
and had it brought to Bavaria, figure by 
figure, wing by wing. Luckily, the 
pieces survived, though in a sorry state. 
The restoration problems were com- 
plex but solvable, and the altar now 
stands where it belongs, in the church 
that commissioned it.) 

The altar is not the only Veit Stoss 
masterpiece in Krakow. St. 
Mary's itself has two more. 
One, a painted stone crucifix, hangs at 
the end of the right-hand aisle. Here, 
once more, is a compelling mixture of 
spirituality and high realism. Christ's 
face in agony is like a mask in Greek 
tragedy. The great wheel of drapery 
that seems to explode at his left side is 
astounding, too. Utterly unreal, it may 
refer to the storm that lashed Golgotha 
as Christ gave up the ghost. Another, 
smaller crucifix is placed high in the 
transept crossing. The porch of the 
small church of St. Barbara, just behind 
St. Mary's, boasts yet another precious 
Veit Stoss creation: Christ at Geth- 
semane. Finally, there is a spectacular 
tomb carved in red marble in the chapel 
of the Holy Cross, in Wawel Cathedral, 
the monument to King Kasimir Jagiel- 
lo — but unfortunately a locked gate 
keeps visitors far in the distance. 

Seeing the supfinc sights of Krakow 
need take no more ih.m two days, but it 
would be a mistake to ihcrk them off 
your list .ind hurry away. /' 1' m anipf 

time, too, just for walking. Parts of the 
(iothic tbrtifications still survive, nota- 
bly St. Florian's Gate and the Barbican. 
And, in the Old Town, many sixteenth- 
and seventeenth-century buildings have 
been retrieved from the extensive re- 
building of the past century. But the 
most entertaining place in town is Ry- 
nekGlowny, the market square. Domi- 
nated by the Clothiers Hail, rebuilt in 
the sixteenth century by the Italian 
architect Giovanni il Mosca, this plaza is 
where it all happens — from political 
protests to art shows. Cafes and restau- 
rants abound, including Poland's best, 
the Wierznek. Too bad, but most of the 
interior of the Clothiers Hall has been 
handed over to booth after booth of 
wretched folk art and crafts, though 
there is also a museum inside devoted to 
unrelentingly tedious historical paint- 
ings of the nineteenth century. 

The acropolis of the city, about a ten- 
minute walk from the market square, is 
Wawel Castle. As you might expect, the 
site is shrouded in legend. They say that 
a dragon lurked in a cave deep beneath 
the hill until Krak, the ruling prince of 
Poland, baited the monster with an 
explosive animal carcass stuffed with 
poison. Certainly the place is lovely 
now. Though small, Wawel Cathedral, 
within the castle precinct, is exception- 
ally beautiful, particularly the Renais- 
sance Sigismund Chapel. (And as the 
former parish of Pope John Paul II, the 
cathedral is more revered now than